SAT Subject Test Chemistry

PART 2

REVIEW OF MAJOR TOPICS

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Chemistry

Practice Exercises

1. 1.2 mg

= ____________

g

2. 6.3 cm

= ____________

mm

3. 5.12 m

= ____________

cm

4. 32°C

= ____________

K

5. 6.111 mL

= ____________

L

6. 1 km

= ____________

mm

7. 1.03 kg

= ____________

g

8. 0.003 g

= ____________

kg

9. 22.4 L

= ____________

mL

10. 10,013 cm

= ____________

km

11. The density of CCl(carbon tetrachloride) is 1.58 grams/milliliter. What will 100. milliliters of CCl4 weigh?

12. The mass of a piece of sulfur is 227 grams. When it was submerged in a graduated cylinder containing 50.0 milliliters of H2O, the level rose to 150. milliliters. What is the density (g/mL) of the sulfur?

13. (a) A box 20.0 centimeters × 20.0 centimeters × 5.08 inches has what volume in cubic centimeters?

(b) What mass, in grams, of H2O @ 4°C will the box hold?

14. Set up the following using the dimensional analysis method:

15. How many significant figures are in each of the following?

(a) 1.01

(b) 200.0

(c) 0.0021

(d) 0.0230

16. A baking powder can carries the statement, “Ingredients: corn starch, sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, and sodium aluminum sulfate.” Therefore, this baking powder is

(A) a compound

(B) a mixture

(C) a molecule

(D) a mixture of elements

17. Which of the following is a physical property of sugar?

(A) It decomposes readily.

(B) Its composition is carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

(C) It turns black with concentrated H2SO4.

(D) It can be decomposed with heat.

(E) It is a white crystalline solid.

18. A substance that can be further simplified using ordinary means may be either

(A) an element or a compound

(B) an element or a mixture

(C) a mixture or a compound

(D) a mixture or an atom

19. Chemical action may involve all of the following EXCEPT

(A) combining of atoms of elements to form a molecule

(B) separation of the molecules in a mixture

(C) breaking down compounds into elements

(D) reacting a compound and an element to form a new compound and a new element

20. The energy of a system can be

(A) easily changed to mass

(B) transformed into a different form

(C) measured only as potential energy

(D) measured only as kinetic energy

21. If the ΔH of a reaction is a negative quantity, the reaction is definitely

(A) endothermic

(B) unstable

(C) exothermic

(D) reversible

22. Write E for each element, C for each compound, and M for each mixture in the following list:

Water

Aluminum oxide

Hydrochloric acid

Wine

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

Soil

Carbon dioxide

Tin

Silver chloride

Air

Potassium

The following questions are in the format that is used on the SAT Subject Test in Chemistry. If you are not familiar with these types of questions, study “What Types of Questions Appear on the Test” in the Introduction before doing the remainder of the review questions.

23. If the graphic representation of the energy levels of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction looks like this:

Which of the following statements are true?

  I. The activation energy for the forward reaction is represented by the “a” portion.

 II. The activation energy for the forward reaction is represented by the “b” portion of the graph.

III. The “a” portion is the energy given off in the forward reaction.

(A) I only

(B) II only

(C) I and III only

(D) II and III only

(E) I, II, and III

24. A substance that can be further simplified by ordinary chemical means may be which of the following?

  I. An element or a compound

 II. A mixture or a compound

III. An element of a mixture

(A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II only

(E) I, II, and III

Questions 25–29 refer to the following terms.

(A) Density

(B) A solid

(C) Volume

(D) Weight

(E) Matter

25. Gives the mass per unit volume

26. Has mass and a definite size and shape

27. Gives the space occupied

28. Has mass and occupies space

29. Defined as a measure of the mass times the gravitational force

Directions:

(See the explanation for this type of question and the examples on Part B of the Introduction before attempting questions 30–32.)

Every question below contains two statements, I in the left-hand column and II in the right-hand column. For each question, decide if statement I is true or false and whether statement II is true or false, and fill in the corresponding T or F ovals in the answer spaces. *Fill in oval CE only if statement II is a correct explanation of statement I.

 

I

 

II

30.

A substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined is called a mixture

BECAUSE

the properties of the constituents of a mixture are retained.

31.

A chemical change involves change in the composition and molecular structure of the reactants

BECAUSE

in a chemical reaction bonds are broken and new substances and new bonds are formed.

32.

The burning of paper is a physical change

BECAUSE

when a chemical change occurs energy is either gained or lost by the reactants.

*Fill in oval CE only if II is a correct explanation of I.

Answers and Explanations

1. 0.0012 g

2. 63mm

3. 512 cm

4. 305 K 
32°C + 273 = 305 K

5. 0.006111 L

6. 1,000,000 or 1 × 106 mm

7. 1.03 × 103 kg

8. .000003 kg or 3 × 10–6 kg

9. 22,400 or 2.24 × 104 mL

10. .10013 km

11. 158 g Because the density is 1.58 g/mL and you want the weight of 100 mL, you use the formula that density × volume = weight.

Inserting the values gives

12. 2.27 g/mL 

To find the volume of 227 g of sulfur, subtract the volume of water before from the volume after immersion.

                                       150. mL − 50. mL = 100. mL
Then

13. (a) 5,160 cm3    (b) 5,160 g 

(a) Convert 5.08 in. to centimeters:

Then 20.0 cm × 20.0 cm × 12.9 cm = 5,160 cm3

(b) Since 1.00 cm3 of water at 4°C has a mass of 1.00 g, then 5,160 cm3 = 5,160 g

14. 

15. (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 3

16. (B) Because all the substances are compounds.

17. (E) Because all the other statements refer to chemical properties of sugar.

18. (C) Neither an element nor an atom can be simplified into anything else by ordinary means.

19. (B) Separating molecules in a mixture (e.g., evaporating water from a sugar solution) does not involve a chemical change action.

20. (B) Because the other choices are not true. Transforming energy into different forms can be demonstrated by batteries in a flashlight, changing chemical energy into electrical energy and then into light energy.

21. (C) Anytime the Δof a reaction is negative, the reaction gives off energy and, it is classified as exothermic.

22. 

23. (A) In the diagram part of question 23 

“a” is the activation energy for the forward reaction. The sum of “a” and “b” is the activation energy for the reverse reaction, and “b” alone is the energy given off by the forward reaction.

24. (B) Because an element is a basic building block in the periodic table, it cannot be further simplified by ordinary chemical means. A compound and a mixture can be simplified by chemical and physical means, respectively.

25. (A) The mass per unit volume is the definition of density.

26. (B) Matter that has mass and a definite size and shape is called a solid.

27. (C) The space occupied by a substance is called its volume.

28. (E) That a substance occupies space and mass is the basic definition of all matter.

29. (D) Weight is the product of mass times a gravitational force. In outer space where there is no gravitational force, we say a mass is weightless.

30. (F, T) The column I statement is false, because a mixture is elements and/or compounds in physical contact (without bonds) with one another.

31. (T, T, C E) Chemical reactions involve the changing of molecular structures by the breaking of bonds and the formation of new bonds.

32. (F, T) Burning paper is a chemical reaction not a physical one. The statement in column II is true, because a chemical change always involves an energy change.