THE LIVING WORLD

0. Studying Biology

  0.1. How to Study

  0.2. Using Your Textbook

  0.3. Science Is a Way of Thinking

  0.4. How to Read a Graph

Unit One. The Study of Life

1. The Science of Biology

  1.1. The Diversity of Life

  1.2. Properties of Life

  1.3. Organization of Life

  1.4. Biological Themes

  1.5. How Scientists Think

  1.6. Science in Action: A Case Study

  1.7. Stages of a Scientific Investigation

  1.8. Theory and Certainty

  1.9. Four Theories Unify Biology as a Science

Unit two. The Living Cell

2. The Chemistry of Life

  2.1. Atoms

  2.2. Ions and Isotopes

  2.3. Molecules

  2.4. Hydrogen Bonds Give Water Unique Properties

  2.5. Water Ionizes

3. Molecules of Life

  3.1. Polymers Are Built of Monomers

  3.2. Proteins

  3.3. Nucleic Acids

  3.4. Carbohydrates

  3.5. Lipids

4. Cells

  4.1. Cells

  4.2. The Plasma Membrane

  4.3. Prokaryotic Cells

  4.4. Eukaryotic Cells

  4.5. The Nucleus: The Cell's Control Center

  4.6. The Endomembrane System

  4.7. Organelles That Contain DNA

  4.8. The Cytoskeleton: Interior Framework of the Cell

  4.9. Outside the Plasma Membrane

  4.10. Diffusion

  4.11. Facilitated diffusion

  4.12. Osmotic

  4.13. Bulk Passage into and out of Cells

  4.14. Active Transport

5. Energy and Life

  5.1. The Flow of Energy in Living Things

  5.2. The Laws of Thermodynamics

  5.3. Chemical Reactions

  5.4. How Enzymes Work

  5.5. How Cells Regulate Enzymes

  5.6. ATP: The Energy Currency of the Cell

6. Photosynthesis: Acquiring Energy from the Sun

  6.1. An Overview of Photosynthesis

  6.2. How Plants Capture Energy from Sunlight

  6.3. Organizing Pigments into Photosystems

  6.4. How Photosystems Convert Light to Chemical Energy

  6.5. Building New Molecules

  6.6. Photorespiration: Putting the Brakes on Photosynthesis

7. How Cells Harvest Energy from Food

  7.1. Where Is the Energy in Food?

  7.2. Using Coupled Reactions to Make ATP

  7.3. Harvesting Electrons from Chemical Bonds

  7.4. Using the Electrons to Make ATP

  7.5. Cells Can Metabolize Food Without Oxygen

  7.6. Glucose Is Not the Only Food Molecule

Unit Three. The Continuity of Life

8. Mitosis

  8.1. Prokaryotes Have a Simple Cell Cycle

  8.2. Eukaryotes Have a Complex Cell Cycle

  8.3. Chromosomes

  8.4. Cell Division

  8.5. Controlling the Cell Cycle

  8.6. What Is Cancer?

  8.7. Cancer and Control of the Cell Cycle

9. Meiosis

  9.1. Discovery of Meiosis

  9.2. The Sexual Life Cycle

  9.3. The Stages of Meiosis

  9.4. How Meiosis Differs from Mitosis

  9.5. Evolutionary Consequences of Sex

10. Foundations of Genetics

  10.1. Mendel and the Garden Pea

  10.2. What Mendel Observed

  10.3. Mendel Proposes a Theory

  10.4. Mendel's Laws

  10.5. How Genes Influence Traits

  10.6. Some Traits Don't Show Mendelian Inheritance

  10.7. Chromosomes Are the Vehicles of Mendelian Inheritance

  10.8. Human Chromosomes

  10.9. Studying Pedigrees

  10.10. The Role of Mutation

  10.11. Counseling and Therapy

11. DNA: The Genetic Material

  11.1. The Discovery of Transformation

  11.2. Experiments Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material

  11.3. Discovering the Structure of DNA

  11.4. How the DNA Molecule Copies Itself

  11.5. Mutation

12. How Genes Work

  12.1. The Central Dogma

  12.2. Transcription

  12.3. Translation

  12.4. Gene Expression

  12.5. How Prokaryotes Control Transcription

  12.6. Transcription Control in Eukaryotes

  12.7. Controlling Transcription from a Distance

  12.8. RNA-Level Control

  12.9. Complex Regulation of Gene Expression

13. The New Biology

  13.1. Genomics

  13.2. The Human Genome

  13.3. A Scientific Revolution

  13.4. Genetic Engineering and Medicine

  13.5. Genetic Engineering and Agriculture

  13.6. Reproductive Cloning

  13.7. Stem Cell Therapy

  13.8. Therapeutic Use of Cloning

  13.9. Gene Therapy

Unit Four. The Evolution and Diversity of Life

14. Evolution and Natural Selection

  14.1. Darwin's Voyage on HMS Beagle

  14.2. Darwin’s Evidence

  14.3. The Theory of Natural Selection

  14.4. The Beaks of Darwin's Finches

  14.5. How Natural Selection Produces Diversity

  14.6. The Evidence for Evolution

  14.7. Evolution’s Critics

  14.8. Genetic Change in Populations: The Hardy-Weinberg Rule

  14.9. Agents of Evolution

  14.10. Sickle-Cell Anemia

  14.11. Peppered Moths and Industrial Melanism

  14.12. Selection on Color in Guppies

  14.13. The Biological Species Concept

  14.14. Isolating Mechanisms

15. How We Name Living Things

  15.1. Invention of the Linnaean System

  15.2. Species Names

  15.3. Higher Categories

  15.4. What Is a Species?

  15.5. How to Build a Family Tree

  15.6. The Kingdoms of Life

  15.7. Domain Bacteria

  15.8. Domain Archaea

  15.9. Domain Eukaria

16. Prokaryotes: The First Single-Celled Creatures

  16.1. Origin of Life

  16.2. How Cells Arose

  16.3. The Simplest Organisms

  16.4. Comparing Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes

  16.5. Importance of Prokaryotes

  16.6. Prokaryotic of Lifestyles

  16.7. The Structure of Viruses

  16.8. How Bacteriophages Enter Prokaryotic Cells

  16.9. How Animal Viruses Enter Cells

  16.10. Disease Viruses

17. Protists: Advent of the Eukaryotes

  17.1. Origin of Eukaryotic Cells

  17.2. The Evolution of Sex

  17.3. General Biology of Protists, the Most Ancient Eukaryotes

  17.4. Classifying the Protists

  17.5. The Base of the Protist Tree

  17.6. A Diverse Kingdom

  17.7. The Road to Plants

  17.8. The Road to Animals

  17.9. "Not Yet Located on the Protist Phylogenetic Tree"

18. Fungi Invade the Land

  18.1. Complex Multicellularity

  18.2. A Fungus Is Not a Plant

  18.3. Reproduction and Nutrition of Fungi

  18.4. Kinds of Fungi

  18.5. Zygomycetes

  18.6. Ascomycetes

  18.7. Basidiomycetes

  18.8. Chytridiomycetes, Imperfect Fungi, and Yeasts

  18.9. Ecological Roles of Fungi

Unit Five. Evolution of Animal Life

19. Evolution of the Animal Phyla

  19.1. General Features of Animals

  19.2. The Animal Family Tree

  19.3. Six Key Transitions in Body Plan

  19.4. Sponges: Animals Without Tissues

  19.5. Cnidarians: Tissues Lead to Greater Specialization

  19.6. Solid Worms: Bilateral Symmetry

  19.7. Roundworms: The Evolution of a Body Cavity

  19.8. Mollusks: Coelomates

  19.9. Annelids: The Rise of Segmentation

  19.10. Arthropods: Advent of Jointed Appendages

  19.11. Protostomes and Deuterostomes

  19.12. Echinoderms: The First Deuterostomes

  19.13. Chordates: Improving the Skeleton

20. History of the Vertebrates

  20.1. The Paleozoic Era

  20.2. The Mesozoic Era

  20.3. The Cenozoic Era

  20.4. Fishes Dominate the Sea

  20.5. Amphibians Invade the Land

  20.6. Reptiles Conquer the Land

  20.7. Birds Master the Air

  20.8. Mammals Adapt to Colder Times

21. How Humans Evolved

  21.1. The Evolutionary Path to Humans

  21.2. How the Apes Evolved

  21.3. Walking Upright

  21.4. The Hominid Family Tree

  21.5. African Origin: Early Homo

  21.6. Out of Africa Homo erectus

  21.7. Our Own Species Also Evolved in Africa

  21.8. The Only Surviving Hominid

Unit Six. Animal Life

22. The Animal Body and How It Moves

  22.1. Innovations in Body Design

  22.2. Organization of the Vertebrate Body

  22.3. Epithelium Is Protective

  22.4. Connective Tissue Supports the Body

  22.5. Muscle Tissue Lets the Body Move

  22.6. Nerve Tissue Conducts Signals Rapidly

  22.7. Types of Skeletons

  22.8. Muscles and How They Work

23. Circulation

  23.1. Open and Closed Circulatory Systems

  23.2. Architecture of the Vertebrate Circulatory System

  23.3. The Lymphatic System: Recovering Lost Fluid

  23.4. Blood

  23.5. Fish Circulation

  23.6. Amphibian and Reptile Circulation

  23.7. Mammalian and Bird Circulation

24. Respiration

  24.1. Types of Respiratory Systems

  24.2. Respiration in Aquatic Vertebrates

  24.3. Respiration in Terrestrial Vertebrates

  24.4. The Mammalian Respiratory System

  24.5. How Respiration Works: Gas Exchange

  24.6. The Nature of Lung Cancer

25. The Path of Food Through the Animal Body

  25.1. Food for Energy and Growth

  25.2. Types of Digestive Systems

  25.3. Vertebrate Digestive Systems

  25.4. The Mouth and Teeth

  25.5. The Esophagus and Stomach

  25.6. The Small and Large Intestines

  25.7. Variations in Vertebrate Digestive Systems

  25.8. Accessory Digestive Organs

26. Maintaining the Internal Environment

  26.1. How the Animal Body Maintains Homeostasis

  26.2. Redulating the Body's Water Content

  26.3. Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney

  26.4. The Mammalian Kidney

  26.5. Eliminated Nitrogenous Wastes

27. How the Animal Body Defends Itself

  27.1. Skin: The First Line of Defense

  27.2. Cellular Counterattack: The Second Line of Defense

  27.3. Specific Immunity: The Third Line of Defense

  27.4. Initiating the Immune Response

  27.5. T Cells: The Cellular Response

  27.6. B Cells: The Humoral Response

  27.7. Active Immunity Through Clonal Selection

  27.8. Vaccination

  27.9. Antibodies in Medical Diagnosis

  27.10. Overactive Immune System

  27.11. AIDS: Immune System Collapse

28. The Nervous System

  28.1. Evolution of the Animal Nervous System

  28.2. Neurons Generate Nerve Impulses

  28.3. The Synapse

  28.4. Addictive Drugs Act on Chemical Synapses

  28.5. Evolution of the Vertebrate Brain

  28.6. How the Brain Works

  28.7. The Spinal Cord

  28.8. Voluntary and Autonomic Nervous Systems

29. The Senses

  29.1. Processing Sensory Information

  29.2. Sensing Gravity and Motion

  29.3. Sensing Chemicals: Taste and Smell

  29.4. Sensing Sounds: Hearing

  29.5. Sensing Light: Vision

  29.6. Other Vertebrate Senses

30. Chemical Signaling Within the Animal Body

  30.1. Hormones

  30.2. How Hormones Target Cells

  30.3. The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary

  30.4. The Pancreas

  30.5. The Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Adrenal Glands

31. Reproduction and Development

  31.1. Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

  31.2. Evolution of Vertebrate Sexual Reproduction

  31.3. Males

  31.4. Females

  31.5. Hormones Coordinate the Reproductive Cycle

  31.6. Embryonic Development

  31.7. Fetal Development

  31.8. Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Unit Seven. Plant Life

32. Evolution of Plants

  32.1. Adapting to Terrestrial Living

  32.2. Plant Evolution

  32.3. Nonvascular Plants

  32.4. The Evolution of Vascular Tissue

  32.5. Seedless Vascular Plants

  32.6. Evolution of Seed Plants

  32.7. Gymnosperms

  32.8. Rise of the Angiosperms

  32.9. Why Are There Different Kinds of Flowers?

  32.10. Double Fertilization

  32.11. Fruits

33. Plant Form and Function

  33.1. Organization of a Vascular Plant

  33.2. Plant Tissue Types

  33.3. Roots

  33.4. Stems

  33.5. Leaves

  33.6. Water Movement

  33.7. Carbohydrate Transport

34. Plant Reproduction and Growth

  34.1. Angiosperm Reproduction

  34.2. Structure of the Flower

  34.3. Gametes Combine Within the Flower

  34.4. Seeds

  34.5. Fruit

  34.6. Germination

  34.7. Growth and Nutrition

  34.8. Plant Hormones

  34.9. Auxin

  34.10. Photoperiodism and Dormancy

  34.11. Tropisms

Unit Eight. The Living Environment

35. Populations and Communities

  35.1. What Is Ecology?

  35.2. Population Range

  35.3. Population Distribution

  35.4. Population Growth

  35.5. The Influence of Population Density

  35.6. Life History Adaptations

  35.7. Population Demography

  35.8. Communities

  35.9. The Niche and Competition

  35.10. Coevolution and Symbiosis

  35.11. Predator-Prey Interactions

  35.12. Mimicry

  35.13. Ecological Succession

36. Ecosystems

  36.1. Energy Flows Through Ecosystems

  36.2. Ecological Pyramids

  36.3. The Water Cycle

  36.4. The Carbon Cycle

  36.5. Soil Nutrients and Other Chemical Cycles

  36.6. The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation

  36.7. Latitude and Elevation

  36.8. Patterns of Circulation in the Ocean

  36.9. Ocean Ecosystems

  36.10. Freshwater Ecosystems

  36.11. Land Ecosystems

37. Behavior and the Environment

  37.1. Approaches to the Study of Behavior

  37.2. Instinctive Behavioral Patterns

  37.3. Genetic Effects on Behavior

  37.4. How Animals Learn

  37.5. Instinct and Learning Interact

  37.6. Animal Cognition

  37.7. Behavioral Ecology

  37.8. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Behavior

  37.9. Migratory Behavior

  37.10. Reproductive Behaviors

  37.11. Communication Within Social Groups

  37.12. Altruism and Group Living

  37.13. Animal Societies

  37.14. Human Social Behavior

38. Human Influences on the Living World

  38.1. Pollution

  38.2. Acid Precipitation

  38.3. Global Warming

  38.4. The Ozone Hole

  38.5. Loss of Biodiversity

  38.6. Reducing Pollution

  38.7. Preserving Nonreplaceable Resources

  38.8. Curbing Population Growth

  38.9. Preservung Endangered Species

  38.10. Finding Cleaner Sources of Energy

  38.11. Individuals Can Make the Difference


  Terms & Concepts