1. What Is Biology?

1.1. Why the Study of Biology Is Important

1.2. Science and the Scientific Method

1.3. Science, Nonscience, and Pseudoscience

1.4. The Science of Biology


2. The Basics of Life

2.1. Matter, Energy, and Life

2.2. The Nature of Matter

2.3. The Kinetic Molecular Theory and Molecules

2.4. Molecules and Kinetic Energy

2.5. Physical Changes—Phases of Matter

2.6. Chemical Changes—Forming New Kinds of Matter

2.7. Water: The Essence of Life

2.8. Chemical Reactions

2.9. Acids, Bases, and Salts

3. Organic Molecules—The Molecules of Life

3.1. Molecules Containing Carbon

3.2. Carbohydrates

3.3. Proteins

3.4. Nucleic Acids

3.5. Lipids

4. Cell Structure and Function

4.1. The Development of the Cell Theory

4.2. Cell Size

4.3. The Structure of Cellular Membranes

4.4. Organelles Composed of Membranes

4.5. Nonmembranous Organelles

4.6. Nuclear Components

4.7. Exchange Through Membranes

4.8. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Revisited

5. Enzymes, Coenzymes, and Energy

5.1. How Cells Use Enzymes

5.2. How Enzymes Speed Chemical Reaction Rates

5.3. Cofactors, Coenzymes, and Vitamins

5.4. How the Environment Affects Enzyme Action

5.5. Cellular-Control Processes and Enzymes

5.6. Enzymatic Reactions Used in Processing Energy and Matter

6. Biochemical Pathways—Cellular Respiration

6.1. Energy and Organisms

6.2. An Overview of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

6.3. The Metabolic Pathways of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

6.4. Aerobic Cellular Respiration in Prokaryotes

6.5. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration

6.6. Metabolic Processing of Molecules Other Than Carbohydrates

7. Biochemical Pathways-Photosynthesis

7.1. Photosynthesis and Life

7.2. An Overview of Photosynthesis

7.3. The Metabolic Pathways of Photosynthesis

7.4. Other Aspects of Plant Metabolism

7.5. Interrelationships Between Autotrophs and Heterotrophs


8. DNA and RNA. The Molecular Basis of Heredity

8.1. DNA and the Importance of Proteins

8.2. DNA Structure and Function

8.3. RNA Structure and Function

8.4. Protein Synthesis

8.5. The Control of Protein Synthesis

8.6. Mutations and Protein Synthesis

9. Cell Division—Proliferation and Reproduction

9.1. Cell Division: An Overview

9.2. The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

9.3. Mitosis—Cell Replication

9.4. Controlling Mitosis

9.5. Cancer

9.6. Determination and Differentiation

9.7. Cell Division and Sexual Reproduction

9.8. Meiosis—Gamete Production

9.9. Genetic Diversity—The Biological Advantage of Sexual Reproduction

9.10. Nondisjunction and Chromosomal Abnormalities

10. Patterns of Inheritance

10.1. Meiosis, Genes, and Alleles

10.2. The Fundamentals of Genetics

10.3. Probability vs. Possibility

10.4. The First Geneticist: Gregor Mendel

10.5. Solving Genetics Problems

10.6. Modified Mendelian Patterns

10.7. Linkage

10.8. Other Influences on Phenotype

11. Applications of Biotechnology

11.1. Why Biotechnology Works

11.2. Comparing DNA

11.3. The Genetic Modification of Organisms

11.4. Stem Cells

11.5. Biotechnology Ethics


12. Diversity Within Species and Population Genetics

12.1. Genetics in Species and Populations

12.2. The Biological Species Concept

12.3. How Genetic Diversity Comes About

12.4. Why Genetically Distinct Populations Exist

12.5. Genetic Diversity in Domesticated Plants and Animals

12.6. Is It a Species or Not? The Evidence

12.7. Human Population Genetics

12.8. Ethics and Human Population Genetics

13. Evolution and Natural Selection

13.1. The Scientific Concept of Evolution

13.2. The Development of Evolutionary Thought

13.3. The Role of Natural Selection in Evolution

13.4. Common Misunderstandings About Natural Selection

13.5. What Influences Natural Selection?

13.6. The Processes. That Drive Selection

13.7. Patterns of Selection

13.8. Evolution Without Selection—Genetic Drift

13.9. Gene-Frequency Studies and the Hardy-Weinberg Concept

13.10. A Summary of the Causes of Evolutionary Change

14. The Formation of Species and Evolutionary Change

14.1. Evolutionary Patterns at the Species Level

14.2. How New Species Originate

14.3. The Maintenance of Reproductive Isolation Between Species

14.4. Evolutionary Patterns Above the Species Level

14.5. Rates of Evolution

14.6. The Tentative Nature of the Evolutionary History of Organisms

14.7. Human Evolution

15. Ecosystem Dynamics. The Flow of Energy and Matter

15.1. What Is Ecology?

15.2. Trophic Levels and Food Chains

15.3. Energy Flow Through Ecosystems

15.4. The Cycling of Materials in Ecosystems—Biogeochemical Cycles

15.5. Human Use of Ecosystems

16. Community Interactions

16.1. The Nature of Communities

16.2. Niche and Habitat

16.3. Kinds of Organism Interactions

16.4. Types of Communities

16.5. Major Aquatic Ecosystems

16.6. Succession

16.7. The Impact of Human Actions on Communities

17. Population Ecology

17.1. Population Characteristics

17.2. Reproductive Capacity

17.3. The Population Growth Curve

17.4. Limits to Population Size

17.5. Categories of Limiting Factors

17.6. Carrying Capacity

17.7. Limiting Factors to Human Population Growth

17.8. The Control of the Human Population—A Social Problem

18. Evolutionary and Ecological Aspects of Behavior

18.1. Interpreting Behavior

18.2. The Problem of Anthropomorphism

18.3. Instinctive and Learned Behavior

18.4. Kinds of Learning

18.5. Instinct and Learning in the Same Animal

18.6. Human Behavior

18.7. Selected Topics in Behavioral Ecology


19. The Origin of Life and the Evolution of Cells

19.1. Early Thoughts About the Origin of Life

19.2. Current Thinking About the Origin of Life

19.3. The "Big Bang" and the Origin of the Earth

19.4. The Chemical Evolution of Life on Earth

19.5. Major Evolutionary Changes in Early Cellular Life

19.6. The Geologic Timeline and the Evolution of Life

20. The Classification and Evolution of Organisms

20.1. The Classification of Organisms

20.2. A Brief Survey of the Domains of Life

20.3. Acellular Infectious Particles

21. The Nature of Microorganisms

21.1. What Are Microorganisms?

21.2. The Domains Bacteria and Archaea

21.3. The Kingdom Protista

21.4. Multicellularity in the Protista

21.5. The Kingdom Fungi

22. The Plants Kingdom

22.1. What Is a Plant?

22.2. Alternation of Generations

22.3. The Evolution of Plants

22.4. Nonvascular Plants

22.5. The Significance of Vascular Tissue

22.6. The Development of Roots, Stems, and Leaves

22.7. Seedless Vascular Plants

22.8. Seed-Producing Vascular Plants

22.9. The Growth of Woody Plants

22.10. Plant Responses to Their Environment

22.11. The Coevolution of Plants and Animals

23. The Animal Kingdom

23.1. What Is an Animal?

23.2. The Evolution of Animals

23.3. Temperature Regulation

23.4. Body Plans

23.5. Marine Lifestyles

23.6. Primitive Marine Animals

23.7. Platyhelminthes—Flatworms

23.8. Nematoda—Roundworms

23.9. Annelida—Segmented Worms

23.10. Mollusca

23.11. Arthropods

23.12. Echinodermata

23.13. Chordata

23.14. Adaptations to Terrestrial Life


24. Materials Exchange in the Body

24.1. The Basic Principles of Materials Exchange

24.2. Circulation: The Cardiovascular System

24.3. The Lymphatic System

24.4. Gas Exchange: The Respiratory System

24.5. Obtaining Nutrients: The Digestive System

24.6. Waste Disposal: The Excretory System

25. Nutrition. Food and Diet

25.1. Living Things as Chemical. Factories: Matter and Energy. Manipulators

25.2. The Kinds of Nutrients and Their Function

25.3. Dietary Reference Intakes

25.4. The Food Guide Pyramid

25.5. Determining Energy Needs

25.6. Eating Disorders

25.7. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle

25.8. Nutrition for Fitness and Sports

26. The Body's Control Mechanisms and Immunity

26.1. Coordination in Multicellular Animals

26.2. Nervous System Function

26.3. The Endocrine System

26.4. The Integration of Nervous and Endocrine Function

26.5. Sensory Input

26.6. Output Coordination

26.7. The Body's Defense Mechanisms—Immunity

27. Human Reproduction, Sex, and Sexuality

27.1. Sexuality from Various Points of View

27.2. The Sexuality Spectrum

27.3. Components of Human Sexual Behavior

27.4. Sex Determination and Embryonic Sexual Development

27.5. The Sexual Maturation of Young Adults

27.6. Spermatogenesis

27.7. Oogenesis, Ovulation, and Menstruation

27.8. The Hormonal Control of Fertility

27.9. Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Birth

27.10. Contraception

27.11. Termination of Pregnancy—Abortion

27.12. Changes in Sexual Function with Age

Appendix 1

Appendix 2