absolute zero The lowest attainable temperature; 0 K on the Kelvin scale and –273.15 °C on the Celsius scale. (Section 1.4)

absorption spectrum A pattern of variation in the amount of light absorbed by a sample as a function of wavelength. (Section 23.5)

accuracy A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value. (Section 1.5)

acid A substance that is able to donate a H+ ion (a proton) and, hence, increases the concentration of H+(aq) when it dissolves in water. (Section 4.3)

acid-dissociation constant (Ka) An equilibrium constant that expresses the extent to which an acid transfers a proton to solvent water. (Section 16.6)

acidic anhydride (acidic oxide) An oxide that forms an acid when added to water; soluble non-metal oxides are acidic anhydrides. (Section 22.5)

acidic oxide (acidic anhydride) An oxide that either reacts with a base to form a salt or with water to form an acid. (Section 22.5)

acid rain Rainwater that has become excessively acidic because of absorption of pollutant oxides, notably SO3, produced by human activities. (Section 18.2)

actinide element Element in which the 5f orbitals are only partially occupied. (Section 6.8)

activated complex (transition state) The particular arrangement of atoms found at the top of the potential-energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products. (Section 14.5)

activation energy (Ea) The minimum energy needed for reaction; the height of the energy barrier to formation of products. (Section 14.5)

active site Specific site on a heterogeneous catalyst or an enzyme where catalysis occurs. (Section 14.7)

activity The decay rate of a radioactive material, generally expressed as the number of disintegrations per unit time. (Section 21.4)

activity series A list of metals in order of decreasing ease of oxidation. (Section 4.4)

addition polymerization Polymerization that occurs through coupling of monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction. (Section 12.8)

addition reaction A reaction in which a reagent adds to the two carbon atoms of a carbon–carbon multiple bond. (Section 24.3)

adsorption The binding of molecules to a surface. (Section 14.7)

alcohol An organic compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group (—OH) for a hydrogen on a hydrocarbon. (Sections 2.9 and 24.4)

aldehyde An organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (C ═ O) to which at least one hydrogen atom is attached. (Section 24.4)

alkali metals Members of group 1A in the periodic table. (Section 7.7)

alkaline earth metals Members of group 2A in the periodic table. (Section 7.7)

alkanes Compounds of carbon and hydrogen containing only carbon–carbon single bonds. (Sections 2.9 and 24.2)

alkenes Hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon–carbon double bonds. (Section 24.2)

alkyl group A group that is formed by removing a hydrogen atom from an alkane. (Section 25.3)

alkynes Hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon–carbon triple bonds. (Section 24.2)

alloy A substance that has the characteristic properties of a metal and contains more than one element. Often there is one principal metallic component, with other elements present in smaller amounts. Alloys may be homogeneous or heterogeneous. (Section 12.3)

alpha decay A type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and thereby transforms (or “decays”) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. (Section 21.1)

alpha (α) helix A protein structure in which the protein is coiled in the form of a helix with hydrogen bonds between C ═ O and N—H groups on adjacent turns. (Section 24.7)

alpha particles Particles that are identical to helium-4 nuclei, consisting of two protons and two neutrons, symbol  or . (Section 21.1)

amide An organic compound that has an NR2 group attached to a carbonyl. (Section 24.4)

amine A compound that has the general formula R3N, where R may be H or a hydrocarbon group. (Section 16.7)

amino acid A carboxylic acid that contains an amino (—NH2) group attached to the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxylic acid (—COOH) functional group. (Section 24.7)

amorphous solid A solid whose molecular arrangement lacks the regularly repeating long-range pattern of a crystal. (Section 12.2)

amphiprotic Refers to the capacity of a substance to either add or lose a proton (H+). (Section 16.2)

amphoteric oxides and hydroxides Oxides and hydroxides that are only slightly soluble in water but that dissolve in either acidic or basic solutions. (Section 17.5)

angstrom A common non-SI unit of length, denoted Å, that is used to measure atomic dimensions: 1Å = 10–10 m. (Section 2.3)

anion A negatively charged ion. (Section 2.7)

anode An electrode at which oxidation occurs. (Section 20.3)

antibonding molecular orbital A molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated outside the region between the two nuclei of bonded atoms. Such orbitals, designated as σ* or π*, are less stable (of higher energy) than bonding molecular orbitals. (Section 9.7)

antiferromagnetism A form of magnetism in which unpaired electron spins on adjacent sites point in opposite directions and cancel each other's effects. (Section 23.1)

aqueous solution A solution in which water is the solvent. (Chapter 4: Introduction)

aromatic hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon compounds that contain a planar, cyclic arrangement of carbon atoms linked by both σ and delocalized π bonds. (Section 24.2)

Arrhenius equation An equation that relates the rate constant for a reaction to the frequency factor, A, the activation energy, Ea, and the temperature, Tk = AeEa/RT. In its logarithmic form it is written ln k = –Ea/RT + ln A. (Section 14.5)

atmosphere (atm) A unit of pressure equal to 760 torr; 1 atm = 101.325 kPa. (Section 10.2)

atom The smallest representative particle of an element. (Sections 1.1 and 2.1)

atomic mass unit (amu) A unit based on the value of exactly 12 amu for the mass of the isotope of carbon that has six protons and six neutrons in the nucleus. (Sections 2.3 and 3.3)

atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. (Section 2.3)

atomic radius An estimate of the size of an atom. See bonding atomic radius. (Section 7.3)

atomic weight The average mass of the atoms of an element in atomic mass units (amu); it is numerically equal to the mass in grams of one mole of the element. (Section 2.4)

autoionization The process whereby water spontaneously forms low concentrations of H+(aq) and OH(aq) ions by proton transfer from one water molecule to another. (Section 16.3)

Avogadro's hypothesis A statement that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. (Section 10.3)

Avogadro's law A statement that the volume of a gas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas. (Section 10.3)

Avogadro's number (NA) The number of 12C atoms in exactly 12 g of 12C; it equals 6.022 × 1023 mol–1. (Section 3.4)

band An array of closely spaced molecular orbitals occupying a discrete range of energy. (Section 12.4)

band gap The energy gap between a fully occupied band called a valence band and an empty band called the conduction band. (Section 12.7)

band structure The electronic structure of a solid, defining the allowed ranges of energy for electrons in a solid. (Section 12.7)

bar A unit of pressure equal to 105 Pa. (Section 10.2)

base A substance that is an H+ acceptor; a base produces an excess of OH(aq) ions when it dissolves in water. (Section 4.3)

base-dissociation constant (Kb) An equilibrium constant that expresses the extent to which a base reacts with solvent water, accepting a proton and forming OH(aq). (Section 16.7)

basic anhydride (basic oxide) An oxide that forms a base when added to water; soluble metal oxides are basic anhydrides. (Section 22.5)

basic oxide (basic anhydride) An oxide that either reacts with water to form a base or reacts with an acid to form a salt and water. (Section 22.5)

battery A self-contained electrochemical power source that contains one or more voltaic cells. (Section 20.7)

becquerel The SI unit of radioactivity. It corresponds to one nuclear disintegration per second. (Section 21.4)

Beer's law The light absorbed by a substance (A) equals the product of its extinction coefficient (ε), the path length through which the light passes (b), and the molar concentration of the substance (c): A = εbc.(Section 14.2)

beta emission A nuclear decay process where a beta particle is emitted from the nucleus; also called beta decay. (Section 21.1)

beta particles Energetic electrons emitted from the nucleus, symbol . (Section 21.1)

beta sheet A structural form of protein in which two strands of amino acids are hydrogen-bonded together in a zipperlike configuration. (Section 24.7)

bidentate ligand A ligand in which two linked coordinating atoms are bound to a metal. (Section 23.3)

bimolecular reaction An elementary reaction that involves two molecules. (Section 14.6)

biochemistry The study of the chemistry of living systems. (Chapter 24: Introduction)

biodegradable Organic material that bacteria are able to oxidize. (Section 18.4)

body-centered lattice A crystal lattice in which the lattice points are located at the center and corners of each unit cell. (Section 12.2)

bomb calorimeter A device for measuring the heat evolved in the combustion of a substance under constant-volume conditions. (Section 5.5)

bond angles The angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms in a molecule. (Section 9.1)

bond dipole The dipole moment that is due to unequal electron sharing between two atoms in a covalent bond. (Section 9.3)

bond enthalpy The enthalpy change, ΔH, required to break a particular bond when the substance is in the gas phase. (Section 8.8)

bonding atomic radius The radius of an atom as defined by the distances separating it from other atoms to which it is chemically bonded. (Section 7.3)

bonding molecular orbital A molecular orbital in which the electron density is concentrated in the internuclear region. The energy of a bonding molecular orbital is lower than the energy of the separate atomic orbitals from which it forms. (Section 9.7)

bonding pair In a Lewis structure a pair of electrons that is shared by two atoms. (Section 9.2)

bond length The distance between the centers of two bonded atoms. (Section 8.3)

bond order The number of bonding electron pairs shared between two atoms, minus the number of antibonding electron pairs: bond order = (number of bonding electrons – number of anti-bonding electrons)/2. (Section 9.7)

bond polarity A measure of the degree to which the electrons are shared unequally between two atoms in a chemical bond. (Section 8.4)

boranes Covalent hydrides of boron. (Section 22.11)

Born-Haber cycle A thermodynamic cycle based on Hess's law that relates the lattice energy of an ionic substance to its enthalpy of formation and to other measurable quantities. (Section 8.2)

Boyle's law A law stating that at constant temperature, the product of the volume and pressure of a given amount of gas is a constant. (Section 10.3)

Brønsted-Lowry acid A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton donor. (Section 16.2)

Brønsted-Lowry base A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton acceptor. (Section 16.2)

buffer capacity The amount of acid or base a buffer can neutralize before the pH begins to change appreciably. (Section 17.2)

buffered solution (buffer) A solution that undergoes a limited change in pH upon addition of a small amount of acid or base. (Section 17.2)

calcination The heating of an ore to bring about its decomposition and the elimination of a volatile product. For example, a carbonate ore might be calcined to drive off CO2. (Section 23.2)

calorie A unit of energy, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 °C from 14.5 °C to 15.5 °C. A related unit is the joule: 1 cal = 4.184 J. (Section 5.1)

calorimeter An apparatus that measures the heat released or absorbed in a chemical or physical process. (Section 5.5)

calorimetry The experimental measurement of heat produced in chemical and physical processes. (Section 5.5)

capillary action The process by which a liquid rises in a tube because of a combination of adhesion to the walls of the tube and cohesion between liquid particles. (Section 11.3)

carbide A binary compound of carbon with a metal or metalloid. (Section 22.9)

carbohydrates A class of substances formed from polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. (Section 24.8)

carbon black A microcrystalline form of carbon. (Section 22.9)

carbonyl group The C ═ O double bond, a characteristic feature of several organic functional groups, such as ketones and aldehydes. (Section 24.4)

carboxylic acid A compound that contains the —COOH functional group. (Sections 16.10 and 24.4)

catalyst A substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change in the process. (Section 14.7)

cathode An electrode at which reduction occurs. (Section 20.3)

cathode rays Streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is applied to electrodes in an evacuated tube. (Section 2.2)

cathodic protection A means of protecting a metal against corrosion by making it the cathode in a voltaic cell. This can be achieved by attaching a more easily oxidized metal, which serves as an anode, to the metal to be protected. (Section 20.8)

cation A positively charged ion. (Section 2.7)

cell potential The potential difference between the cathode and anode in an electrochemical cell; it is measured in volts: 1 V = 1 J/C. Also called electromotive force. (Section 20.4)

cellulose A polysaccharide of glucose; it is the major structural element in plant matter. (Section 24.8)

Celsius scale A temperature scale on which water freezes at 0° and boils at 100° at sea level. (Section 1.4)

chain reaction A series of reactions in which one reaction initiates the next. (Section 21.7)

changes of state Transformations of matter from one state to a different one, for example, from a gas to a liquid. (Section 1.3)

charcoal A form of carbon produced when wood is heated strongly in a deficiency of air. (Section 22.9)

Charles's law A law stating that at constant pressure, the volume of a given quantity of gas is proportional to absolute temperature. (Section 10.3)

chelate effect The generally larger formation constants for polydentate ligands as compared with the corresponding monodentate ligands. (Section 23.3)

chelating agent A polydentate ligand that is capable of occupying two or more sites in the coordination sphere. (Section 23.3)

chemical bond A strong attractive force that exists between atoms in a molecule. (Section 8.1)

chemical changes Processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances; also called chemical reactions. (Section 1.3)

chemical equation A representation of a chemical reaction using the chemical formulas of the reactants and products; a balanced chemical equation contains equal numbers of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. (Section 3.1)

chemical equilibrium A state of dynamic balance in which the rate of formation of the products of a reaction from the reactants equals the rate of formation of the reactants from the products; at equilibrium the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant. (Section 4.1; Chapter 15: Introduction)

chemical formula A notation that uses chemical symbols with numerical subscripts to convey the relative proportions of atoms of the different elements in a substance. (Section 2.6)

chemical kinetics The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at which chemical reactions occur. (Chapter 14: Introduction)

chemical nomenclature The rules used in naming substances. (Section 2.8)

chemical properties Properties that describe a substance's composition and its reactivity; how the substance reacts or changes into other substances. (Section 1.3)

chemical reactions Processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances; also called chemical changes. (Section 1.3)

chemistry The scientific discipline that studies the composition, properties, and transformations of matter. (Chapter 1: Introduction)

chiral A term describing a molecule or an ion that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. (Sections 23.4 and 24.5)

chlorofluorocarbons Compounds composed entirely of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon. (Section 18.3)

chlorophyll A plant pigment that plays a major role in conversion of solar energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis. (Section 23.3)

cholesteric liquid crystalline phase A liquid crystal formed from flat, disc-shaped molecules that align through a stacking of the molecular discs. (Section 11.7)

coal A naturally occurring solid containing hydrocarbons of high molecular weight, as well as compounds containing sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. (Section 5.8)

colligative property A property of a solvent (vapor-pressure lowering, freezing-point lowering, boiling-point elevation, osmotic pressure) that depends on the total concentration of solute particles present. (Section 13.5)

collision model A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)

colloids (colloidal dispersions) Mixtures containing particles larger than normal solutes but small enough to remain suspended in the dispersing medium. (Section 13.6)

combination reaction A chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single product. (Section 3.2)

combustion reaction A chemical reaction that proceeds with evolution of heat and usually also a flame; most combustion involves reaction with oxygen, as in the burning of a match. (Section 3.2)

common-ion effect A shift of an equilibrium induced by an ion common to the equilibrium. For example, added Na2SO4 decreases the solubility of the slightly soluble salt BaSO4, or added NaF decreases the percent ionization of HF. (Section 17.1)

complementary colors Colors that, when mixed in proper proportions, appear white or colorless. (Section 23.5)

complete ionic equation A chemical equation in which dissolved strong electrolytes (such as dissolved ionic compounds) are written as separate ions. (Section 4.2)

complex ion (complex) An assembly of a metal ion and the Lewis bases (ligands) bonded to it. (Section 17.5)

compound A substance composed of two or more elements united chemically in definite proportions. (Section 1.2)

compound semiconductor A semiconducting material formed from two or more elements. (Section 12.7)

concentration The quantity of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. (Section 4.5)

concentration cell A voltaic cell containing the same electrolyte and the same electrode materials in both the anode and cathode compartments. The emf of the cell is derived from a difference in the concentrations of the same electrolyte solutions in the compartments. (Section 20.6)

condensation polymerization Polymerization in which molecules are joined together through condensation reactions. (Section 12.8)

condensation reaction A chemical reaction in which a small molecule (such as a molecule of water) is split out from between two reacting molecules. (Sections 12.6 and 22.8)

conduction band A band of molecular orbitals lying higher in energy than the occupied valence band and distinctly separated from it. (Section 12.7)

conjugate acid A substance formed by addition of a proton to a Brønsted–Lowry base. (Section 16.2)

conjugate acid–base pair An acid and a base, such as H2O and OH, that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton. (Section 16.2)

conjugate base A substance formed by the loss of a proton from a Brønsted–Lowry acid. (Section 16.2)

continuous spectrum A spectrum that contains radiation distributed over all wavelengths. (Section 6.3)

conversion factor A ratio relating the same quantity in two systems of units that is used to convert the units of measurement. (Section 1.6)

coordination compound A compound containing a metal ion bonded to a group of surrounding molecules or ions that act as ligands. (Section 23.2)

coordination number The number of adjacent atoms to which an atom is directly bonded. In a complex the coordination number of the metal ion is the number of donor atoms to which it is bonded. (Sections 12.37 and 24.2)

coordination sphere The metal ion and its surrounding ligands. (Section 23.2)

coordination-sphere isomers Structural iso-mers of coordination compounds in which the ligands within the coordination sphere differ. (Section 23.4)

copolymer A complex polymer resulting from the polymerization of two or more chemically different monomers. (Section 12.8)

core electrons The electrons that are not in the outermost shell of an atom. (Section 6.8)

corrosion The process by which a metal is oxidized by substances in its environment. (Section 20.8)

covalent bond A bond formed between two or more atoms by a sharing of electrons. (Section 8.1)

covalent-network solids Solids in which the units that make up the three-dimensional network are joined by covalent bonds. (Section 12.1)

critical mass The amount of fissionable material necessary to maintain a nuclear chain reaction. (Section 21.7)

critical pressure The pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state. (Section 11.4)

critical temperature The highest temperature at which it is possible to convert the gaseous form of a substance to a liquid. The critical temperature increases with an increase in the magnitude of inter-molecular forces. (Section 11.4)

crystal-field theory A theory that accounts for the colors and the magnetic and other properties of transition-metal complexes in terms of the splitting of the energies of metal ion d orbitals by the electrostatic interaction with the ligands. (Section 23.6)

crystal lattice An imaginary network of points on which the repeating motif of a solid may be imagined to be laid down so that the structure of the crystal is obtained. The motif may be a single atom or a group of atoms. Each lattice point represents an identical environment in the crystal. (Section 12.2)

crystalline solid (crystal) A solid whose internal arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions possesses a regularly repeating pattern in any direction through the solid. (Section 12.2)

crystallization The process in which molecules, ions, or atoms come together to form a crystalline solid. (Section 13.2)

cubic close packing A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as close as possible, and the close-packed layers of atoms adopt a three-layer repeating pattern that leads to a face-centered cubic unit cell. (Section 12.3)

curie A measure of radioactivity: 1 curie = 3.7 × 1010 nuclear disintegrations per second. (Section 21.4)

cycloalkanes Saturated hydrocarbons of general formula CnH2n in which the carbon atoms form a closed ring. (Section 24.2)

Dalton's law of partial pressures A law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone. (Section 10.6)

d-d transition The transition of an electron in a transition-metal compound from a lower-energy d orbital to a higher-energy d orbital. (Section 23.6)

decomposition reaction A chemical reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more products. (Section 3.2)

degenerate A situation in which two or more orbitals have the same energy. (Section 6.7)

delocalized electrons Electrons that are spread over a number of atoms in a molecule or a crystal rather than localized on a single atom or a pair of atoms. (Section 9.6)

density The ratio of an object's mass to its volume. (Section 1.4)

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A polynu-cleotide in which the sugar component is deoxyri-bose. (Section 24.10)

desalination The removal of salts from seawa-ter, brine, or brackish water to make it fit for human consumption. (Section 18.4)

deuterium The isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus contains a proton and a neutron: . (Section 22.2)

dextrorotatory, or merely dextro or d A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the right (clockwise). (Section 23.4)

diamagnetism A type of magnetism that causes a substance with no unpaired electrons to be weakly repelled from a magnetic field. (Section 9.8)

diatomic molecule A molecule composed of only two atoms. (Section 2.6)

diffusion The spreading of one substance through a space occupied by one or more other substances. (Section 10.8)

dilution The process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one by adding solvent. (Section 4.5)

dimensional analysis A method of problem solving in which units are carried through all calculations. Dimensional analysis ensures that the final answer of a calculation has the desired units. (Section 1.6)

dipole A molecule with one end having a partial negative charge and the other end having a partial positive charge; a polar molecule. (Section 8.4)

dipole–dipole force A force that becomes significant when polar molecules come in close contact with one another. The force is attractive when the positive end of one polar molecule approaches the negative end of another. (Section 11.2)

dipole moment A measure of the separation and magnitude of the positive and negative charges in polar molecules. (Section 8.4)

dispersion forces Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles. Also called London dispersion forces. (Section 11.2)

displacement reaction A reaction in which an element reacts with a compound, displacing an element from it. (Section 4.4)

donor atom The atom of a ligand that bonds to the metal. (Section 23.2)

doping Incorporation of a hetero atom into a solid to change its electrical properties. For example, incorporation of P into Si. (Section 12.7)

double bond A covalent bond involving two electron pairs. (Section 8.3)

double helix The structure for DNA that involves the winding of two DNA polynucleotide chains together in a helical arrangement. The two strands of the double helix are complementary in that the organic bases on the two strands are paired for optimal hydrogen bond interaction. (Section 24.10)

dynamic equilibrium A state of balance in which opposing processes occur at the same rate. (Section 11.5)

effective nuclear charge The net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom; this charge is not the full nuclear charge because there is some shielding of the nucleus by the other electrons in the atom. (Section 7.2)

effusion The escape of a gas through an orifice or hole. (Section 10.8)

elastomer A material that can undergo a substantial change in shape via stretching, bending, or compression and return to its original shape upon release of the distorting force. (Section 12.6)

electrochemistry The branch of chemistry that deals with the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. (Chapter 20: Introduction)

electrolysis reaction A reaction in which a nonspontaneous redox reaction is brought about by the passage of current under a sufficient external electrical potential. The devices in which electrolysis reactions occur are called electrolytic cells. (Section 20.9)

electrolyte A solute that produces ions in solution; an electrolytic solution conducts an electric current. (Section 4.1)

electrolytic cell A device in which a nonspon-taneous oxidation-reduction reaction is caused to occur by passage of current under a sufficient external electrical potential. (Section 20.9)

electromagnetic radiation (radiant energy) A form of energy that has wave characteristics and that propagates through a vacuum at the characteristic speed of 3.00 × 108 m/s. (Section 6.1)

electrometallurgy The use of electrolysis to reduce or refine metals. (Section 20.9)

electromotive force (emf) A measure of the driving force, or electrical pressure, for the completion of an electrochemical reaction. Electromotive force is measured in volts: 1 V = 1 J/C. Also called the cell potential. (Section 20.4)

electron A negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus; it is a part of all atoms. An electron has a mass 1/1836 times that of a proton. (Section 2.3)

electron affinity The energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion. (Section 7.5)

electron capture A mode of radioactive decay in which an inner-shell orbital electron is captured by the nucleus. (Section 21.1)

electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom or molecule (Section 6.8)

electron density The probability of finding an electron at any particular point in an atom; this probability is equal to ψ2, the square of the wave function. Also called the probability density. (Section 6.5)

electron domain In the VSEPR model, a region about a central atom in which an electron pair is concentrated. (Section 9.2)

electron-domain geometry The three-dimensional arrangement of the electron domains around an atom according to the VSEPR model. (Section 9.2)

electronegativity A measure of the ability of an atom that is bonded to another atom to attract electrons to itself. (Section 8.4)

electronic charge The negative charge carried by an electron; it has a magnitude of 1.602 × 10–19 C. (Section 2.3)

electronic structure The arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule. (Chapter 6: Introduction)

electron-sea model A model for the behavior of electrons in metals. (Section 12.4)

electron shell A collection of orbitals that have the same value of n. For example, the orbitals with n = 3 (the 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals) comprise the third shell. (Section 6.5)

electron spin A property of the electron that makes it behave as though it were a tiny magnet. The electron behaves as if it were spinning on its axis; electron spin is quantized. (Section 6.7)

element A substance consisting of atoms of the same atomic number. Historically defined as a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. (Sections 1.1 and 1.2)

elemental semiconductor A semiconducting material composed of just one element. (Section 12.7)

elementary reaction A process in a chemical reaction that occurs in a single event or step. An overall chemical reaction consists of one or more elementary reactions or steps. (Section 14.6)

empirical formula A chemical formula that shows the kinds of atoms and their relative numbers in a substance in the smallest possible whole-number ratios. (Section 2.6)

enantiomers Two mirror-image molecules of a chiral substance. The enantiomers are nonsuper-imposable. (Section 23.4)

endothermic process A process in which a system absorbs heat from its surroundings. (Section 5.2)

energy The capacity to do work or to transfer heat. (Section 5.1)

energy-level diagram A diagram that shows the energies of molecular orbitals relative to the atomic orbitals from which they are derived. Also called a molecular-orbital diagram. (Section 9.7)

enthalpy A quantity defined by the relationship H = E + PV; the enthalpy change, ΔH, for a reaction that occurs at constant pressure is the heat evolved or absorbed in the reaction: ΔH = qp. (Section 5.3)

enthalpy of formation The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of a substance from the most stable forms of its component elements. (Section 5.7)

enthalpy of reaction The enthalpy change associated with a chemical reaction. (Section 5.4)

entropy A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)

enzyme A protein molecule that acts to catalyze specific biochemical reactions. (Section 14.7)

equilibrium constant The numerical value of the equilibrium-constant expression for a system at equilibrium. The equilibrium constant is most usually denoted by Kp for gas-phase systems or Kc for solution-phase systems. (Section 15.2)

equilibrium-constant expression The expres-sion that describes the relationship among the concentrations (or partial pressures) of the substances present in a system at equilibrium. The numerator is obtained by multiplying the concentrations of the substances on the product side of the equation, each raised to a power equal to its coefficient in the chemical equation. The denominator similarly contains the concentrations of the substances on the reactant side of the equation. (Section 15.2)

equivalence point The point in a titration at which the added solute reacts completely with the solute present in the solution. (Section 4.6)

ester An organic compound that has an OR group attached to a carbonyl; it is the product of a reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. (Section 24.4)

ether A compound in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to one oxygen. (Section 24.4)

exchange (metathesis) reaction A reaction between compounds that when written as a molecular equation appears to involve the exchange of ions between the two reactants. (Section 4.2)

excited state A higher energy state than the ground state. (Section 6.3)

exothermic process A process in which a system releases heat to its surroundings. (Section 5.2)

extensive property A property that depends on the amount of material considered; for example, mass or volume. (Section 1.3)

face-centered lattice A crystal lattice in which the lattice points are located at the faces and corners of each unit cell. (Section 12.2)

Faraday's constant (F) The magnitude of charge of one mole of electrons: 96,500 C/mol. (Section 20.5)

f-block metals Lanthanide and actinide elements in which the 4f or 5f orbitals are partially occupied. (Section 6.9)

ferrimagnetism A form of magnetism in which unpaired electron spins on different-type ions point in opposite directions but do not fully cancel out. (Section 23.1)

ferromagnetism A form of magnetism in which unpaired electron spins align parallel to one another. (Section 23.1)

first law of thermodynamics A statement that energy is conserved in any process. One way to express the law is that the change in internal energy, ΔE, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ΔE = q +w. (Section 5.2)

first-order reaction A reaction in which the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of a single reactant, raised to the first power. (Section 14.4)

fission The splitting of a large nucleus into two smaller ones. (Section 21.6)

folding The process by which a protein adopts its biologically active shape. (Section 24.7)

force A push or a pull. (Section 5.1)

formal charge The number of valence electrons in an isolated atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure. (Section 8.5)

formation constant For a metal ion complex, the equilibrium constant for formation of the complex from the metal ion and base species present in solution. It is a measure of the tendency of the complex to form. (Section 17.5)

formula weight The mass of the collection of atoms represented by a chemical formula. For example, the formula weight of NO2 (46.0 amu) is the sum of the masses of one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms. (Section 3.3)

fossil fuels Coal, oil, and natural gas, which are presently our major sources of energy. (Section 5.8)

free energy (Gibbs free energy, G) A ther-modynamic state function that gives a criterion for spontaneous change in terms of enthalpy and entropy: G = H – TS. (Section 19.5)

free radical A substance with one or more unpaired electrons. (Section 21.9)

frequency The number of times per second that one complete wavelength passes a given point. (Section 6.1)

frequency factor (A) A term in the Arrhenius equation that is related to the frequency of collision and the probability that the collisions are favorably oriented for reaction. (Section 14.5)

fuel cell A voltaic cell that utilizes the oxidation of a conventional fuel, such as H2 or CH4, in the cell reaction. (Section 20.7)

fuel value The energy released when 1 g of a substance is combusted. (Section 5.8)

functional group An atom or group of atoms that imparts characteristic chemical properties to an organic compound. (Section 24.1)

fusion The joining of two light nuclei to form a more massive one. (Section 21.6)

galvanic cell See voltaic cell. (Section 20.3)

gamma radiation Energetic electromagnetic radiation emanating from the nucleus of a radioactive atom. (Section 21.1)

gas Matter that has no fixed volume or shape; it conforms to the volume and shape of its container. (Section 1.2)

gas constant (R) The constant of proportionality in the ideal-gas equation. (Section 10.4)

geometric isomerism A form of isomerism in which compounds with the same type and number of atoms and the same chemical bonds have different spatial arrangements of these atoms and bonds. (Sections 23.4 and 24.4)

Gibbs free energy A thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy, in the form G = H – TS. For a change occurring at constant temperature and pressure, the change in free energy is ΔG = ΔH – TΔS. (Section 19.5)

glass An amorphous solid formed by fusion of SiO2, CaO, and Na2O. Other oxides may also be used to form glasses with differing characteristics. (Section 22.10)

glucose A polyhydroxy aldehyde whose formula is CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO; it is the most important of the monosaccharides. (Section 24.8)

glycogen The general name given to a group of polysaccharides of glucose that are synthesized in mammals and used to store energy from carbohydrates. (Section 24.7)

Graham's law A law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. (Section 10.8)

gray (Gy) The SI unit for radiation dose corresponding to the absorption of 1 J of energy per kilogram of biological material; 1 Gy = 100 rads. (Section 21.9)

green chemistry Chemistry that promotes the design and application of chemical products and processes that are compatible with human health and that preserve the environment. (Section 18.5)

greenhouse gases Gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit infrared radiation (radiant heat), “trapping” heat in the atmosphere. (Section 18.2)

ground state The lowest-energy, or most stable, state. (Section 6.3)

group Elements that are in the same column of the periodic table; elements within the same group or family exhibit similarities in their chemical behavior. (Section 2.5)

Haber process The catalyst system and conditions of temperature and pressure developed by Fritz Haber and coworkers for the formation of NH3 from H2 and N2. (Section 15.2)

half-life The time required for the concentration of a reactant substance to decrease to half its initial value; the time required for half of a sample of a particular radioisotope to decay. (Sections 14.4 and 21.4)

half-reaction An equation for either an oxidation or a reduction that explicitly shows the electrons involved, for example, Zn2+(aq) + 2 e → Zn(s). (Section 20.2)

Hall-Héroult process A process used to obtain aluminum by electrolysis of Al2O3 dissolved in molten cryolite, Na3AlF6. (Section 20.9)

halogens Members of group 7A in the periodic table. (Section 7.8)

hard water Water that contains appreciable concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+; these ions react with soaps to form an insoluble material. (Section 18.4)

heat The flow of energy from a body at higher temperature to one at lower temperature when they are placed in thermal contact. (Section 5.1)

heat capacity The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a sample of matter by 1 °C (or 1 K). (Section 5.5)

heat of fusion The enthalpy change, ΔH, for melting a solid. (Section 11.4)

heat of sublimation The enthalpy change, ΔH, for vaporization of a solid. (Section 11.4)

heat of vaporization The enthalpy change, ΔH, for vaporization of a liquid. (Section 11.4)

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation The rela tionship among the pH, pKa, and the concentrations of acid and conjugate base in an aqueous [base] solution: . (Section 17.2) [acid]

Henry's law A law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution, Sg, is proportional to the pressure of gas over the solution: Sg = kPg. (Section 13.3)

Hess's law The heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. (Section 5.6)

heterogeneous alloy An alloy in which the components are not distributed uniformly; instead, two or more distinct phases with characteristic compositions are present. (Section 12.3)

heterogeneous catalyst A catalyst that is in a different phase from that of the reactant substances. (Section 14.7)

heterogeneous equilibrium The equilibrium established between substances in two or more different phases, for example, between a gas and a solid or between a solid and a liquid. (Section 15.4)

hexagonal close packing A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as closely as possible. The close-packed layers adopt a two-layer repeating pattern, which leads to a primitive hexagonal unit cell. (Section 12.3)

high-spin complex A complex whose electrons populate the d orbitals to give the maximum number of unpaired electrons. (Section 23.6)

hole A vacancy in the valence band of a semiconductor, created by doping. (Section 12.7)

homogeneous catalyst A catalyst that is in the same phase as the reactant substances. (Section 14.7)

homogeneous equilibrium The equilibrium established between reactant and product substances that are all in the same phase. (Section 15.4)

Hund's rule A rule stating that electrons occupy degenerate orbitals in such a way as to maximize the number of electrons with the same spin. In other words, each orbital has one electron placed in it before pairing of electrons in orbitals occurs. (Section 6.8)

hybridization The mixing of different types of atomic orbitals to produce a set of equivalent hybrid orbitals. (Section 9.5)

hybrid orbital An orbital that results from the mixing of different kinds of atomic orbitals on the same atom. For example, an sp3 hybrid results from the mixing, or hybridizing, of one s orbital and three p orbitals. (Section 9.5)

hydration Solvation when the solvent is water. (Section 13.1)

hydride ion An ion formed by the addition of an electron to a hydrogen atom: H. (Section 7.7)

hydrocarbons Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. (Section 2.9)

hydrogen bonding Bonding that results from intermolecular attractions between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to an electronegative element. The most important examples involve OH, NH, and HF. (Section 11.2)

hydrolysis A reaction with water. When a cation or anion reacts with water, it changes the pH. (Sections 16.9 and 24.4)

hydronium ion (H3O+) The predominant form of the proton in aqueous solution. (Section 16.2)

hydrophilic Water attracting. The term is often used to describe a type of colloid. (Section 13.6)

hydrophobic Water repelling. The term is often used to describe a type of colloid. (Section 13.6)

hypothesis A tentative explanation of a series of observations or of a natural law. (Section 1.3)

ideal gas A hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior is completely described by the ideal-gas equation. (Section 10.4)

ideal-gas equation An equation of state for gases that embodies Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's hypothesis in the form PV = nRT. (Section 10.4)

ideal solution A solution that obeys Raoult's law. (Section 13.5)

immiscible liquids Liquids that do not dissolve in one another to a significant extent. (Section 13.3)

indicator A substance added to a solution that changes color when the added solute has reacted with all the solute present in solution. The most common type of indicator is an acid–base indicator whose color changes as a function of pH. (Section 4.6)

instantaneous rate The reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the average rate over an interval of time. (Section 14.2)

intensive property A property that is independent of the amount of material considered, for example, density. (Section 1.3)

interhalogens Compounds formed between two different halogen elements. Examples include IBr and BrF3. (Section 22.4)

intermediate A substance formed in one elementary step of a multistep mechanism and consumed in another; it is neither a reactant nor an ultimate product of the overall reaction. (Section 14.6)

intermetallic compound A homogeneous alloy with definite properties and a fixed composition. Intermetallic compounds are stoichiometric compounds that form between metallic elements. (Section 12.3)

intermolecular forces The short-range attractive forces operating between the particles that make up the units of a liquid or solid substance. These same forces also cause gases to liquefy or solidify at low temperatures and high pressures. (Chapter 11: Introduction)

internal energy The total energy possessed by a system. When a system undergoes a change, the change in internal energy, ΔE, is defined as the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ΔE = q + w. (Section 5.2)

interstitial alloy An alloy in which smaller atoms fit into spaces between larger atoms. The larger atoms are metallic elements and the smaller atoms are typically nonmetallic elements. (Section 12.3)

ion Electrically charged atom or group of atoms (polyatomic ion); ions can be positively or negatively charged, depending on whether electrons are lost (positive) or gained (negative) by the atoms. (Section 2.7)

ion–dipole force The force that exists between an ion and a neutral polar molecule that possesses a permanent dipole moment. (Section 11.2)

ion exchange A process by which ions in solution are exchanged for other ions held on the surface of an ion-exchange resin; the exchange of a hard-water cation such as Ca2+ for a soft-water cation such as Na+ is used to soften water. (Section 18.4)

ionic bond A bond between oppositely charged ions. The ions are formed from atoms by transfer of one or more electrons. (Section 8.1)

ionic compound A compound composed of cations and anions. (Section 2.7)

ionic hydrides Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with alkali metals and also the heavier alkaline earths (Ca, Sr, and Ba); these compounds contain the hydride ion, H. (Section 22.2)

ionic solids Solids that are composed of ions. (Section 12.1)

ionization energy The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state. (Section 7.4)

ionizing radiation Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule, thereby ionizing it. (Section 21.9)

ion-product constant For water, Kw is the product of the aquated hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion concentrations: [H+][OH] = Kw = 1.0 × 10–14 at 25 °C. (Section 16.3)

irreversible process A process that cannot be reversed to restore both the system and its surroundings to their original states. Any spontaneous process is irreversible. (Section 19.1)

isoelectronic series A series of atoms, ions, or molecules having the same number of electrons. (Section 7.3)

isomers Compounds whose molecules have the same overall composition but different structures. (Sections 2.9 and 23.4)

isothermal process One that occurs at constant temperature. (Section 19.1)

isotopes Atoms of the same element containing different numbers of neutrons and therefore having different masses. (Section 2.3)

joule (J) The SI unit of energy, 1 kg-m2/s2. A related unit is the calorie: 4.184 J = 1 cal. (Section 5.1)

Kelvin scale The absolute temperature scale; the SI unit for temperature is the kelvin. Zero on the Kelvin scale corresponds to –273.15 °C. (Section 1.4)

ketone A compound in which the carbonyl group (C ═ O) occurs at the interior of a carbon chain and is therefore flanked by carbon atoms. (Section 24.4)

kinetic energy The energy that an object possesses by virtue of its motion. (Section 5.1)

kinetic-molecular theory A set of assumptions about the nature of gases. These assumptions, when translated into mathematical form, yield the ideal-gas equation. (Section 10.7)

lanthanide contraction The gradual decrease in atomic and ionic radii with increasing atomic number among the lanthanide elements, atomic numbers 57 through 70. The decrease arises because of a gradual increase in effective nuclear charge through the lanthanide series. (Section 23.1)

lanthanide (rare earth) element Element in which the 4f subshell is only partially occupied. (Sections 6.8 and 6.9)

lattice energy The energy required to separate completely the ions in an ionic solid. (Section 8.2)

lattice points Points in a crystal all of which have identical environments. (Section 12.2)

lattice vectors The vectors ab, and c that define a crystal lattice. The position of any lattice point in a crystal can be represented by summing integer multiples of the lattice vectors. (Section 12.2)

law of constant composition A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of definite proportions. (Section 1.2)

law of definite proportions A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure substance is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of constant composition. (Section 1.2)

law of mass action The rules by which the equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of the concentrations of reactants and products, in accordance with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (Section 15.2)

Le Châtelier's principle A principle stating that when we disturb a system at chemical equilibrium, the relative concentrations of reactants and products shift so as to partially undo the effects of the disturbance. (Section 15.7)

levorotatory, or merely levo or l A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the left (counterclockwise). (Section 24.4)

Lewis acid An electron-pair acceptor. (Section 16.11)

Lewis base An electron-pair donor. (Section 16.11)

Lewis structure A representation of covalent bonding in a molecule that is drawn using Lewis symbols. Shared electron pairs are shown as lines, and unshared electron pairs are shown as pairs of dots. Only the valence-shell electrons are shown. (Section 8.3)

Lewis symbol (electron-dot symbol) The chemical symbol for an element, with a dot for each valence electron. (Section 8.1)

ligand An ion or molecule that coordinates to a metal atom or to a metal ion to form a complex. (Section 23.2)

lime-soda process A method used in large-scale water treatment to reduce water hardness by removing Mg2+ and Ca2+. The substances added to the water are lime, CaO [or slaked lime, Ca(OH)2], and soda ash, Na2CO3, in amounts determined by the concentrations of the undesired ions. (Section 18.4)

limiting reactant (limiting reagent) The reac-tant present in the smallest stoichiometric quantity in a mixture of reactants; the amount of product that can form is limited by the complete consumption of the limiting reactant. (Section 3.7)

line spectrum A spectrum that contains radiation at only certain specific wavelengths. (Section 6.3)

linkage isomers Structural isomers of coordination compounds in which a ligand differs in its mode of attachment to a metal ion. (Section 23.4)

lipid A nonpolar molecule derived from glycerol and fatty acids that is used by organisms for long-term energy storage. (Section 24.9)

liquid Matter that has a distinct volume but no specific shape. (Section 1.2)

liquid crystal A substance that exhibits one or more partially ordered liquid phases above the melting point of the solid form. By contrast, in nonliquid crystalline substances the liquid phase that forms upon melting is completely unordered. (Section 11.7)

lock-and-key model A model of enzyme ac tion in which the substrate molecule is pictured as fitting rather specifically into the active site on the enzyme. It is assumed that in being bound to the active site, the substrate is somehow activated for reaction. (Section 14.7)

low-spin complex A metal complex in which the electrons are paired in lower-energy orbitals. (Section 23.6)

magic numbers Numbers of protons and neutrons that result in very stable nuclei. (Section 21.2)

main-group elements Elements in the s andp blocks of the periodic table. (Section 6.9)

mass A measure of the amount of material in an object. It measures the resistance of an object to being moved. In SI units, mass is measured in kilograms. (Section 1.4)

mass defect The difference between the mass of a nucleus and the total masses of the individual nucleons that it contains. (Section 21.6)

mass number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a particular atom. (Section 2.3)

mass percentage The number of grams of solute in each 100 g of solution. (Section 13.4)

mass spectrometer An instrument used to measure the precise masses and relative amounts of atomic and molecular ions. (Section 2.4)

matter Anything that occupies space and has mass; the physical material of the universe. (Section 1.1)

matter waves The term used to describe the wave characteristics of a moving particle. (Section 6.4)

mean free path The average distance traveled by a gas molecule between collisions. (Section 10.8)

metal complex An assembly of a metal ion and the Lewis bases bonded to it. (Section 23.2)

metallic bond Bonding, usually in solid metals, in which the bonding electrons are relatively free to move throughout the three-dimensional structure. (Section 8.1)

metallic character The extent to which an element exhibits the physical and chemical properties characteristic of metals, for example, luster, malleability, ductility, and good thermal and electrical conductivity. (Section 7.6)

metallic elements (metals) Elements that are usually solids at room temperature, exhibit high electrical and heat conductivity, and appear lustrous. Most of the elements in the periodic table are metals. (Sections 2.5 and 12.1)

metallic hydrides Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with transition metals; these compounds contain the hydride ion, H. (Section 22.2)

metallic solids Solids that are composed of metal atoms. (Section 12.1)

metalloids Elements that lie along the diagonal line separating the metals from the nonmetals in the periodic table; the properties of metalloids are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals. (Section 2.5)

metallurgy The science of extracting metals from their natural sources by a combination of chemical and physical processes. It is also concerned with the properties and structures of metals and alloys. (Section 23.1)

metathesis (exchange) reaction A reaction in which two substances react through an exchange of their component ions: AX + BY → AY + BX. Precipitation and acid–base neutralization reactions are examples of metathesis reactions. (Section 4.2)

metric system A system of measurement used in science and in most countries. The meter and the gram are examples of metric units. (Section 1.4)

microstate The state of a system at a particular instant; one of many possible energetically equivalent ways to arrange the components of a system to achieve a particular state. (Section 19.3)

mineral A solid, inorganic substance occurring in nature, such as calcium carbonate, which occurs as calcite. (Section 23.1)

miscible liquids Liquids that mix in all proportions. (Section 13.3)

mixture A combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity. (Section 1.2)

molal boiling-point-elevation constant (Kb) A constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the increase in boiling point as a function of solution molality: Δ Tb = Kbm. (Section 13.5)

molal freezing-point-depression constant (Kf) A constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the decrease in freezing point as a function of solution molality: ΔTf = Kfm. (Section 13.5)

molality The concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent; abbreviated m. (Section 13.4)

molar heat capacity The heat required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by 1 °C. (Section 5.5)

molarity The concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution; abbreviated M. (Section 4.5)

molar mass The mass of one mole of a substance in grams; it is numerically equal to the formula weight in atomic mass units. (Section 3.4)

mole A collection of Avogadro's number (6.022 × 1023) of objects; for example, a mole of H2O is 6.022 × 1023 H2O molecules. (Section 3.4)

molecular compound A compound that con sists of molecules. (Section 2.6)

molecular equation A chemical equation in which the formula for each substance is written without regard for whether it is an electrolyte or a nonelectrolyte. (Section 4.2)

molecular formula A chemical formula that indicates the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance. (Section 2.6)

molecular geometry The arrangement in space of the atoms of a molecule. (Section 9.2)

molecular hydrides Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with nonmetals and metalloids. (Section 22.2)

molecularity The number of molecules that participate as reactants in an elementary reaction. (Section 14.6)

molecular orbital (MO) An allowed state for an electron in a molecule. According to molecular-orbital theory, a molecular orbital is entirely analogous to an atomic orbital, which is an allowed state for an electron in an atom. Most bonding molecular orbitals can be classified as σ or π, depending on the disposition of electron density with respect to the internuclear axis. (Section 9.7)

molecular-orbital diagram A diagram that shows the energies of molecular orbitals relative to the atomic orbitals from which they are derived; also called an energy-level diagram. (Section 9.7)

molecular-orbital theory A theory that ac counts for the allowed states for electrons in molecules. (Section 9.7)

molecular solids Solids that are composed of molecules. (Sections 12.1 and 12.6)

molecular weight The mass of the collection of atoms represented by the chemical formula for a molecule. (Section 3.3)

molecule A chemical combination of two or more atoms. (Sections 1.1 and 2.6)

mole fraction The ratio of the number of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles of all components; abbreviated X, with a subscript to identify the component. (Section 10.6)

momentum The product of the mass, m, and velocity, v, of an object. (Section 6.4)

monodentate ligand A ligand that binds to the metal ion via a single donor atom. It occupies one position in the coordination sphere. (Section 23.3)

monomers Molecules with low molecular weights, which can be joined together (polymerized) to form a polymer. (Section 12.8)

monosaccharide A simple sugar, most commonly containing six carbon atoms. The joining together of monosaccharide units by condensation reactions results in formation of polysaccharides. (Section 24.8)

nanomaterial A solid whose dimensions range from 1 to 100 nm and whose properties differ from those of a bulk material with the same composition. (Section 12.1)

natural gas A naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon. (Section 5.8)

nematic liquid crystalline phase A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned in the same general direction, along their long axes, but in which the ends of the molecules are not aligned. (Section 11.7)

Nernst equation An equation that relates the cell emf, E, to the standard emf, E°, and the reaction quotient, QE = E° – (RT/nF) ln Q. (Section 20.6)

net ionic equation A chemical equation for a solution reaction in which soluble strong electrolytes are written as ions and spectator ions are omitted. (Section 4.2)

neutralization reaction A reaction in which an acid and a base react in stoichiometrically equivalent amounts; the neutralization reaction between an acid and a metal hydroxide produces water and a salt. (Section 4.3)

neutron An electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom; it has approximately the same mass as a proton. (Section 2.3)

noble gases Members of group 8A in the periodic table. (Section 7.8)

node Points in an atom at which the electron density is zero. For example, the node in a 2s orbital is a spherical surface. (Section 6.6)

nonbonding pair In a Lewis structure a pair of electrons assigned completely to one atom; also called a lone pair. (Section 9.2)

nonelectrolyte A substance that does not ionize in water and consequently gives a nonconducting solution. (Section 4.1)

nonionizing radiation Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule. (Section 21.9)

nonmetallic elements (nonmetals) Elements in the upper right corner of the periodic table; nonmetals differ from metals in their physical and chemical properties. (Section 2.5)

nonpolar covalent bond A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally. (Section 8.4)

normal boiling point The boiling point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.5)

normal melting point The melting point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.6)

nuclear binding energy The energy required to decompose an atomic nucleus into its component protons and neutrons. (Section 21.6)

nuclear disintegration series A series of nuclear reactions that begins with an unstable nucleus and terminates with a stable one; also called a radioactive series. (Section 21.2)

nuclear model Model of the atom with a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and with electrons in the space outside the nucleus. (Section 2.2)

nuclear transmutation A conversion of one kind of nucleus to another. (Section 21.3)

nucleic acids Polymers of high molecular weight that carry genetic information and control protein synthesis. (Section 24.10)

nucleon A particle found in the nucleus of an atom. (Section 21.1)

nucleotide Compounds formed from a molecule of phosphoric acid, a sugar molecule, and an organic nitrogen base. Nucleotides form linear polymers called DNA and RNA, which are involved in protein synthesis and cell reproduction. (Section 24.10)

nucleus The very small, very dense, positively charged portion of an atom; it is composed of protons and neutrons. (Section 2.2)

octet rule A rule stating that bonded atoms tend to possess or share a total of eight valence-shell electrons. (Section 8.1)

optical isomerism A form of isomerism in which the two forms of a compound (stereoiso-mers) are nonsuperimposable mirror images. (Section 23.4)

optically active Possessing the ability to rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)

orbital An allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom; the term orbital is also used to describe the spatial distribution of the electron. An orbital is defined by the values of three quantum numbers: nl, and ml (Section 6.5)

organic chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds, typically containing carbon–carbon bonds. (Section 2.9; Chapter 24: Introduction)

osmosis The net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater solute concentration. (Section 13.5)

osmotic pressure The pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis from pure solvent into the solution. (Section 13.5)

Ostwald process An industrial process used to make nitric acid from ammonia. The NH3 is cat-alytically oxidized by O2 to form NO; NO in air is oxidized to NO2; HNO3 is formed in a dispropor-tionation reaction when NO2 dissolves in water. (Section 22.7)

overall reaction order The sum of the reaction orders of all the reactants appearing in the rate expression when the rate can be expressed as rate = k[A]a[B]b.... (Section 14.3)

overlap The extent to which atomic orbitals on different atoms share the same region of space. When the overlap between two orbitals is large, a strong bond may be formed. (Section 9.4)

oxidation A process in which a substance loses one or more electrons. (Section 4.4)

oxidation number (oxidation state) A positive or negative whole number assigned to an element in a molecule or ion on the basis of a set of formal rules; to some degree it reflects the positive or negative character of that atom. (Section 4.4)

oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction A chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of certain atoms change. (Section 4.4; Chapter 20: Introduction)

oxidizing agent, or oxidant The substance that is reduced and thereby causes the oxidation of some other substance in an oxidation-reduction reaction. (Section 20.1)

oxyacid A compound in which one or more OH groups, and possibly additional oxygen atoms, are bonded to a central atom. (Section 16.10)

oxyanion A polyatomic anion that contains one or more oxygen atoms. (Section 2.8)

ozone The name given to O3, an allotrope of oxygen. (Section 7.8)

paramagnetism A property that a substance possesses if it contains one or more unpaired electrons. A paramagnetic substance is drawn into a magnetic field. (Section 9.8)

partial pressure The pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture. (Section 10.6)

particle accelerator A device that uses strong magnetic and electrostatic fields to accelerate charged particles. (Section 21.3)

parts per billion (ppb) The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)

parts per million (ppm) The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 106 (million) grams of solution; equals milligrams of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)

pascal (Pa) The SI unit of pressure: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2. (Section 10.2)

Pauli exclusion principle A rule stating that no two electrons in an atom may have the same four quantum numbers (nlml, and ms). As a reflection of this principle, there can be no more than two electrons in any one atomic orbital. (Section 6.7)

peptide bond A bond formed between two amino acids. (Section 24.7)

percent ionization The percent of a substance that undergoes ionization on dissolution in water. The term applies to solutions of weak acids and bases. (Section 16.6)

percent yield The ratio of the actual (experimental) yield of a product to its theoretical (calculated) yield, multiplied by 100. (Section 3.7)

period The row of elements that lie in a horizontal row in the periodic table. (Section 2.5)

periodic table The arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, with elements having similar properties placed in vertical columns. (Section 2.5)

petroleum A naturally occurring combustible liquid composed of hundreds of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. (Section 5.8)

pH The negative log in base 10 of the aquated hydrogen ion concentration: pH = –log[H+]. (Section 16.4)

pH titration curve A graph of pH as a function of added titrant. (Section 17.3)

phase change The conversion of a substance from one state of matter to another. The phase changes we consider are melting and freezing (solid  liquid), sublimation and deposition, and vaporization and condensation (liquid  gas). (Section 11.4)

phase diagram A graphic representation of the equilibria among the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance as a function of temperature and pressure. (Section 11.6)

phospholipid A form of lipid molecule that contains charged phosphate groups. (Section 24.9)

photochemical smog A complex mixture of undesirable substances produced by the action of sunlight on an urban atmosphere polluted with automobile emissions. The major starting ingredients are nitrogen oxides and organic substances, notably olefins and aldehydes. (Section 18.2)

photodissociation The breaking of a molecule into two or more neutral fragments as a result of absorption of light. (Section 18.2)

photoelectric effect The emission of electrons from a metal surface induced by light. (Section 6.2)

photoionization The removal of an electron from an atom or molecule by absorption of light. (Section 18.2)

photon The smallest increment (a quantum) of radiant energy; a photon of light with frequency v has an energy equal to hv. (Section 6.2)

photosynthesis The process that occurs in plant leaves by which light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates and oxygen. (Section 23.3)

physical changes Changes (such as a phase change) that occur with no change in chemical composition. (Section 1.3)

physical properties Properties that can be measured without changing the composition of a substance, for example, color and freezing point. (Section 1.3)

pi (π) bond A covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated above and below the inter-nuclear axis. (Section 9.6)

pi (π) molecular orbital A molecular orbital that concentrates the electron density on opposite sides of an imaginary line that passes through the nuclei. (Section 9.8)

Planck's constant (h) The constant that relates the energy and frequency of a photon, E = hv. Its value is 6.626 × 10–34 J-s. (Section 6.2)

plastic A material that can be formed into particular shapes by application of heat and pressure. (Section 12.8)

polar covalent bond A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally. (Section 8.4)

polarizability The ease with which the electron cloud of an atom or a molecule is distorted by an outside influence, thereby inducing a dipole moment. (Section 11.2)

polar molecule A molecule that possesses a nonzero dipole moment. (Section 8.4)

polyatomic ion An electrically charged group of two or more atoms. (Section 2.7)

polydentate ligand A ligand in which two or more donor atoms can coordinate to the same metal ion. (Section 23.3)

polymer A large molecule of high molecular mass, formed by the joining together, or polymerization, of a large number of molecules of low molecular mass. The individual molecules forming the polymer are called monomers. (Sections 12.1 and 12.8)

polypeptide A polymer of amino acids that has a molecular weight of less than 10,000. (Section 24.7)

polyprotic acid A substance capable of dissociating more than one proton in water; H2SO4 is an example. (Section 16.6)

polysaccharide A substance made up of many monosaccharide units joined together. (Section 24.8)

porphyrin A complex derived from the porphine molecule. (Section 23.3)

positron emission A nuclear decay process where a positron, a particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge, symbol , is emitted from the nucleus. (Section 21.1)

potential energy The energy that an object possesses as a result of its composition or its position with respect to another object. (Section 5.1)

precipitate An insoluble substance that forms in, and separates from, a solution. (Section 4.2)

precipitation reaction A reaction that occurs between substances in solution in which one of the products is insoluble. (Section 4.2)

precision The closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the re-producibility of a measurement. (Section 1.5)

pressure A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry, pressure is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm) or torr: 760 torr = 1 atm; in SI units pressure is expressed in pascals (Pa). (Section 10.2)

pressure–volume (PV) work Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)

primary structure The sequence of amino acids along a protein chain. (Section 24.7)

primitive lattice A crystal lattice in which the lattice points are located only at the corners of each unit cell. (Section 12.2)

probability density (ψ2) A value that represents the probability that an electron will be found at a given point in space. Also called electron density. (Section 6.5)

product A substance produced in a chemical reaction; it appears to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation. (Section 3.1)

property A characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity. (Section 1.1)

protein A biopolymer formed from amino acids. (Section 24.7)

protium The most common isotope of hydrogen. (Section 22.2)

proton A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. (Section 2.3)

pure substance Matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties. (Section 1.2)

pyrometallurgy A process in which heat converts a mineral in an ore from one chemical form to another and eventually to the free metal. (Section 23.2)

qualitative analysis The determination of the presence or absence of a particular substance in a mixture. (Section 17.7)

quantitative analysis The determination of the amount of a given substance that is present in a sample. (Section 17.7)

quantum The smallest increment of radiant energy that may be absorbed or emitted; the magnitude of radiant energy is hv. (Section 6.2)

quaternary structure The structure of a protein resulting from the clustering of several individual protein chains into a final specific shape. (Section 24.7)

racemic mixture A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)

rad A measure of the energy absorbed from radiation by tissue or other biological material; 1 rad = transfer of 1 × 10–2 J of energy per kilogram of material. (Section 21.9)

radial probability function The probability that the electron will be found at a certain distance from the nucleus. (Section 6.6)

radioactive Possessing radioactivity, the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with accompanying emission of radiation. (Section 2.2; Chapter 21: Introduction)

radioactive series A series of nuclear reactions that begins with an unstable nucleus and terminates with a stable one. Also called nuclear disintegration series. (Section 21.2)

radioisotope An isotope that is radioactive; that is, it is undergoing nuclear changes with emission of radiation. (Section 21.1)

radionuclide A radioactive nuclide. (Section 21.1)

radiotracer A radioisotope that can be used to trace the path of an element in a chemical system. (Section 21.5)

Raoult's law A law stating that the partial pressure of a solvent over a solution, Psolution, is given by the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, P°solvent, times the mole fraction of a solvent in the solution, XsolventPsolution = XsolventP°solvent. (Section 13.5)

rare earth element See lanthanide element. (Sections 6.8 and 6.9)

rate constant A constant of proportionality between the reaction rate and the concentrations of reactants that appear in the rate law. (Section 14.3)

rate-determining step The slowest elementary step in a reaction mechanism. (Section 14.6)

rate law An equation that relates the reaction rate to the concentrations of reactants (and sometimes of products also). (Section 14.3)

reactant A starting substance in a chemical reaction; it appears to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation. (Section 3.1)

reaction mechanism A detailed picture, or model, of how the reaction occurs; that is, the order in which bonds are broken and formed and the changes in relative positions of the atoms as the reaction proceeds. (Section 14.6)

reaction order The power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised in a rate law. (Section 14.3)

reaction quotient (Q) The value that is obtained when concentrations of reactants and products are inserted into the equilibrium expression. If the concentrations are equilibrium concentrations, Q = K; otherwise, Q ≠ K. (Section 15.6)

reaction rate A measure of the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase in concentration of a product with time. (Section 14.2)

redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction A reaction in which certain atoms undergo changes in oxidation states. The substance increasing in oxidation state is oxidized; the substance decreasing in oxidation state is reduced. (Section 4.4; Chapter 20: Introduction)

reducing agent, or reductant The substance that is oxidized and thereby causes the reduction of some other substance in an oxidation-reduction reaction. (Section 20.1)

reduction A process in which a substance gains one or more electrons. (Section 4.4)

rem A measure of the biological damage caused by radiation; rems = rads × RBE. (Section 21.9)

renewable energy sources Energy such as solar energy, wind energy, and hydroelectric energy derived from essentially inexhaustible sources. (Section 5.8)

representative (main-group) element An element from within the s and p blocks of the periodic table (Figure 6.29). (Section 6.9)

resonance structures (resonance forms) Individual Lewis structures in cases where two or more Lewis structures are equally good descriptions of a single molecule. The resonance structures in such an instance are “averaged” to give a more accurate description of the real molecule. (Section 8.6)

reverse osmosis The process by which water molecules move under high pressure through a semi-permeable membrane from the more concentrated to the less concentrated solution. (Section 18.4)

reversible process A process that can go back and forth between states along exactly the same path; a system at equilibrium is reversible if equilibrium can be shifted by an infinitesimal modification of a variable such as temperature. (Section 19.1)

ribonucleic acid (RNA) A polynucleotide in which ribose is the sugar component. (Section 24.10)

root-mean-square (rms) speed (μ) The square root of the average of the squared speeds of the gas molecules in a gas sample. (Section 10.7)

rotational motion Movement of a molecule as though it is spinning like a top. (Section 19.3)

salinity A measure of the salt content of seawater, brine, or brackish water. It is equal to the mass in grams of dissolved salts present in 1 kg of seawater. (Section 18.3)

salt An ionic compound formed by replacing one or more hydrogens of an acid by other cations. (Section 4.3)

saponification Hydrolysis of an ester in the presence of a base. (Section 24.4)

saturated solution A solution in which undis-solved solute and dissolved solute are in equilibrium. (Section 13.2)

scientific law A concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a wide range of observations and experiences. (Section 1.3)

scientific method The general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories, and laws. (Section 1.3)

secondary structure The manner in which a protein is coiled or stretched. (Section 24.7)

second law of thermodynamics A statement of our experience that there is a direction to the way events occur in nature. When a process occurs spontaneously in one direction, it is nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. It is possible to state the second law in many different forms, but they all relate back to the same idea about spontaneity. One of the most common statements found in chemical contexts is that in any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases. (Section 19.2)

second-order reaction A reaction in which the overall reaction order (the sum of the concentration-term exponents) in the rate law is 2. (Section 14.4)

sigma (σ) bond A covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated along the internuclear axis. (Section 9.6)

sigma (σ) molecular orbital A molecular orbital that centers the electron density about an imaginary line passing through two nuclei. (Section 9.7)

significant figures The digits that indicate the precision with which a measurement is made; all digits of a measured quantity are significant, including the last digit, which is uncertain. (Section 1.5)

silica Common name for silicon dioxide. (Section 22.4)

silicates Compounds containing silicon and oxygen, structurally based on SiO4 tetrahedra. (Section 22.10)

single bond A covalent bond involving one electron pair. (Section 8.3)

SI units The preferred metric units for use in science. (Section 1.4)

smectic liquid crystalline phase A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned along their long axes and arranged in sheets, with the ends of the molecules aligned. There are several different kinds of smectic phases. (Section 12.8)

solid Matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume. (Section 1.2)

solubility The amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature to form a saturated solution. (Sections 4.2 and 13.2)

solubility-product constant (solubility product) (Ksp) An equilibrium constant related to the equilibrium between a solid salt and its ions in solution. It provides a quantitative measure of the solubility of a slightly soluble salt. (Section 17.4)

solute A substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution; it is normally the component of a solution present in the smaller amount. (Section 4.1)

solution A mixture of substances that has a uniform composition; a homogeneous mixture. (Section 1.2)

solution alloy A homogeneous alloy, where two or more elements are distributed randomly and uniformly throughout the solid. (Section 12.3)

solvation The clustering of solvent molecules around a solute particle. (Section 13.1)

solvent The dissolving medium of a solution; it is normally the component of a solution present in the greater amount. (Section 4.1)

specific heat (Cs) The heat capacity of 1 g of a substance; the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 °C. (Section 5.5)

spectator ions Ions that go through a reaction unchanged and that appear on both sides of the complete ionic equation. (Section 4.2)

spectrochemical series A list of ligands arranged in order of their abilities to split the d-orbital energies (using the terminology of the crystal-field model). (Section 23.6)

spectrum The distribution among various wavelengths of the radiant energy emitted or absorbed by an object. (Section 6.3)

spin magnetic quantum number (ms) A quantum number associated with the electron spin; it may have values of  or . (Section 6.7)

spin-pairing energy The energy required to pair an electron with another electron occupying an orbital. (Section 23.6)

spontaneous process A process that is capa-ble of proceeding in a given direction, as written or described, without needing to be driven by an outside source of energy. A process may be spontaneous even though it is very slow. (Section 19.1)

standard atmospheric pressure Defined as 760 torr or, in SI units, 101.325 kPa. (Section 10.2)

standard emf, also called the standard cell potential (E°) The emf of a cell when all reagents are at standard conditions. (Section 20.4)

standard enthalpy change (ΔH°) The change in enthalpy in a process when all reactants and products are in their stable forms at 1 atm pressure and a specified temperature, commonly 25 °C. (Section 5.7)

standard enthalpy of formation  The change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a substance from its elements, with all substances in their standard states. (Section 5.7)

standard free energy of formation  The change in free energy associated with the formation of a substance from its elements under standard conditions. (Section 19.5)

standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) An electrode based on the half-reaction 2 H+ (1 M) + 2 e → H2(1 atm). The standard electrode potential of the standard hydrogen electrode is defined as 0 V. (Section 20.4)

standard molar entropy (S°) The entropy value for a mole of a substance in its standard state. (Section 19.4)

standard reduction potential  The potential of a reduction half-reaction under standard conditions, measured relative to the standard hydrogen electrode. A standard reduction potential is also called a standard electrode potential. (Section 20.4)

standard solution A solution of known concentration. (Section 4.6)

standard temperature and pressure (STP) Defined as 0 °C and 1 atm pressure; frequently used as reference conditions for a gas. (Section 10.4)

starch The general name given to a group of polysaccharides that acts as energy-storage substances in plants. (Section 24.8)

state function A property of a system that is determined by its state or condition and not by how it got to that state; its value is fixed when temperature, pressure, composition, and physical form are specified; PVTE, and H are state functions. (Section 5.2)

states of matter The three forms that matter can assume: solid, liquid, and gas. (Section 1.2)

stereoisomers Compounds possessing the same formula and bonding arrangement but differing in the spatial arrangements of the atoms. (Section 23.4)

stoichiometry The relationships among the quantities of reactants and products involved in chemical reactions. (Chapter 3: Introduction)

stratosphere The region of the atmosphere directly above the troposphere. (Section 18.1)

strong acid An acid that ionizes completely in water. (Section 4.3)

strong base A base that ionizes completely in water. (Section 4.3)

strong electrolyte A substance (strong acids, strong bases, and most salts) that is completely ionized in solution. (Section 4.1)

structural formula A formula that shows not only the number and kinds of atoms in the molecule but also the arrangement (connections) of the atoms. (Section 2.6)

structural isomers Compounds possessing the same formula but differing in the bonding arrangements of the atoms. (Sections 23.4 and 24.2)

subatomic particles Particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons that are smaller than an atom. (Section 2.2)

subshell One or more orbitals with the same set of quantum numbers n and l. For example, we speak of the 2p subshell (n = 2, l = 1), which is composed of three orbitals (2px, 2py, and 2pz). (Section 6.5)

substitutional alloy A homogeneous (solution) alloy in which atoms of different elements randomly occupy sites in the lattice. (Section 23.6)

substitution reactions Reactions in which one atom (or group of atoms) replaces another atom (or group) within a molecule; substitution reactions are typical for alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. (Section 24.3)

substrate A substance that undergoes a reaction at the active site in an enzyme. (Section 14.7)

supercritical mass An amount of fissionable material larger than the critical mass. (Section 21.7)

supersaturated solution A solution containing more solute than an equivalent saturated solution. (Section 13.2)

surface tension The intermolecular, cohesive attraction that causes a liquid to minimize its surface area. (Section 11.3)

surroundings In thermodynamics, everything that lies outside the system that we study. (Section 5.1)

system In thermodynamics, the portion of the universe that we single out for study. We must be careful to state exactly what the system contains and what transfers of energy it may have with its surroundings. (Section 5.1)

termolecular reaction An elementary reaction that involves three molecules. Termolecular reactions are rare. (Section 14.6)

tertiary structure The overall shape of a large protein, specifically, the manner in which sections of the protein fold back upon themselves or intertwine. (Section 24.7)

theoretical yield The quantity of product that is calculated to form when all of the limiting reagent reacts. (Section 3.7)

theory A tested model or explanation that satisfactorily accounts for a certain set of phenomena. (Section 1.3)

thermochemistry The relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes. (Chapter 5: Introduction)

thermodynamics The study of energy and its transformation. (Chapter 5: Introduction)

thermonuclear reaction Another name for fusion reactions; reactions in which two light nuclei are joined to form a more massive one. (Section 21.8)

thermoplastic A polymeric material that can be readily reshaped by application of heat and pressure. (Section 12.8)

thermosetting plastic A plastic that, once formed in a particular mold, is not readily reshaped by application of heat and pressure. (Section 12.8)

third law of thermodynamics A law stating that the entropy of a pure, crystalline solid at absolute zero temperature is zero: S(0 K) = 0. (Section 19.3)

titration The process of reacting a solution of unknown concentration with one of known concentration (a standard solution). (Section 4.6)

torr A unit of pressure (1 torr = 1 mm Hg). (Section 10.2)

transition elements (transition metals) Elements in which the d orbitals are partially occupied. (Section 6.8)

transition state (activated complex) The particular arrangement of reactant and product molecules at the point of maximum energy in the rate-determining step of a reaction. (Section 14.5)

translational motion Movement in which an entire molecule moves in a definite direction. (Section 19.3)

transuranium elements Elements that follow uranium in the periodic table. (Section 21.3)

triple bond A covalent bond involving three electron pairs. (Section 8.3)

triple point The temperature at which solid, liquid, and gas phases coexist in equilibrium. (Section 11.6)

tritium The isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus contains a proton and two neutrons. (Section 22.2)

troposphere The region of Earth's atmosphere extending from the surface to about 12 km altitude. (Section 18.1)

Tyndall effect The scattering of a beam of visible light by the particles in a colloidal dispersion. (Section 13.6)

uncertainty principle A principle stating there is an inherent uncertainty in the precision with which we can simultaneously specify the position and momentum of a particle. This uncertainty is significant only for particles of extremely small mass, such as electrons. (Section 6.4)

unimolecular reaction An elementary reaction that involves a single molecule. (Section 14.6)

unit cell The smallest portion of a crystal that reproduces the structure of the entire crystal when repeated in different directions in space. It is the repeating unit or building block of the crystal lattice. (Section 12.2)

unsaturated solution A solution containing less solute than a saturated solution. (Section 13.2)

valence band A band of closely spaced molecular orbitals that is essentially fully occupied by electrons. (Section 12.7)

valence-bond theory A model of chemical bonding in which an electron-pair bond is formed between two atoms by the overlap of orbitals on the two atoms. (Section 9.4)

valence electrons The outermost electrons of an atom; those that occupy orbitals not occupied in the nearest noble-gas element of lower atomic number. The valence electrons are the ones the atom uses in bonding. (Section 6.8)

valence orbitals Orbitals that contain the outer-shell electrons of an atom. (Chapter 7: Introduction)

valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) model A model that accounts for the geometric arrangements of shared and unshared electron pairs around a central atom in terms of the repulsions between electron pairs. (Section 9.2)

van der Waals equation An equation of state for nonideal gases that is based on adding corrections to the ideal-gas equation. The correction terms account for intermolecular forces of attraction and for the volumes occupied by the gas molecules themselves. (Section 10.9)

vapor Gaseous state of any substance that normally exists as a liquid or solid. (Section 10.1)

vapor pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase. (Section 11.5)

vibrational motion Movement of the atoms within a molecule in which they move periodically toward and away from one another. (Section 19.3)

viscosity A measure of the resistance of fluids to flow. (Section 11.3)

volatile Tending to evaporate readily. (Section 11.5)

voltaic (galvanic) cell A device in which a spontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction occurs with the passage of electrons through an external circuit. (Section 20.3)

vulcanization The process of cross-linking polymer chains in rubber. (Section 12.6)

watt A unit of power; 1 W = 1 J/s. (Section 20.5)

wave function A mathematical description of an allowed energy state (an orbital) for an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom; it is usually symbolized by the Greek letter ψ. (Section 6.5)

wavelength The distance between identical points on successive waves. (Section 6.1)

weak acid An acid that only partly ionizes in water. (Section 4.3)

weak base A base that only partly ionizes in water. (Section 4.3)

weak electrolyte A substance that only partly ionizes in solution. (Section 4.1)

work The movement of an object against some force. (Section 5.1)