Gwynne's Grammar: The Ultimate Introduction to Grammar and the Writing of Good English (2014)

Part III. Appendices: Some Useful Lists

Chapter 2. The Irregular Verbs

The following aims at being a complete list. It may be noted that except where the verbs have prefixes as in “awake,” “misspell” and “understand,” they are all single-syllable words and almost always single-syllable in the past tense and past participle as well as in the base form.

Because some irregular verbs are less common than others, the most common ones are highlighted as the ones to be learnt first so that improvement in some of the commonest usages in the English language can be as quick as possible. Where two alternatives are given, the first one is the normal usage in Britain. In America, the second one tends to be more normal.

Learning these by heart is much to be preferred to picking them up gradually, which in any case is not always done accurately.

Base Form | Past Tense | Past Participle

awake | awoke | awoken

be | was, were | been

bear | bore | borne

beat | beat | beaten/beat1

become | became | become

begin | began | begun

bend | bent | bent

beset | beset | beset

bet | bet | bet

bid | bid/bade | bid/bidden

bind | bound | bound

bite | bit | bitten

bleed | bled | bled

blow | blew | blown

break | broke | broken

breed | bred | bred

bring | brought | brought

broadcast | broadcast | broadcast

build | built | built

burn | burnt/burned | burnt/burned

burst | burst | burst

buy | bought | bought

cast | cast | cast

catch | caught | caught

choose | chose | chosen

cling | clung | clung

come | came | come

cost | cost | cost

creep | crept | crept

cut | cut | cut

deal | dealt | dealt

dig | dug | dug

dive | dived | dived

do | did | done

draw | drew | drawn

dream | dreamt/dreamed | dreamt/dreamed

drink | drank | drunk

drive | drove | driven

eat | ate | eaten

fall | fell | fallen

feed | fed | fed

feel | felt | felt

fight | fought | fought

find | found | found

fit | fit | fit

flee | fled | fled

fling | flung | flung

fly | flew | flown

forbid | forbade | forbidden

forget | forgot | forgotten

forgive | forgave | forgiven

forgo | forwent | forgone

forsake | forsook | forsaken

freeze | froze | frozen

get | got | got/gotten2

give | gave | given

go | went | gone

grind | ground | ground

grow | grew | grown

hang | hung | hung

have | had | had

hear | heard | heard

hide | hid | hidden

hit | hit | hit

hold | held | held

hurt | hurt | hurt

keep | kept | kept

kneel | knelt/kneeled | knelt/kneeled

knit | knitted/knit | knitted/knit

know | knew | known

lay | laid | laid

lead | led | led

leap | leapt/leaped | leapt/leaped

learn | learnt/learned | learnt/learned

leave | left | left

lend | lent | lent

let | let | let

lie | lay | lain

light | lit/lighted | lit/lighted

lose | lost | lost

make | made | made

mean | meant | meant

meet | met | met

misspell | misspelt/misspelled | misspelt/misspelled

mistake | mistook | mistaken

mow | mowed | mown/mowed

overcome | overcame | overcome

overdo | overdid | overdone

overtake | overtook | overtaken

overthrow | overthrew | overthrown

pay | paid | paid

prove | proved | proved/proven

put | put | put

quit | quit | quit

read | read | read

rid | rid | rid/ridden

ride | rode | ridden

ring | rang | rung

rise | rose | risen

run | ran | run

saw | sawed | sawn/sawed

say | said | said

see | saw | seen

seek | sought | sought

sell | sold | sold

send | sent | sent

set | set | set

sew | sewed | sewn

shake | shook | shaken

shave | shaved | shaved/shaven

shear | sheared/shore3 | shorn

shed | shed | shed

shine | shone | shone

shoe | shod/shoed | shod/shoed

shoot | shot | shot

show | showed | shown/showed

shrink | shrank | shrunk

shut | shut | shut

sing | sang | sung

sink | sank | sunk

sit | sat | sat

slay | slew | slain

sleep | slept | slept

slide | slid | slid

sling | slung | slung

slit | slit | slit

smite | smote | smitten

sow | sowed | sown/sowed

speak | spoke | spoken

speed | sped | sped

spend | spent | spent

spill | spilt/spilled | spilt/spilled

spin | spun | spun

spit | spat/spit | spat/spit

split | split | split

spread | spread | spread

spring | sprang | sprung

stand | stood | stood

steal | stole | stolen

stick | stuck | stuck

sting | stung | stung

stink | stank | stunk

stride | strode | stridden

strike | struck | struck

string | strung | strung

strive | strove | striven

swear | swore | sworn

sweep | swept | swept

swell | swelled | swollen/swelled

swim | swam | swum

swing | swung | swung

take | took | taken

teach | taught | taught

tear | tore | torn

tell | told | told

think | thought | thought

thrive | thrived | thrived

throw | threw | thrown

thrust | thrust | thrust

tread | trod | trodden

understand | understood | understood

uphold | upheld | upheld

upset | upset | upset

wake | woke | woken

wear | wore | worn

weave | wove/weaved | woven/weaved

wed | wedded/wed | wedded/wed

weep | wept | wept

win | won | won

wind | wound | wound

withhold | withheld | withheld

withstand | withstood | withstood

wring | wrung | wrung

write | wrote | written

1 Except in “dead beat” when used as the past participle rather than as a noun or an adjective.

2 “Gotten” is archaic in England though not in the United States.

3 Archaic.