AP English Language

STEP 4
Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

CHAPTER 9

Comprehensive Review—Argument

Rapid Review

• Argument can be ethical, emotional, or logical.

• Inductive reasoning forms generalizations.

• Deductive reasoning reaches conclusions based on given premises.

• A premise is a proven proposition or one that is taken for granted.

• A syllogism is the format of a formal argument:

— All A is C.

— B is A.

— Therefore, B is C.

• Logical fallacies are mistakes in reasoning.

• Read editorials and ads to try to locate any fallacies that may be present.

• Do practice exercises with induction and deduction and analogy.

• All argument has a rhetorical context: the writer, the occasion, and the audience.

• When reading arguments, locate judgments and find supporting evidence.

• Be certain to recognize and to separate fact from interpretation.

• Evaluate the argument according to the given rubrics.

• When writing an argument, make certain to:

— address the prompt

— take a position

— state your thesis

— develop your position with evidence