SAT Subject Test Chemistry
REVIEW OF MAJOR TOPICS
Some Representative Groups and Families
1. The most active nonmetallic element is
2. The order of decreasing activity of the halogens is
(A) Cl, I, Br
(B) F, Cl, Br, I
(C) Cl, F, Br, I
(D) Cl, Br, I, F
3. A light-sensitive substance used on photographic films has the formula
4. Sulfur dioxide is the anhydride of
(A) hydrosulfuric acid
(B) sulfurous acid
(C) sulfuric acid
(D) hyposulfurous acid
5. The charring action of sulfuric acid is due to its being
(A) a strong acid
(B) an oxidizing agent
(C) a reducing agent
(D) a dehydrating agent
6. Ammonia is prepared commercially by the
(A) decomposition of salts
(B) arc process
(C) combining of hydrogen and nitrogen gases (Haber process)
(D) contact process
7. A nitrogen compound that has a color is
(A) nitric oxide
(B) nitrous oxide
(C) nitrogen dioxide
8. If a student heats a mixture of ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide in a test tube, he will detect
(A) no reaction
(B) the odor of ammonia
(C) the odor of rotten eggs
(D) nitric acid fumes
9. The difference between ammonia and the ammonium ion is
(A) an electron
(B) a neutron
(C) a proton
10. An important ore of iron is
11. A reducing agent used in the blast furnace is
12. The metal with the electron shell configuration of [Ar] 3d10 s1 is
13. The placement of the halogen family in the Periodic Table explains which of the following statements?
I. The most active nonmetallic element in the periodic table is fluorine.
II. The normal physical state of the halogens goes from a solid to a gaseous state as you go down the family.
III. The halogen elements become ions by filling the outermost d orbital.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II
(D) II and III
(E) I and III
14. Which of the following properties are attributed to most metals?
I. They are conductors of heat and electricity.
II. They are malleable and ductile.
III. They are all solids at room temperature.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II
(D) I and III
(E) I, II, and III
Answers and Explanations
1. (B) Fluorine is the most active nonmetallic element because of its atomic structure. It needs only one electron to complete its outer shell and has the highest electronegativity.
2. (B) The order of activity of the halogens is from the smallest atomic radii to the largest straight down the family on the Periodic Table.
3. (A) Silver bromide, like many of the halogen salts, is light sensitive and is used in photographic films.
4. (B) The reaction of SO2 with water forms sulfurous acid. The equation is: SO2 + H2O → H2SO3.
5. (D) Sulfuric acid is a strong dehydrating agent and draws water to itself so strongly that is can char sucrose by withdrawing the hydrogen and oxygen from C12H22O11.
6. (C) The combining of hydrogen and nitrogen gases (Haber proess) is used to prepare ammonia commercially
7. (C) The only nitrogen compound in the list that has a reddish brown color is nitrogen dioxide.
8. (B) The reaction of these two chemicals results in the production of ammonium hydroxide, which is unstable and forms ammonia gas and H2O. The reaction is: 2NH4Cl + Ca (OH)2 → 2NH4OH + CaCl2
Then, because the ammonium hydroxide is unstable at room temperatures, this reaction occurs: NH4OH → NH3↑ + H2O.
9. (C) The ammonia molecule is trigonal pyramidal with an unshared pair of electrons in one corner of the pyramid. This negative charge attracts a H+ to form the ammonium ion, NH4+.
10. (C) An important ore of iron is hematite.
11. (B) CO, carbon monoxide, is used in the blast furnace as a reducing agent to react with oxide impurities.
12. (A) The metal with the given electron shell configuration is Cu. Cu, Ag, and Au are all in Group 11, but Ag and Au have higher atomic numbers and different electron shell configurations.
13. (A) Because the halogen family’s physical state goes from a gas to a solid and they form ions by completing the outer p orbital, the only true statement is I, that fluorine is the most active.
14. (C) Not all metals are solids at room temperature. Most notable is mercury, which is a liquid at room temperature.