Cracking the AP Biology Exam




Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case. Answers can be found here.

1. The greatest degree of genetic variability would be expected among organisms that reproduce via

(A) budding

(B) sporulation

(C) sexual recombination

(D) vegetative propagation

(E) mitosis

2. Which of the following statements is true regarding mutations?

(A) Mutations are irreversible.

(B) Mutations are generally lethal to populations.

(C) Mutations serve as a source for genetic variation in a population.

(D) Mutations affect only certain gene loci in a population.

(E) Mutation rates are very high in most populations.

Directions: Each group of questions consists of five lettered headings followed by a list of numbered phrases or sentences. For each numbered phrase or sentence, select the one heading that is most closely related to it and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Each heading may be used once, more than once, or not at all in each group.

Questions 3–7

(A) Stabilizing selection

(B) Directional selection

(C) Sympatric speciation

(D) Allopatric speciation

(E) Disruptive selection

3. Mortality in an annual plant is highest among the extreme variants of that plant

4. Favors selection of both larger and smaller snails relative to intermediate variants

5. Favors selection of individuals with intermediate phenotypes over individuals with extreme phenotypes

6. Favors selection of organisms with longer limbs than the present average

7. A population that is geographically isolated from other members of its species gives rise to a separate species

Questions 8–11

(A) Use and disuse

(B) Natural selection

(C) Comparative anatomy

(D) Biogeography

(E) Paleontology

8. A body builder develops large muscles

9. The appearance of strains of bacteria that are no longer affected by certain antibiotics

10. The study of the past and present distribution of species

11. The fossil of an ancient horse, Hyracotherium, reveals two splints on either side of the large toe, indicating that it was a progenitor of the modern horse