﻿ ﻿Appendix 1 - CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY

## CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY

Appendix 1

The Metric System

 Standard Metric Units Abbreviation Standard unit of mass gram g Standard unit of length meter m Standard unit of volume liter L

 Common Prefixes Examples kilo 1,000 A kilogram is 1,000 grams centi 0.01 A centimeter is 0.01 meter. milli 0.001 A milliliter is 0.001 liter. micro (μ) one-millionth A micrometer is 0.000001 (one-millionth) of a meter. nano (n) one-billionth A nanogram is 10-9 (one-billionth) of a gram. pico (p) one-trillionth A picogram is 10-12 (one-trillionth) of a gram.

Units of Length

 Unit Abbreviation Equivalent meter m approximately 39 in. centimeter cm 10-2 m millimeter mm 10-3 m micrometer μm 10-6 m nanometer nm 10-9 m angstrom A 10-10 m

Length Conversions

1 in. = 2.5 cm

1 ft = 30 cm

1 yd = 0.9 m

1 mi = 1.6 km

1 mm = 0.039 in

1 cm = 0.39 in

1 m = 39 in

1 m = 1.094 yd

1 km = 0.6 mi

 To Convert Multiply By To Obtain inches 2.54 centimeters feet 30 centimeters centimeters 0.39 inches millimeters 0.039 inches Units of Volume

 Unit Abbreviation Equivalent liter L approximately 1.06 qt milliliter mL 10-3 L (1 mL = 1 cm3 = 1 cc) microliter μL 10-6 L

Volume Conversions

1 tsp = 5 mL

1 tbsp = 15 mL

1 fl oz = 30 mL

1 cup = 0.24 L

1 pt = 0.47 L

1 qt = 0.95 L

1 gal = 3.8 L

1 mL = 0.03 fl oz

1 L = 2.1 pt

1 L = 1.06 qt

1 L = 0.26 gal

 To Convert Multiply By To Obtain fluid ounces 30 milliliters quarts 0.95 liters milliliters 0.03 fluid ounces liters 1.06 quarts

Units of Weight

 Unit Abbreviation Equivalent kilogram kg 103 g (approximately 2.2 lb) gram g approximately 0.035 oz milligram mg 10-3 g microgram μg 10-6 g nanogram ng 10-9 g pictogram pg 10-12 g

Weight Conversions

1 oz = 28.3 g

1 lb = 453.6 g

1 lb = 0.45 kg

1 g = 0.035 oz

1 kg = 2.2 lb

 To Convert Multiply By To Obtain ounces 28.3 grams pounds 453.6 grams pounds 0.45 kilograms grams 0.035 ounces kilograms 2.2 pounds

Temperature Apothecary System of Weight and Volume*

 Metric Apothecary Metric Apothecary Weight Weight Volume Volume 30 g = 1 ounce 1,000 mL = 1 quart 15 g = 4 drams 500 mL = 1 pint 10 g = 2.5 drams 250 mL = 8 fl ounces 4 g = 60 grains 90 mL = 3 fl ounces (= 1 dram) 30 mL = 1 fl ounce 2 g = 30 grains 1 g = 15 grains

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*Used by pharmacists in preparing medications.

Temperature Conversions Some Equivalents

0°C = 32°F

37°C = 98.6°F

100°C = 212°F

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