CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY

PART I. INTRODUCTION

1. What Is Biology?

  1.1. Why the Study of Biology Is Important

  1.2. Science and the Scientific Method

  1.3. Science, Nonscience, and Pseudoscience

  1.4. The Science of Biology

PART II. CORNERSTONES: CHEMISTRY, CELLS, AND METABOLISM

2. The Basics of Life

  2.1. Matter, Energy, and Life

  2.2. The Nature of Matter

  2.3. The Kinetic Molecular Theory and Molecules

  2.4. Molecules and Kinetic Energy

  2.5. Physical Changes—Phases of Matter

  2.6. Chemical Changes—Forming New Kinds of Matter

  2.7. Water: The Essence of Life

  2.8. Chemical Reactions

  2.9. Acids, Bases, and Salts

3. Organic Molecules—The Molecules of Life

  3.1. Molecules Containing Carbon

  3.2. Carbohydrates

  3.3. Proteins

  3.4. Nucleic Acids

  3.5. Lipids

4. Cell Structure and Function

  4.1. The Development of the Cell Theory

  4.2. Cell Size

  4.3. The Structure of Cellular Membranes

  4.4. Organelles Composed of Membranes

  4.5. Nonmembranous Organelles

  4.6. Nuclear Components

  4.7. Exchange Through Membranes

  4.8. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Revisited

5. Enzymes, Coenzymes, and Energy

  5.1. How Cells Use Enzymes

  5.2. How Enzymes Speed Chemical Reaction Rates

  5.3. Cofactors, Coenzymes, and Vitamins

  5.4. How the Environment Affects Enzyme Action

  5.5. Cellular-Control Processes and Enzymes

  5.6. Enzymatic Reactions Used in Processing Energy and Matter

6. Biochemical Pathways—Cellular Respiration

  6.1. Energy and Organisms

  6.2. An Overview of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

  6.3. The Metabolic Pathways of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

  6.4. Aerobic Cellular Respiration in Prokaryotes

  6.5. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration

  6.6. Metabolic Processing of Molecules Other Than Carbohydrates

7. Biochemical Pathways-Photosynthesis

  7.1. Photosynthesis and Life

  7.2. An Overview of Photosynthesis

  7.3. The Metabolic Pathways of Photosynthesis

  7.4. Other Aspects of Plant Metabolism

  7.5. Interrelationships Between Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

PART III. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, CELL DIVISION, AND GENETICS

8. DNA and RNA. The Molecular Basis of Heredity

  8.1. DNA and the Importance of Proteins

  8.2. DNA Structure and Function

  8.3. RNA Structure and Function

  8.4. Protein Synthesis

  8.5. The Control of Protein Synthesis

  8.6. Mutations and Protein Synthesis

9. Cell Division—Proliferation and Reproduction

  9.1. Cell Division: An Overview

  9.2. The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

  9.3. Mitosis—Cell Replication

  9.4. Controlling Mitosis

  9.5. Cancer

  9.6. Determination and Differentiation

  9.7. Cell Division and Sexual Reproduction

  9.8. Meiosis—Gamete Production

  9.9. Genetic Diversity—The Biological Advantage of Sexual Reproduction

  9.10. Nondisjunction and Chromosomal Abnormalities

10. Patterns of Inheritance

  10.1. Meiosis, Genes, and Alleles

  10.2. The Fundamentals of Genetics

  10.3. Probability vs. Possibility

  10.4. The First Geneticist: Gregor Mendel

  10.5. Solving Genetics Problems

  10.6. Modified Mendelian Patterns

  10.7. Linkage

  10.8. Other Influences on Phenotype

11. Applications of Biotechnology

  11.1. Why Biotechnology Works

  11.2. Comparing DNA

  11.3. The Genetic Modification of Organisms

  11.4. Stem Cells

  11.5. Biotechnology Ethics

PART IV. EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGY

12. Diversity Within Species and Population Genetics

  12.1. Genetics in Species and Populations

  12.2. The Biological Species Concept

  12.3. How Genetic Diversity Comes About

  12.4. Why Genetically Distinct Populations Exist

  12.5. Genetic Diversity in Domesticated Plants and Animals

  12.6. Is It a Species or Not? The Evidence

  12.7. Human Population Genetics

  12.8. Ethics and Human Population Genetics

13. Evolution and Natural Selection

  13.1. The Scientific Concept of Evolution

  13.2. The Development of Evolutionary Thought

  13.3. The Role of Natural Selection in Evolution

  13.4. Common Misunderstandings About Natural Selection

  13.5. What Influences Natural Selection?

  13.6. The Processes. That Drive Selection

  13.7. Patterns of Selection

  13.8. Evolution Without Selection—Genetic Drift

  13.9. Gene-Frequency Studies and the Hardy-Weinberg Concept

  13.10. A Summary of the Causes of Evolutionary Change

14. The Formation of Species and Evolutionary Change

  14.1. Evolutionary Patterns at the Species Level

  14.2. How New Species Originate

  14.3. The Maintenance of Reproductive Isolation Between Species

  14.4. Evolutionary Patterns Above the Species Level

  14.5. Rates of Evolution

  14.6. The Tentative Nature of the Evolutionary History of Organisms

  14.7. Human Evolution

15. Ecosystem Dynamics. The Flow of Energy and Matter

  15.1. What Is Ecology?

  15.2. Trophic Levels and Food Chains

  15.3. Energy Flow Through Ecosystems

  15.4. The Cycling of Materials in Ecosystems—Biogeochemical Cycles

  15.5. Human Use of Ecosystems

16. Community Interactions

  16.1. The Nature of Communities

  16.2. Niche and Habitat

  16.3. Kinds of Organism Interactions

  16.4. Types of Communities

  16.5. Major Aquatic Ecosystems

  16.6. Succession

  16.7. The Impact of Human Actions on Communities

17. Population Ecology

  17.1. Population Characteristics

  17.2. Reproductive Capacity

  17.3. The Population Growth Curve

  17.4. Limits to Population Size

  17.5. Categories of Limiting Factors

  17.6. Carrying Capacity

  17.7. Limiting Factors to Human Population Growth

  17.8. The Control of the Human Population—A Social Problem

18. Evolutionary and Ecological Aspects of Behavior

  18.1. Interpreting Behavior

  18.2. The Problem of Anthropomorphism

  18.3. Instinctive and Learned Behavior

  18.4. Kinds of Learning

  18.5. Instinct and Learning in the Same Animal

  18.6. Human Behavior

  18.7. Selected Topics in Behavioral Ecology

PART V. THE ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF LIFE

19. The Origin of Life and the Evolution of Cells

  19.1. Early Thoughts About the Origin of Life

  19.2. Current Thinking About the Origin of Life

  19.3. The "Big Bang" and the Origin of the Earth

  19.4. The Chemical Evolution of Life on Earth

  19.5. Major Evolutionary Changes in Early Cellular Life

  19.6. The Geologic Timeline and the Evolution of Life

20. The Classification and Evolution of Organisms

  20.1. The Classification of Organisms

  20.2. A Brief Survey of the Domains of Life

  20.3. Acellular Infectious Particles

21. The Nature of Microorganisms

  21.1. What Are Microorganisms?

  21.2. The Domains Bacteria and Archaea

  21.3. The Kingdom Protista

  21.4. Multicellularity in the Protista

  21.5. The Kingdom Fungi

22. The Plants Kingdom

  22.1. What Is a Plant?

  22.2. Alternation of Generations

  22.3. The Evolution of Plants

  22.4. Nonvascular Plants

  22.5. The Significance of Vascular Tissue

  22.6. The Development of Roots, Stems, and Leaves

  22.7. Seedless Vascular Plants

  22.8. Seed-Producing Vascular Plants

  22.9. The Growth of Woody Plants

  22.10. Plant Responses to Their Environment

  22.11. The Coevolution of Plants and Animals

23. The Animal Kingdom

  23.1. What Is an Animal?

  23.2. The Evolution of Animals

  23.3. Temperature Regulation

  23.4. Body Plans

  23.5. Marine Lifestyles

  23.6. Primitive Marine Animals

  23.7. Platyhelminthes—Flatworms

  23.8. Nematoda—Roundworms

  23.9. Annelida—Segmented Worms

  23.10. Mollusca

  23.11. Arthropods

  23.12. Echinodermata

  23.13. Chordata

  23.14. Adaptations to Terrestrial Life

PART VI. PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

24. Materials Exchange in the Body

  24.1. The Basic Principles of Materials Exchange

  24.2. Circulation: The Cardiovascular System

  24.3. The Lymphatic System

  24.4. Gas Exchange: The Respiratory System

  24.5. Obtaining Nutrients: The Digestive System

  24.6. Waste Disposal: The Excretory System

25. Nutrition. Food and Diet

  25.1. Living Things as Chemical. Factories: Matter and Energy. Manipulators

  25.2. The Kinds of Nutrients and Their Function

  25.3. Dietary Reference Intakes

  25.4. The Food Guide Pyramid

  25.5. Determining Energy Needs

  25.6. Eating Disorders

  25.7. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle

  25.8. Nutrition for Fitness and Sports

26. The Body's Control Mechanisms and Immunity

  26.1. Coordination in Multicellular Animals

  26.2. Nervous System Function

  26.3. The Endocrine System

  26.4. The Integration of Nervous and Endocrine Function

  26.5. Sensory Input

  26.6. Output Coordination

  26.7. The Body's Defense Mechanisms—Immunity

27. Human Reproduction, Sex, and Sexuality

  27.1. Sexuality from Various Points of View

  27.2. The Sexuality Spectrum

  27.3. Components of Human Sexual Behavior

  27.4. Sex Determination and Embryonic Sexual Development

  27.5. The Sexual Maturation of Young Adults

  27.6. Spermatogenesis

  27.7. Oogenesis, Ovulation, and Menstruation

  27.8. The Hormonal Control of Fertility

  27.9. Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Birth

  27.10. Contraception

  27.11. Termination of Pregnancy—Abortion

  27.12. Changes in Sexual Function with Age

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Glossary