Section 1


Section 2


Section 3





Section 1



For each of the following questions, select the best answer from the choices provided and fill in the appropriate circle on the answer sheet.

Each of the following sentences contains one or two blanks; each blank indicates that a word or set of words has been left out. Below the sentence are five words or phrases, lettered A through E. Select the word or set of words that best completes the sentence.




Fame is ----; today’s rising star is all too soon tomorrow’s washed-up has-been.



(A) rewarding

(B) gradual

(C) essential

(D) spontaneous

(E) transitory




   1. The museum administration appears to be singularly ____ the comforts of its employees, providing an employee health club, a lending library, and a part-time social worker to help staff members with financial or domestic problems.

       (A) ignorant of

       (B) indifferent to

       (C) attentive to

       (D) exploited by

       (E) uninvolved in

   2. The assemblyman instructed his staff to be courteous in responding to requests from his ____, the voters belonging to the district he represented.

       (A) collaborators

       (B) interviewers

       (C) adversaries

       (D) constituents

       (E) predecessors

   3. Trees native to warmer climates are genetically programmed for shorter, milder winters and are therefore ____ to both cold snaps and sudden thaws.

       (A) indifferent

       (B) restricted

       (C) vulnerable

       (D) accessible

       (E) attributed

   4. Although, as wife of President John Adams, Abigail Adams sought a greater voice for women, she was not a feminist in the modern sense; she ____ the ____ view of women as “beings placed by providence” under male protection.

       (A) anticipated…current

       (B) regretted…heretical

       (C) distorted…outmoded

       (D) repudiated…radical

       (E) accepted…traditional

   5. An unattractive feature of this memoir is the casually dismissive, often downright ____, comments the author makes about almost all of her former colleagues.

       (A) elegiac

       (B) euphemistic

       (C) objective

       (D) contemptuous

       (E) laudatory

   6. There was some stagecraft behind the supposedly ____ moments photographed by Doisneau; in a legal dispute last year, Doisneau ____ that he had paid two models to pose for his famous The Kiss at the Hotel de Ville.

       (A) innocent…disproved

       (B) candid…acknowledged

       (C) theatrical…regretted

       (D) affected…intimated

       (E) spontaneous…urged

   7. The protagonist of the poem “Richard Cory” appears ____ but has no real joy in his gifts and possessions; he ____ his feelings with a mask of lightheartedness.

       (A) talented…manifests

       (B) nonchalant…adapts

       (C) jovial…camouflages

       (D) affluent…suppresses

       (E) acquisitive…unburdens

   8. Always less secure in herself than she liked to admit, she too often ____ disagreement as ____ and opposition as treachery.

       (A) rewarded…virtue

       (B) construed…betrayal

       (C) condemned…detachment

       (D) invited…provocation

       (E) interpreted…drollery


Read each of the passages below, and then answer the questions that follow the passage. The correct response may be stated outright or merely suggested in the passage.

Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following passage.


               Strangely enough, among the high points
of the Jewish Museum’s exhibition entitled
Wild Things: The Art of Maurice Sendak, is a

Line small alcove off the main gallery. Decked out

(5)   with soft pillows, a shaggy rug, and a generous
assortment of Sendak books, this retreat
from the museum’s crowds was inspired by
Max’s imaginary bedroom in Where the Wild
Things Are, perhaps Sendak’s most famous

(10)  children’s tale. Walking through the exhibit’s
thematically arranged rooms, exploring the
artist’s Eastern European roots, his connections
to Brooklyn’s Jewish community, and his
links to Germany, land of the Holocaust and of

(15)  the brothers Grimm, I was increasingly drawn
to this simple room where a weary mother
could read to her sleepy child.

   9. In line 6, “retreat” most nearly means

       (A) departure

       (B) haven

       (C) evacuation

       (D) recession

       (E) recoil

   10. The author’s tone in the final lines of the passage can best be characterized as

       (A) quizzical

       (B) weary

       (C) ironic

       (D) melancholy

       (E) appreciative

Questions 11 and 12 are based on the following passage.


               In pre-Victorian times, despite the widespread
belief that a woman’s place was in the
home, some strong-minded women found
opportunities to

Line participate actively in scientific

(5)   work. In Before Victoria, Elizabeth
Denlinger points out that, at that time, the
sciences were, to some extent, still in their
infancy: they had not yet become official parts
of the university curriculum, and therefore

(10)  were open to women. Thus, Caroline
Herschel, acting as assistant to her brother
William, in the late eighteenth century performed
basic astronomical research. The first
woman to discover a comet, in later years

(15)  Herschel catalogued every discovery she and
her brother had made, creating research tools
still in use today.

   11. In the passage, the author does all of the following EXCEPT

       (A) provide an example

       (B) cite an authority

       (C) mention a time frame

       (D) refer to a cliché

       (E) propose a solution

   12. An aspect of Herschel’s work that the passage points out is the

       (A) way in which it ignores the conventional wisdom

       (B) extent to which it continues to be helpful nowadays

       (C) degree to which it depended on academic support

       (D) kinds of astronomical devices that she employed

       (E) limitations imposed on her by society

Questions 13–24 are based on the following passage.


In this excerpt from The Joy of Music, the composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein describes the characteristics of the ideal conductor.


               For the qualities that distinguish great
conductors lie far beyond and above what we
have spoken of. We now begin to deal with the

Line intangibles, the deep magical aspect of conducting.

(5)   It is the mystery of relationships—
conductor and orchestra bound together by the
tiny but powerful split second. How can I
describe to you the magic of
the moment of beginning a piece of music? There is only one

(10)  possible fraction of a second that feels exactly
right for starting. There is a wait while the
orchestra readies itself and collects its powers;
while the conductor concentrates his whole
will and force toward the work in hand; while

(15)  the audience quiets down, and the last cough
has died away. There is no slight rustle of a
program book; the instruments are poised
and—bang! That’s it. One second later, it is
too late, and the magic has vanished.

(20)        This psychological timing is constantly in
play throughout the performance of music. It
means that a great conductor is one who has
great sensitivity to the flow of time; who
makes one note move to the next in exactly the

(25)  right way and at the right instant. For music,
as we said, exists in the medium of time. It is
time itself that must be carved up, molded and
remolded until it becomes, like a statue, an
existing shape and form. This is the hardest to

(30)  do. For a symphony is not like a statue, which
can be viewed all at once, or bit by bit at
leisure, in one’s own chosen time. With music,
we are trapped in time. Each note is gone as
soon as it has sounded, and it never can be

(35)  recontemplated or heard again at the particular
instant of rightness. It is always too late for a
second look.

               So the conductor is a kind of sculptor
whose element is time instead of marble; and

(40)  in sculpting it, he must have a superior sense
of proportion and relationship. He must judge
the largest rhythms, the whole phraseology of
a work. He must conquer the form of a piece
not only in the sense of form as a mold, but

(45)  form in its deepest sense, knowing and controlling
where the music relaxes, where it
begins to accumulate tension, where the greatest
tension is reached, where it must ease up to
gather strength for the next lap, where it

(50)  unloads that strength.

               These are the intangibles of conducting,
the mysteries that no conductor can learn or
acquire. If he has a natural faculty for deep
perception, it will increase and deepen as he

(55)  matures. If he hasn’t, he will always be a
pretty good conductor. But even the pretty
good conductor must have one more attribute
in his personality, without which all the
mechanics and knowledge and perception are

(60)  useless; and that is the power to communicate
all this to his orchestra—through his arms,
face, eyes, fingers, and whatever vibrations
may flow from him. If he uses a baton, the
baton itself must be a living thing, charged

(65)  with a kind of electricity, which makes it an
instrument of meaning in its tiniest movement.
If he does not use a baton, his hands must do
the job with equal clarity. But baton or no
baton, his gestures must be first and always

(70)  meaningful in terms of the music.

               The chief element in the conductor’s technique
of communication is the preparation.
Everything must be shown to the orchestra
before it happens. Once the player is playing

(75)  the note, it is too late. So the conductor always
has to be a beat or two ahead of the orchestra
… . And he must hear two things at the same
time: what the players are doing at any
moment, and what they are about to do a

(80)  moment later. Therefore, the basic trick is in
the preparatory upbeat. If our conductor is
back again on page one of Brahms’s First
Symphony, he must show, in his silent upbeat,
the character of the music which is about to

(85)  sound. Whether he thinks of it as tense and
agitated, or weighty and doom-ridden, his
upbeat should show this, in order to enable the
orchestra players to respond in kind. It is
exactly like breathing: the preparation is like

(90)  an inhalation, and the music sounds as an
exhalation. We all have to inhale in order to
speak, for example; all verbal expression is
exhaled. So it is with music: we inhale on the
upbeat and sing out a phrase of music, then

(95)  inhale again and breathe out the next phrase. A
conductor who breathes with the music has
gone far in acquiring a technique.

               But the conductor must not only make his
orchestra play; he must make them want to

(100) play. He must exalt them, lift them, start their
adrenaline pouring, either through cajoling or
demanding or raging. But however he does it,
he must make the orchestra love the music as
he loves it. It is not so much imposing his will

(105) on them like a dictator; it is more like projecting
his feelings around him so that they reach
the last player in the second violin section.
And when this happens—when one hundred
players share his feelings, exactly, simultaneously,

(110) responding as one to each rise and fall
of the music, to each point of arrival and
departure, to each little inner pulse—then
there is a human identity of feeling that has no
equal elsewhere. It is the closest thing I know

(115) to love itself. On this current of love the conductor
can communicate at the deepest levels
with his players, and ultimately with his audience.
He may shout and rant and curse and
insult his players at rehearsal—as some of our

(120) greatest conductors are famous for doing—but
if there is this love, the conductor and his
orchestra will remain knit together through it
all and function as one.

               Well, there is our ideal conductor. And

(125) perhaps the chief requirement of all this is that
he be humble before the composer; that he
never interpose himself between the music
and the audience; that all his efforts, however
strenuous or glamorous, be made in the service

(130) of the composer’s meaning—the music
itself, which, after all, is the whole reason for
the conductor’s existence.

13. In the first paragraph, in creating an initial impression of the qualities of the ideal conductor for the reader, the author makes use of

       (A) reference to musical notation

       (B) contrast to the musicians

       (C) comparison with other leaders of ensembles

       (D) narration of a sequence of events

       (E) allusion to psychological studies

   14. The passage is most likely to have been preceded by a discussion of

       (A) the deficiencies of conductors whom the author has known

       (B) how the conductor relates to the composer

       (C) ways in which the orchestra complements the conductor

       (D) the technical skills needed to be a reasonably competent conductor

       (E) the qualities that transform a conductor into a superior musician

   15. The conductor’s decision as to the moment when to begin a piece of music can best be described as

       (A) tentative

       (B) imperceptible

       (C) intuitive

       (D) trivial

       (E) hypothetical

   16. In stating that “with music, we are trapped in time” (lines 32 and 33), the author is being

       (A) resigned

       (B) wistful

       (C) ironic

       (D) figurative

       (E) resentful

   17. The author mentions sculpting chiefly in order to

       (A) place conducting in perspective as one of the fine arts

       (B) contrast it informally with conducting

       (C) help the reader get an image of the conductor’s work

       (D) illustrate the difficulties of the sculptor’s task

       (E) show how the study of sculpture can benefit the conductor

   18. In line 44, “mold” most nearly means

       (A) decaying surface

       (B) fixed pattern

       (C) decorative strip

       (D) organic growth

       (E) cooking utensil

   19. Lines 51–55 indicate that the author believes that the ideal conductor’s most important attributes are

       (A) innate

       (B) transient

       (C) technical

       (D) symbolic

       (E) unclear

   20. The author regards the conductor’s baton primarily as

       (A) a necessary evil

       (B) a symbol of strength

       (C) an electrical implement

       (D) an improvement over hand gestures

       (E) a tool for transmitting meaning

   21. In dealing with musicians, the author believes conductors

       (A) must do whatever it takes to motivate them to perform

       (B) should never resort to pleading with their subordinates

       (C) must maintain their composure under trying circumstances

       (D) work best if they love the musicians with whom they work

       (E) must assert dominance over the musicians autocratically

   22. In lines 105–107, the author mentions “the last player in the second violin section” primarily to emphasize

       (A) the number of musicians necessary in an orchestra

       (B) the particular importance of violins in ensemble work

       (C) how sensitive secondary musicians can be

       (D) how the role of the conductor differs from that of the musician

       (E) the distance across which the conductor must communicate

   23. The author regards temperamental behavior during rehearsals on the part of conductors with

       (A) disapprobation

       (B) tolerance

       (C) bemusement

       (D) regret

       (E) awe

   24. To the author, the conductor’s primary concern is to maintain

       (A) rapport with the audience

       (B) authority over the orchestra

       (C) the respect of the musicians

       (D) the tempo of the music

       (E) the integrity of the musical piece


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not work on any other section in the test.

Section 2



For each of the following questions, select the best answer from the choices provided and fill in the appropriate circle on the answer sheet.

Each of the following sentences contains one or two blanks; each blank indicates that a word or set of words has been left out. Below the sentence are five words or phrases, lettered A through E. Select the word or set of words that best completes the sentence.




Fame is ----; today’s rising star is all too soon tomorrow’s washed-up has-been.



(A) rewarding

(B) gradual

(C) essential

(D) spontaneous

(E) transitory




   1. Just as all roads once led to Rome, all blood vessels in the human body ultimately ____ the heart.

       (A) detour around

       (B) shut off

       (C) empty into

       (D) look after

       (E) beat back

   2. One of photography’s most basic and powerful traits is its ability to give substance to ____, to present precise visual details of a time gone by.

       (A) romance

       (B) premonition

       (C) mysticism

       (D) invisibility

       (E) history

   3. Michael purchased a season subscription to the symphony in order to gratify his ____ classical music.

       (A) predilection for

       (B) subservience to

       (C) impatience with

       (D) divergence from

       (E) reservations about

   4. The president was ____ about farm subsidies, nor did he say much about the even more ____ topic of unemployment.

       (A) expansive…interesting

       (B) wordy…important

       (C) uncommunicative…academic

       (D) noncommittal…vital

       (E) enthusiastic…stimulating

   5. As more people try to navigate the legal system by themselves, representing themselves in court and drawing up their own wills and contracts, the question arises whether they will be able to ____ judicial ____ without lawyers to guide them.

       (A) await…decisions

       (B) overturn…stipulations

       (C) avoid…quagmires

       (D) forfeit…penalties

       (E) arouse…enmity


Read the passages below, and then answer the questions that follow. The correct response may be stated outright or merely suggested in the passages.


Questions 6–9 are based on the following passages.

Passage 1


               With cries of delight and occasional tears,
ornithologists around the world celebrated the
sighting in Arkansas of the ivory-billed woodpecker.

Line Long thought to be extinct, the ivory-

(5)   bill was first sighted in February of 2004 by a
kayaker in Big Woods country. Later visual
encounters seemed to corroborate the original
sighting, but doubt remained until one sighting
was captured on video. Despite the blurred,

(10)  grainy quality of the footage, the team of
Cornell researchers identified the woodpecker
by its size, markings, and characteristic
plumage. To bird-lovers, the rediscovery of
the ivory-bill seems miraculous, “almost like

(15)  finding Elvis,” and they are grateful for a second
chance to protect this unique bird and the
Big Woods in which it lives.

Passage 2


               Although the public appears to be taking
the ivory-billed woodpecker’s rediscovery as

(20)  fact, much skepticism still exists among bird-
watchers unconvinced by the Cornell
Ornithology Laboratory’s video and audio
recordings that the ivory-bill lives. Even the
Cornell scientists have begun to hedge.

(25)  According to Cornell’s Russell Charif, “Our
interpretation of these data is that they provide
suggestive and tantalizing, but not conclusive,
new evidence of living ivory-bills in this
region.” Unfortunately, the ivory-billed wood-

(30)  pecker controversy is not just a philosophical
debate—it has real-world implications as well.
The Department of the Interior has earmarked
$10 million to preserve the ivory-bill’s habitat;
that means $10 million less available to protect

(35)  other species, such as the Kirtland’s

   6. Which best expresses the relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2?

       (A) Passage 2 urges the continuation of the policies endorsed in Passage 1.

       (B) Passage 2 presents a hypothesis in support of the conclusions drawn in Passage 1.

       (C) Passage 2 provides a scientific explanation for the advances described in Passage 1.

       (D) Passage 2 questions the validity of the celebration mentioned in Passage 1.

       (E) Passage 2 mocks those who support the viewpoint presented in Passage 1.

   7. Passage 2 as a whole suggests that its author would most likely react to the final sentence of Passage 1 with

       (A) resentment

       (B) enthusiasm

       (C) suspicion

       (D) compassion

       (E) trepidation

   8. According to lines 23 and 24 of Passage 2 (“Even…hedge”), the Cornell scientists

       (A) are now being intentionally noncommittal

       (B) believe strongly in the validity of their case

       (C) seek to engage their opponents in debate

       (D) are employing questionable methods

       (E) expect to profit from an uncertain situation

   9. In both passages, the discussion of the ivory-billed woodpecker controversy focuses on the challenges of

       (A) preserving the habitats of endangered species

       (B) allocating funds for wildlife management

       (C) distinguishing among closely related species of birds

       (D) convincing the Department of the Interior to take a stand

       (E) proving a supposedly extinct species to be extant

Questions 10–15 are based on the following passage.

Largely unexplored, the canopy or treetop region of the tropical rain forest is one of the most diverse plant and animal communities on Earth. In this excerpt from a 1984 article on the rain forest canopy, the naturalist Donald R. Perry shares his research team’s observations of epiphytes, unusual plants that flourish in this treetop environment.


               The upper story of the rain forest, which
we investigated, incorporates two-thirds of its
volume. This region can be divided arbitrarily

Line into a lower canopy, extending from 10 to 25

(5)   meters above the ground, an upper canopy,
reaching a height of 35 meters, and an emergent
zone that encompasses the tops of the
tallest trees, which commonly grow to heights
of more than 50 meters. The canopy is well

(10)  lighted, in contrast to the forest understory,
which because of thick vegetation above
receives only about 1 percent of the sunlight
that falls on the treetops. In the canopy all but
the smallest of the rain forest trees put forth

(15)  their leaves, flowers and fruit. It also contains
many plants that exist entirely within its compass,
forming vegetative communities that in
number of species and complexity of interactions
surpass any others on the earth.

(20)        Among the most conspicuous features of
vegetation in the canopy of the tropical rain
forest are epiphytes. About 28,000 species in
65 families are known worldwide, 15,500 of
them in Central and South America; they

(25)  include species of orchids, bromeliads, and
arboreal cacti as well as lower plants such as
lichens, mosses, and ferns. Thousands more
epiphyte varieties remain unidentified.

               The Greek meaning of the word epiphyte

(30)  is “plant that grows on a plant,” and they carpet
tree trunks and branches. Epiphytes sprout
from seeds borne by the wind or deposited by
animals, their roots holding tight to the interstices
of the bark. Yet they are nonparasitic;

(35)  their hosts provide them with nothing more
than a favorable position in the brightly lighted
canopy. For nourishment epiphytes depend on
soil particles and dissolved minerals carried in
rainwater, and on aerial deposits of humus. The

(40)  deposits are the product of organic debris, such
as dead leaves from epiphytes and other plants,
that lodges among epiphyte roots.

               Water is directly available to epiphytes
only when it rains; other plants have continuous

(45)  access to moisture trapped in the soil. As a
result many epiphytes have developed features
that collect and retain rainwater. Some, including
orchids and arboreal cacti, have succulent
stems and leaves, with spongy tissues that store

(50)  water, as well as waxy leaf coatings that reduce
the loss of moisture through transpiration.
Many orchids have bulbous stem bases; other
families of epiphytes impound water in tanks
formed by tight rosettes of leaves or in cups

(55)  shaped by the junctions of broadened petioles2
and stems. Some species possess absorbent,
spongelike root masses that soak up and hold
water. Bromeliads, a Central and South
American family, can hold reserves of several

(60)  gallons within their cisternlike bases, forming
“arboreal swamps” that attract insects of many
species, earthworms, spiders, sow bugs, scorpions,
tree frogs, and insect-eating birds.

10. In lines 9–13, the author characterizes the floor or understory of the rain forest as relatively

       (A) insignificant

       (B) windy

       (C) thick

       (D) obscure

       (E) voluminous

   11. In lines 16 and 17, “compass” most nearly means

       (A) a curved arc

       (B) an instrument for determining direction

       (C) passageway

       (D) boundaries

       (E) specifications

   12. It can be inferred that which of the following is true of epiphytes?

       (A) They lack an adequate root system.

       (B) They cannot draw moisture from tree trunks.

       (C) They are incapable of transpiration.

       (D) They are hard to perceive in the dense rain forest canopy.

       (E) They originated in the Southern Hemisphere.

   13. According to lines 46–48, epiphytes are particularly adapted to

       (A) independent growth

       (B) a cloudless environment

       (C) the dissipation of rainwater

       (D) drawing sustenance from a host

       (E) the retention of liquid

   14. Epiphytes have direct access to water only when it rains because

       (A) they lack the ability to collect moisture

       (B) the frequency of rain keeps them excessively wet

       (C) the thick canopy protects them from rainstorms

       (D) they lack connections to water in the ground

       (E) dead leaves and other organic debris cover their roots

   15. Desert cacti are likely to resemble arboreal cacti most in their

       (A) tolerance of extremes of heat and cold

       (B) dependence on tree trunks for support rather than nourishment

       (C) development of features to cut down the loss of moisture

       (D) lack of roots connecting them to the ground

       (E) absence of variations in size

Questions 16–24 are based on the following passage.

In this excerpt from the novel A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens describes the journey of a coach carrying mail and passengers to the seaport town of Dover.


               It was the Dover road that lay, on a Friday
night late in November, before the first of the
persons with whom this history has business.

Line The Dover road lay, as to him, beyond the

(5)   Dover mail, as it lumbered up Shooter’s Hill.
He walked uphill in the mire by the side of the
mail, as the rest of the passengers did; not
because they had the least relish for walking
exercise, under the circumstances, but because

(10)  the hill, and the harness, and the mud, and the mail,
were all so heavy, that the horses had
three times already come to a stop, besides
once drawing the coach across the road, with
the mutinous intent of taking it back to

(15)  Blackheath.

               With drooping heads and tremulous tails,
the horses mashed their way through the thick
mud, floundering and stumbling between
whiles as if they were falling to pieces at the

(20)  larger joints. As often as the driver rested them
and brought them to a stand, with a wary “Wo-
ho! so-ho then!” the near leader violently
shook his head and everything upon it—like
an unusually emphatic horse, denying that the

(25)  coach could be got up the hill. Whenever the
leader made this rattle, the passenger started,
as a nervous passenger might, and was disturbed
in mind.

               There was a steaming mist in all the hollows,

(30)  and it had roamed in its forlornness up
the hill, like an evil spirit, seeking rest and
finding none. A clammy and intensely cold
mist, it made its slow way through the air in
ripples that visibly followed and overspread

(35)  one another, as the waves of an unwholesome
sea might do. It was dense enough to shut out
everything from the light of the coachlamps
but these its own workings, and a few yards of
road; and the reek of the laboring horses

(40)  steamed into it, as if they had made it all.

               Two other passengers, besides the one,
were plodding up the hill by the side of the
mail. All three were wrapped to the cheek-
bones and over the ears, and wore jack-boots.

(45)  Not one of the three could have said, from
anything he saw, what either of the other two
was like; and each was hidden under almost as
many wrappers from the eyes of the mind, as
from the eyes of the body, of his two companions.

(50)  In those days, travelers were very shy of
being confidential on a short notice, for anyone
on the road might be a robber or in league
with robbers. As to the latter, when every posting-
house and ale-house could produce somebody

(55)  in “the Captain’s” pay, ranging from the
landlord to the lowest stable nondescript, it
was the likeliest thing upon the cards. So the
guard of the Dover mail thought to himself,
that Friday night in November, one thousand

(60)  seven hundred and seventy-five, lumbering up
Shooter’s Hill, as he stood on his own particular
perch behind the mail, beating his feet, and
keeping an eye and a hand on the arm-chest
before him, where a loaded blunderbuss lay at

(65)  the top of six or eight loaded horse-pistols,
deposited on a substratum of cutlass.

               The Dover mail was in its usual genial
position that the guard suspected the passengers,
the passengers suspected one another and
the guard, they all suspected everybody else,

(70)  and the coachman was sure of nothing but the
horses; as to which cattle he could with a clear
conscience have taken his oath on the two
Testaments that they were not fit for the journey.

16. It can be inferred that the passengers are walking because

       (A) they need fresh air and exercise

       (B) they are afraid of being robbed

       (C) their trip is over

       (D) the guard is suspicious of them

       (E) the coach cannot carry them uphill

   17. In creating an impression of the mail coach’s uphill progress for the reader, the author uses all of the following devices EXCEPT

       (A) description of its surroundings

       (B) humorous turns of phrase

       (C) contrast with more attractive areas

       (D) exaggerated comparisons

       (E) references to geographic locations

   18. The purpose cited as supporting the argument that some brute animals are endowed with reason most likely is

       (A) the driver’s intent to use the whip to motivate the horses

       (B) the passengers’ willingness to walk by the side of the coach

       (C) the horses’ determination to turn back to Blackheath

       (D) the traveler’s resolve to undertake such a rugged journey

       (E) the guard’s aim to quell any manifestations of mutiny

   19. The passage suggests that the rattle referred to in line 26 most likely was

       (A) the call of the driver to the horses to halt

       (B) the clatter of the wooden wheels upon the cobblestones

       (C) the jangle of the harness when the horse shook his head

       (D) the creaking of the wagon’s joints under the strain

       (E) the sound of the coachman using his whip

   20. In line 26, “started” most nearly means

       (A) began

       (B) jumped

       (C) set out

       (D) went first

       (E) activated

   21. In lines 31–36, the author includes the description of the mist primarily to emphasize the

       (A) nearness of the sea

       (B) weariness of the travelers

       (C) gloominess of the surroundings

       (D) transience of the journey

       (E) lateness of the hour

   22. In line 55, “the Captain” most likely refers to

       (A) the master of a sailing ship

       (B) a police officer

       (C) a highwayman

       (D) an innkeeper or hotel employee

       (E) a town official

   23. The attitude of the passengers toward one another shown in lines 67–70 can best be described as

       (A) conspiratorial

       (B) guarded

       (C) benevolent

       (D) resentful

       (E) pugnacious

   24. The use of the word “genial” in line 67 is an example of

       (A) understatement

       (B) archaism

       (C) simile

       (D) digression

       (E) irony


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not work on any other section in the test.



1 Passage of water through a plant to the atmosphere.

2 Slender stalks that attach a leaf to the stem.


Section 3



For each of the following questions, select the best answer from the choices provided and fill in the appropriate circle on the answer sheet.

Each of the following sentences contains one or two blanks; each blank indicates that a word or set of words has been left out. Below the sentence are five words or phrases, lettered A through E. Select the word or set of words that best completes the sentence.




Fame is ----; today’s rising star is all too soon tomorrow’s washed-up has-been.



(A) rewarding

(B) gradual

(C) essential

(D) spontaneous

(E) transitory




   1. Supporters of the proposed waterway argue that it will ____ rather than ____ railroad facilities, since the waterway will be icebound during the only months when the railroads can absorb much traffic.

       (A) limit…extend

       (B) build…destroy

       (C) weaken…help

       (D) surpass…equal

       (E) supplement…threaten

   2. Although he was widely celebrated as a radio and motion picture star in the 1940s, George Burns enjoyed his greatest ____ after his return to the screen in the “Oh God” films of the 1980s.

       (A) respite

       (B) collaboration

       (C) renown

       (D) disappointment

       (E) inducement

   3. Despite some personal habits that most people would find repulsive, naked mole rats are ____ housekeepers.

       (A) slovenly

       (B) indifferent

       (C) meticulous

       (D) perfunctory

       (E) repugnant

   4. Biography is a literary genre whose primary ____ is an ability to ____ imaginatively the inner life of a subject on the basis of all the knowable external evidence.

       (A) requisite…reconstruct

       (B) consequence…disregard

       (C) peculiarity…envision

       (D) weapon…undermine

       (E) claim…counteract

   5. Many scientific discoveries are a matter of ____ : Newton was not sitting on the ground thinking about gravity when the apple dropped on his head.

       (A) serendipity

       (B) experimentation

       (C) casuistry

       (D) technology

       (E) principle

   6. In prison Malcolm X set himself the task of reading straight through the dictionary; to him, reading was purposeful, not ____.

       (A) deliberate

       (B) retentive

       (C) critical

       (D) desultory

       (E) exhaustive


Read the passages below, and then answer the questions that follow. The correct response may be stated outright or merely suggested in the passages.


Questions 7–19 are based on the following passages.

The following passages, written in the 1960s, explore the roots of anti-Japanese and anti-Jewish feelings in America during the first half of the twentieth century.

Passage 1


               Prejudice, the sociologists tell us, is
learned behavior. Twentieth-century
Californians learned the lesson well. Although

Line racial prejudice, directed at various ethnic

(5)   groups, flourished throughout the United
States during the period under discussion,
nowhere north of the Mason-Dixon line did
any single group encounter the sustained
nativist assault that was directed against

(10)  California’s Japanese. There seem to be four
chief reasons for this. First, the Japanese were
of a distinct racial group; no amount of acculturation
could mask their foreignness. Second,
unlike the Chinese, they rapidly began to challenge

(15)  whites in many businesses and professions
— as a group, Japanese in the United
States became very quickly imbued with what,
in Europeans, would be called the Protestant
ethic. Third, the growing unpopularity of their

(20)  homeland … further served to make immigrants
from Japan special objects of suspicion.
These three conditions would have made any
large group of Japanese a particularly despised
minority anywhere in the United States.

(25)  Finally, the fact that most of the Japanese were
in California probably made things worse, for
California probably had a lower boiling point
than did the country at large.

               California, by virtue of its anti-Chinese

(30)  tradition and frontier psychology, was already
conditioned to anti-Orientalism before the
Japanese arrived. Other special California
characteristics abetted the success of the agitation.
In the prewar years, the extraordinary

(35)  power of organized labor in northern
California gave the anti-Japanese movement a
much stronger base than it would have
enjoyed elsewhere; in the postwar years,
open-shop southern California proved almost

(40)  equally hospitable to an agitation pitched to
middle-class white Protestants. In the two
periods anti-Japanese sentiment flourished
among completely disparate populations: the
first- and second-generation immigrants who

(45)  were the backbone of California’s labor movement,
and the Midwestern émigrés who came
to dominate the southern California scene. For
most of these Californians, opposition to the
Japanese was based upon fears which were

(50)  largely nonrational.

Passage 2


               To say that anti-Semitism in America
sprang chiefly from the difficulties of integrating
large numbers of first- and second-generation
immigrants is, inferentially, to stress its

(55)  similarity to other kinds of anti-immigrant
sentiment—to put it in the same class with
dislike of the Irish, Italians, Japanese,
Mexicans and other transplanted minorities,
while making allowances for the differential

(60)  characteristics of each group. Likewise, this
approach minimizes distinctions often made
between different kinds of anti-Semitism, in
that it relates all of them to a common root.
Yet we must also consider the role of irrational

(65)  anti-Semitic fantasies that had no direct connection
with real problems of ethnic integration.
The ideological hatreds spread by the
agitator and the fanatic have had a place in
American history, too.

(70)        Unlike…more ordinary social prejudices
…, ideological anti-Semitism condemns the
Jews as incapable of assimilation and disloyal
to the basic institutions of the country. In its
more extreme forms, it portrays them as

(75)  leagued together in a vast international conspiracy.
The alleged plot usually centers on
gaining control of the money supply and
wrecking the financial system; sometimes it
extends to polluting the nation’s morals

(80)  through control of communications and entertainment.
The supposed eventual aim is to overthrow
the government and establish
a superstate. In America, anti-Semitism of this
kind has not been so well organized or so productive

(85)  of violence as other racial and religious
phobias. But it has enjoyed an unusually
rich and complex imagery.

               Religious motifs, by and large, have not
figured prominently in American anti-Semitic

(90)  thought. Except among certain preachers
spawned by the Fundamentalist movement of
the 1920s (notably Gerald Winrod and Gerald
L. K. Smith), one looks in vain for a clearly
religious animus. Though not entirely lacking

(95)  in references to the treachery of Judas, ideological
anti-Semitism has always dwelled
mainly on the power of Shylock. Whether the
Jew appears in his traditional role as exploiter
or in his later incarnation as Bolshevik, his

(100) subversive influence supposedly flows from
an unwillingness or inability to abide by the
existing economic morality.

   7. The author of Passage 1 makes the point that prejudice against the Japanese in the twentieth century

       (A) began in California

       (B) was comparable to racial prejudice in the South

       (C) was taught in the schools of California

       (D) often bred violence

       (E) was a shameful chapter in the history of California

   8. Passage 1 implies that the Japanese would not have faced such intense prejudice if

       (A) their physical appearance had been different

       (B) they had arrived in California via New York

       (C) they had emigrated to California a century earlier

       (D) they had settled in southern California

       (E) Californians had themselves been recent immigrants

   9. Passage 1 suggests that, after Japanese immigrants arrived in California, they

       (A) joined unions

       (B) often went on welfare until they got jobs

       (C) created Japanese ghettos in several cities

       (D) worked hard to be successful

       (E) contributed technical skills to the state’s work force.

   10. According to information in Passage 1, World War II

       (A) provided California’s Japanese population temporary relief from prejudice

       (B) caused prejudice against the Japanese to intensify

       (C) had little impact on prejudice against the Japanese

       (D) diverted the hatred from Japanese civilians to the Japanese military

       (E) shifted the center of anti-Japanese feeling in California

   11. One can infer from Passage 1 that hostility toward the Japanese flourished in California because

       (A) California was closer to Pearl Harbor than any other state

       (B) Californians are more intolerant than other Americans

       (C) Japan-bashing was an official policy of the labor unions in the state

       (D) Japanese were quickly buying up buildings, land, and other property throughout the state

       (E) American workers felt threatened by Japanese workers

   12. The author of Passage 2 believes that anti-Semitism in America differs from other forms of prejudice because

       (A) it is based on a long tradition

       (B) anti-Semites tend to be more hateful than other types of bigots

       (C) most anti-Semites are fanatics

       (D) it comes in many forms and guises

       (E) each ethnic minority experiences prejudice in a different way

   13. The term “ideological hatreds” (line 67–69) refers to prejudice

       (A) only against Jews

       (B) that is openly declared in public

       (C) that existed in an earlier era

       (D) that is inspired by the victims’ beliefs and values

       (E) that has gone out of control

   14. The author of Passage 2 implies that violence against Jews in the United States has been

       (A) fed by social anti-Semitism rather than ideological anti-Semitism

       (B) has been directed mostly at first-generation Jewish immigrants

       (C) has helped other minorities to cope with violence against them

       (D) has been more verbal and psychological than physical

       (E) has been less severe than violence against other minorities

   15. Passage 2 indicates that avid anti-Semites fear Jews for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that

       (A) it is hard to tell a Jew from a non-Jew

       (B) Jews crave power

       (C) Jews are immoral

       (D) the media are controlled by Jews

       (E) Jews do not value democracy

   16. Gerald Winrod and Gerald L. K. Smith (lines 92 and 93) are cited as anti-Semites

       (A) who advocated the violent treatment of Jews

       (B) whose hatred of Jews was based largely on religion

       (C) who sought to convert Jews to Christianity

       (D) who alleged that Jews were a danger to the United States

       (E) who founded the Christian Fundamentalist movement in the United States

   17. Based on the two passages, it is fair to say that prejudice against the Jews in the United States compared to prejudice against the Japanese

       (A) has been more violent

       (B) has been more strenuously opposed by fair-minded people

       (C) is more complex and diffuse

       (D) has a longer history

       (E) has increased at a greater rate since World War II

   18. The authors of both passages appear to agree that

       (A) prejudice in the United States is gradually diminishing

       (B) prejudice in the United States is gradually increasing

       (C) prejudice is based on irrational thinking

       (D) physical appearance is a major cause of prejudice against both Jews and Japanese

       (E) stereotypes are hard to break

   19. In their explanations of the causes of prejudice, both authors

       (A) stress economic reasons

       (B) focus on the historical roots of prejudice in America

       (C) are hopeful that justice will eventually prevail

       (D) agree that the Japanese and the Jews have been scapegoats

       (E) think that extreme nationalism may lie at the heart of bigotry


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not work on any other section in the test.