SAT Subject Test Chemistry
REVIEW OF MAJOR TOPICS
Gases and the Gas Laws
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GASES
Measuring the Pressure of a Gas
Pressure is defined as force per unit area. With respect to the atmosphere, pressure is the result of the weight of a mixture of gases. This pressure, which is called atmospheric pressure, air pressure, or barometric pressure , is approximately equal to the weight of a kilogram mass on every square centimeter of surface exposed to it. This weight is about 10 newtons.
The pressure of the atmosphere varies with altitude. At higher altitudes, the weight of the overlying atmosphere is less, so the pressure is less. Air pressure also varies somewhat with weather conditions as low- and high-pressure areas move with weather fronts. On the average, however, the air pressure at sea level can support a column of mercury 760 millimeters in height. This average sea-level air pressure is known as normal atmospheric pressure, also called standard pressure.
The instrument most commonly used for measuring air pressure is the mercury barometer. The diagram below shows how it operates. Atmospheric pressure is exerted on the mercury in the dish, and this in turn holds the column of mercury up in the tube. This column at standard pressure will measure 760 millimeters above the level of the mercury in the dish below.
Read the top of the meniscus for mercury but the bottom of the meniscus for water.
In gas-law problems pressure may be expressed in various units. One standard atmosphere (1 atm) is equal to 760 millimeters of mercury (760 mm Hg) or 760 torr, a unit named for Evangelista Torricelli. In the SI system, the unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa), named in honor of the scientist of the same name, and standard pressure is 101,325 pascals or 101.325 kilopascals (kPa). One pascal (Pa) is defined as the pressure exerted by the force of one newton (1N) acting on an area of one square meter. In many cases, as in atmospheric pressure, it is more convenient to express pressure in kilopascals (kPa).
A device similar to the barometer can be used to measure the pressure of a gas in a confined container. This apparatus, called a manometer , is illustrated below. A manometer is basically a U-tube containing mercury or some other liquid. When both ends are open to the air, as in (1) in the diagram, the level of the liquid will be the same on both sides since the same pressure is being exerted on both ends of the tube. In (2) and (3), a vessel is connected to one end of the U-tube. Now the height of the mercury column serves as a means of reading the pressure inside the vessel if the atmospheric pressure is known. When the pressure inside the vessel is the same as the atmospheric pressure outside, the levels of liquid are the same. When the pressure inside is greater than outside, the column of liquid will be higher on the side that is exposed to the air, as in (2). Conversely, when the pressure inside the vessel is less than the outside atmospheric pressure, the additional pressure will force the liquid to a higher level on the side near the vessel, as in (3).
Know how to calculate the pressure in a closed vessel like in the manometer shown.
By indirect observations, the Kinetic-Molecular Theory has been arrived at to explain the forces between molecules and the energy the molecules possess. There are three basic assumptions to the Kinetic-Molecular Theory:
1. Matter in all its forms (solid, liquid, and gas) is composed of extremely small particles. In many cases these are called molecules. The space occupied by the gas particles themselves is ignored in comparison with the volume of the space in which they are contained.
2. The particles of matter are in constant motion. In solids, this motion is restricted to a small space. In liquids, the particles have a more random pattern but still are restricted to a kind of rolling over one another. In a gas, the particles are in continuous, random, straight-line motion.
3. When these particles collide with each other or with the walls of the container, there is no loss of energy.
Know these basic assumptions of the Kinetic-Molecular Theory.
Some Particular Properties of Gases
As the temperature of a gas is increased, its kinetic energy is increased, thereby increasing the random motion. At a particular temperature not all the particles have the same kinetic energy, but the temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles. A graph of the various kinetic energies resembles a normal bell-shaped curve with the average found at the peak of the curve (see Figure 20).
When you read the temperature of a substance, you are measuring its average kinetic energy.
Figure 20. Molecular Speed Distribution in a Gas at Different Temperatures
Diffusion means spreading out.
When the temperature is lowered, the gas reaches a point at which the kinetic energy can no longer overcome the attractive forces between the particles (or molecules) and the gas condenses to a liquid. The temperature at which this condensation occurs is related to the type of substance the gas is composed of and the type of bonding in the molecules themselves. This relationship of bond type to condensation point (or boiling point) is pointed out in Chapter 3, “Bonding.”
The random motion of gases in moving from one position to another is referred to as diffusion. You know that, if a bottle of perfume is opened in one corner of a room, the perfume, that is, its molecules, will move or diffuse to all parts of the room in time. The rate of diffusion is the rate of the mixing of gases.
Effusion is the term used to describe the passage of a gas through a tiny orifice into an evacuated chamber. The rate of effusion measures the speed at which the gas is transferred into the chamber.
Effusion means passing of a gas through an orifice (like through the neck of a balloon).