MCAT Organic Chemistry Review

Nomenclature

Practice Questions

1.    Which of the following lists the correct common names for ethanal, methanal, and ethanol, respectively?

1.    Acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethyl alcohol

2.    Ethyl alcohol, propionaldehyde, isopropyl alcohol

3.    Ethyl alcohol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde

4.    Isopropyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, formaldehyde

2.    Which of the following are considered terminal functional groups?

1.    Aldehydes

2.    Ketones

3.    Carboxylic acids

1.    I only

2.    III only

3.    I and III only

4.    I, II, and III

3.    If all prefixes were dropped, what would be the name of the parent root of this molecule?

1.    Propanoate

2.    Propanol

3.    Propanoic acid

4.    Propanoic anhydride

4.    What is the highest-priority functional group in this molecule?

1.    Anhydride

2.    Carbonyl

3.    Ketone

4.    Alkyl chain

5.    The IUPAC name for the following structure ends in what suffix?

1.    –ol

2.    –one

3.    –oic acid

4.    –yne

6.    Which of the two possibilities below correctly numbers the carbon backbone of this molecule?

1.    Numbering Scheme 1

2.    Numbering Scheme 2

3.    Numbering Schemes 1 and 2 are equivalent and correct

4.    Numbering Schemes 1 and 2 are equivalent and incorrect.

7.    What is the proper structure for 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid (tartaric acid)?

1.   

2.   

3.   

4.   

8.    The common names for the aldehydes and carboxylic acids that contain only one carbon start with which prefix?

1.    Para–

2.    Form–

3.    Meth–

4.    Acet–

9.    What is the IUPAC name for the following structure?

1.    2,5-dimethylheptane

2.    2-ethyl-5-methylhexane

3.    3,6-dimethylheptane

4.    5-ethyl-2-methylhexane

10.What is the IUPAC name for the following structure?

1.    4-isopropyl-2-methylhexane

2.    3-isopropyl-5-methylhexane

3.    2,2,5-trimethyl-3-ethylhexane

4.    3-ethyl-2,2,5-trimethylhexane

11.The IUPAC name for the following structure starts with what prefix?

1.    3-methyl-

2.    2-methyl-

3.    2-hydroxy-

4.    3-hydroxy-

12.NADH is a coenzyme that releases high-energy electrons into the electron transport chain. It is known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or diphosphopyridine nucleotide. What functional groups exist in this molecule?

1.    Phosphate

2.    Amide

3.    Anhydride

1.    I only

2.    II only

3.    I and II only

4.    I, II, and III

13.Pyruvic acid, one of the end products of glycolysis, is commonly called acetylformic acid. Based on its common name, the structure of pyruvic acid must be:

1.   

2.   

3.   

4.   

14.Which of the following are common names for carboxylic acid derivatives?

1.    Acetic anhydride

2.    Formic acid

3.    Methyl formate

1.    I and II only

2.    I and III only

3.    II and III only

4.    I, II, and III

15.Consider the name 2,3-diethylpentane. Based on the structure implied by this name, the correct IUPAC name for this molecule is:

1.    2,3-diethylpentane.

2.    1,2-diethylbutane.

3.    3-ethyl-4-methylhexane.

4.    3-methyl-4-ethylhexane.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS