## Cracking the AP Biology Exam

# 15

# Laboratory

## LAB 8: POPULATION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

What are the general concepts you *really* need to know?

- Review the discussion of the Hardy-Weinberg principle in this book. Know the five conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: (1) a large population, (2) no mutations, (3) no immigration or emigration, (4) random mating, and (5) no natural selection.
- Know how to calculate the allele and genotype frequencies using the two Hardy-Weinberg equations: p + q = 1, and p
^{2}+ 2pq + q^{2}= 1. Don’t forget: If the population obeys Hardy-Weinberg’s rules, these frequencies remain constant over time. - Review our discussion of evolution. Be familiar with how changes in allele frequencies can drive evolution.