Chapter 28. Direct Current Circuits


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1 Chapter 28 Direct Current Circuits
2 Circuit Analysis Simple electric circuits may contain batteries, resistors, and capacitors in various combinations. For some circuits, analysis may consist of combining resistors. In more complex complicated circuits, Kirchhoff s Rules may be used for analysis. These Rules are based on conservation of energy and conservation of electric charge for isolated systems. Circuits may involve direct current or alternating current. Introduction
3 Direct Current When the current in a circuit has a constant direction, the current is called direct current. Most of the circuits analyzed will be assumed to be in steady state, with constant magnitude and direction. Because the potential difference between the terminals of a battery is constant, the battery produces direct current. The battery is known as a source of emf. Section 28.1
4 Electromotive Force The electromotive force (emf), e, of a battery is the maximum possible voltage that the battery can provide between its terminals. The emf supplies energy, it does not apply a force. The battery will normally be the source of energy in the circuit. The positive terminal of the battery is at a higher potential than the negative terminal. We consider the wires to have no resistance. Section 28.1
5 Internal Battery Resistance If the internal resistance is zero, the terminal voltage equals the emf. In a real battery, there is internal resistance, r. The terminal voltage, DV = e Ir The emf is equivalent to the opencircuit voltage. This is the terminal voltage when no current is in the circuit. This is the voltage labeled on the battery. The actual potential difference between the terminals of the battery depends on the current in the circuit. Section 28.1
6 Power The total power output of the battery is P = I ΔV = I ε This power is delivered to the external resistor (I 2 R) and to the internal resistor (I 2 r). P = I 2 R + I 2 r The battery is a supply of constant emf. The battery does not supply a constant current since the current in the circuit depends on the resistance connected to the battery. The battery does not supply a constant terminal voltage. Section 28.1
7 Resistors in Series When two or more resistors are connected endtoend, they are said to be in series. For a series combination of resistors, the currents are the same in all the resistors because the amount of charge that passes through one resistor must also pass through the other resistors in the same time interval. The potential difference will divide among the resistors such that the sum of the potential differences across the resistors is equal to the total potential difference across the combination. Section 28.2
8 Resistors in Series, cont Currents are the same I = I 1 = I 2 Potentials add ΔV = V 1 + V 2 = IR 1 + IR 2 = I (R 1 +R 2 ) Consequence of Conservation of Energy The equivalent resistance has the same effect on the circuit as the original combination of resistors. Section 28.2
9 Equivalent Resistance Series R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is the algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is always greater than any individual resistance. If one device in the series circuit creates an open circuit, all devices are inoperative. Section 28.2
10 Equivalent Resistance Series An Example All three representations are equivalent. Two resistors are replaced with their equivalent resistance. Section 28.2
11 Resistors in Parallel The potential difference across each resistor is the same because each is connected directly across the battery terminals. ΔV = ΔV 1 = ΔV 2 A junction is a point where the current can split. The current, I, that enters junction must be equal to the total current leaving that junction. I = I 1 + I 2 = (ΔV 1 / R 1 ) + (ΔV 2 / R 2 ) The currents are generally not the same. Consequence of conservation of electric charge Section 28.2
12 Equivalent Resistance Parallel, Examples All three diagrams are equivalent. Equivalent resistance replaces the two original resistances. Section 28.2
13 Equivalent Resistance Parallel Equivalent Resistance R R R R eq The inverse of the equivalent resistance of two or more resistors connected in parallel is the algebraic sum of the inverses of the individual resistance. The equivalent is always less than the smallest resistor in the group. Section 28.2
14 Resistors in Parallel, Final In parallel, each device operates independently of the others so that if one is switched off, the others remain on. In parallel, all of the devices operate on the same voltage. The current takes all the paths. The lower resistance will have higher currents. Even very high resistances will have some currents. Household circuits are wired so that electrical devices are connected in parallel. Section 28.2
15 Combinations of Resistors The 8.0W and 4.0W resistors are in series and can be replaced with their equivalent, 12.0 W The 6.0W and 3.0W resistors are in parallel and can be replaced with their equivalent, 2.0 W These equivalent resistances are in series and can be replaced with their equivalent resistance, 14.0 W Section 28.2
16 Kirchhoff s Rules There are ways in which resistors can be connected so that the circuits formed cannot be reduced to a single equivalent resistor. Two rules, called Kirchhoff s rules, can be used instead. Section 28.3
17 Kirchhoff s Junction Rule Junction Rule The sum of the currents at any junction must equal zero. Currents directed into the junction are entered into the equation as +I and those leaving as I. A statement of Conservation of Charge Mathematically, junction I 0 Section 28.3
18 More about the Junction Rule I 1  I 2  I 3 = 0 Required by Conservation of Charge Diagram (b) shows a mechanical analog Section 28.3
19 Kirchhoff s Loop Rule Loop Rule The sum of the potential differences across all elements around any closed circuit loop must be zero. A statement of Conservation of Energy Mathematically, DV 0 closed loop Section 28.3
20 More about the Loop Rule Traveling around the loop from a to b In (a), the resistor is traversed in the direction of the current, the potential across the resistor is IR. In (b), the resistor is traversed in the direction opposite of the current, the potential across the resistor is is + IR. Section 28.3
21 Loop Rule, final In (c), the source of emf is traversed in the direction of the emf (from to +), and the change in the potential difference is +ε. In (d), the source of emf is traversed in the direction opposite of the emf (from + to ), and the change in the potential difference is ε. Section 28.3
22 Equations from Kirchhoff s Rules Use the junction rule as often as needed, so long as each time you write an equation, you include in it a current that has not been used in a previous junction rule equation. In general, the number of times the junction rule can be used is one fewer than the number of junction points in the circuit. The loop rule can be used as often as needed so long as a new circuit element (resistor or battery) or a new current appears in each new equation. In order to solve a particular circuit problem, the number of independent equations you need to obtain from the two rules equals the number of unknown currents. Any capacitor acts as an open branch in a circuit. The current in the branch containing the capacitor is zero under steadystate conditions. Section 28.3
23 RC Circuits In direct current circuits containing capacitors, the current may vary with time. The current is still in the same direction. An RC circuit will contain a series combination of a resistor and a capacitor. Section 28.4
24 RC Circuit, Example Section 28.4
25 Charging a Capacitor When the circuit is completed, the capacitor starts to charge. The capacitor continues to charge until it reaches its maximum charge (Q = Cε). Once the capacitor is fully charged, the current in the circuit is zero. As the plates are being charged, the potential difference across the capacitor increases. At the instant the switch is closed, the charge on the capacitor is zero. Once the maximum charge is reached, the current in the circuit is zero. The potential difference across the capacitor matches that supplied by the battery. Section 28.4
26 Charging a Capacitor in an RC Circuit The charge on the capacitor varies with time. q(t) = Ce(1 e t/rc ) = Q(1 e t/rc ) The current can be found I( t) ε e R t RC t is the time constant t = RC Section 28.4
27 Time Constant, Charging The time constant represents the time required for the charge to increase from zero to 63.2% of its maximum. t has units of time The energy stored in the charged capacitor is ½ Qe = ½ Ce 2. Section 28.4
28 Discharging a Capacitor in an RC Circuit When a charged capacitor is placed in the circuit, it can be discharged. q(t) = Qe t/rc The charge decreases exponentially. Section 28.4
29 Discharging Capacitor At t = t = RC, the charge decreases to Q max In other words, in one time constant, the capacitor loses 63.2% of its initial charge. The current can be found dq Q I t e dt RC t RC Both charge and current decay exponentially at a rate characterized by t = RC. Section 28.4
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