SAT Subject Test Chemistry

PART 2

REVIEW OF MAJOR TOPICS

CHAPTER 14

Carbon and Organic Chemistry

Practice Exercises

1. Carbon atoms usually

(A) lose 4 electrons

(B) gain 4 electrons

(C) form 4 covalent bonds

(D) share the 2 electrons in the first principal energy level

2. Coke is produced from bituminous coal by

(A) cracking

(B) synthesis

(C) substitution

(D) destructive distillation

3. The usual method for preparing carbon dioxide in the laboratory is

(A) heating a carbonate

(B) fermentation

(C) reacting an acid and a carbonate

(D) burning carbonaceous materials

4. The precipitate formed when carbon dioxide is bubbled into limewater is

(A) CaCl2

(B) H2CO3

(C) CaO

(D) CaCO3

5. The “lead” in a lead pencil is

(A) bone black

(B) graphite and clay

(C) lead oxide

(D) lead peroxide

6. The first and simplest alkane is

(A) ethane

(B) methane

(C) C2H2

(D) methene

(E) CCl4

7. Slight oxidation of a primary alcohol gives

(A) a ketone

(B) an organic acid

(C) an ether

(D) an aldehyde

(E) an ester

8. The characteristic group of an organic ester is

(A) —CO—

(B) —COOH

(C) —CHO

(D) —O—

(E) —COO—

9. The organic acid that can be made from ethanol is

(A) acetic acid

(B) formic acid

(C) C3H7OH

(D) found in bees and ants

(E) butanoic acid

10. An ester can be prepared by the reaction of

(A) two alcohols

(B) an alcohol and an aldehyde

(C) an alcohol and an organic acid

(D) an organic acid and an aldehyde

(E) an acid and a ketone

11. Compounds that have the same composition but differ in their structural formulas

(A) are used for substitution products

(B) are called isomers

(C) are called polymers

(D) have the same properties

(E) are usually alkanes

12. Ethene is the first member of the

(A) alkane series

(B) saturated hydrocarbons

(C) alkyne series

(D) unsaturated hydrocarbons

(E) aromatic hydrocarbons

The following questions are in the format that is used on the SAT Subject Test in Chemistry. If you are not familiar with these types of questions, study before doing the remainder of the review questions.

Directions: Each of the following sets of lettered choices refers to the numbered questions immediately below it. For each numbered item, choose the one lettered choice that fits it best. Every choice in a set may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

Questions 13–20

(A) CH3–CH2–CH3

(C) CH3–O–C3H7

13. Which organic structure is ethylamine?

14. Which organic structure is methyl propyl ether (methoxypropane)?

15. Which organic structure is propane?

16. Which organic structure is ethanoic acid?

17. Which organic structure is propanone?

Questions 18–20

Using the same choices, match the functional groups named to the structure that contains it.

18. Which structure contains an organic acid functional group?

19. Which structure contains a ketone grouping?

20. Which structure contains an amine group?

Answers and Explanations

1. (C) Because carbon has 4 electrons in its outer energy level, it usually forms four covalent bonds to fill each of four sp3 orbitals.

2. (D) Bituminous coal has too much gaseous impurities to burn at a high temperature needed to refine iron ore. It is heated in coke ovens to form the hotter and cleaner burning coke.

3. (C) The reaction of an acid and a carbonate is the usual way to prepare CO2.

4. (D) The reaction is: CO2 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3↓ + H2O.

5. (B) The lead in a lead pencil is a mixture of graphite and clay.

6. (B) The first alkane is methane, CH4.

7. (D) The slight oxidation of a primary alcohol produced an aldehyde.

     An example is :

8. (E) The functional group for an ester is shown as –COO–.

9. (A) Ethanol can be oxidized into the organic acid enthanoic acid, which has the common name of acetic acid.

10. (C) The formation of an ester is from the reaction of an organic acid and an alcohol. The general equation is:

11. (B) Isomers are compounds that have the same composition but differ in their structural formulas.

12. (D) Ethene is the first member of the alkene series that has one double bond. Because it has a double bond, it is said to be unsaturated. The alkane series, which has all single bonds between the carbon atoms in the chain, is called a saturated series.

13. (E) The NH2 group, called an amine group, makes this structure ethylamine. This type of organic structure is called an amide.

14. (C) The methyl (CH3–) group and the propyl (–C3H7) group attached to a center oxygen (–O–) makes this methyl propyl ether (methoxypropane).

15. (A) Propane is the third member of the alkane series, which is made up of a chain of single-bonded carbons and hydrogens with the general formula of CnH2n +2.

16. (B) Ethanoic acid is composed of a methyl group attached to the carboxyl group (-COOH). The latter is the functional group for an organic acid.

17. (D) The propan- part of the name tells you its basic structure is from propane, which is a three-carbon alkane. The
–one part tells you it is a ketone that has a double-bonded oxygen attached to the second carbon in the chain.

18. (B) The ethanoic acid contains the carboxyl group (-COOH) that is shown in (B). This is the identifying functional group for organic acids.

19. (D) The functional group for ketones is a carbon in the chain double bonded to an oxygen atom (––). The number in the front tells you which carbon has the double-bonded oxygen attached to it.

20. (E) The amine group is the nitrogen with two hydrogens, (-NH2), attached to a chain carbon. These are basic to the amino acid structures in the body.