SAT Subject Test Chemistry

PART 2

REVIEW OF MAJOR TOPICS

CHAPTER 8

Chemical Reactions and Thermochemistry

THERMOCHEMISTRY

In general, all chemical reactions either liberate or absorb heat. The origin of chemical energy lies in the position and motion of atoms, molecules, and subatomic particles. The total energy possessed by a molecule is the sum of all the forms of potential and kinetic energy associated with it.

The energy changes in a reaction are due, to a large extent, to the changes in potential energy that accompany the breaking of chemical bonds in reactants to form new bonds in products.

The molecule may also have rotational, vibrational, and translational energy, along with some nuclear energy sources. All these make up the total energy of molecules. In beginning chemistry, the greatest concern in reactions is the electronic energy involved in the making and breaking of chemical bonds.

Because it is virtually impossible to measure the total energy of molecules, the energy change is usually the experimental data that we deal with in reactions. This change in quantity of energy is known as the change in enthalpy (heat content) of the chemical system and is symbolized by ΔH.