Bibliography - Medical Microbiology

Medical Microbiology



Updates on infectious diseases can be obtained via (worldwide);; (USA); (UK), (Europe).

Chapter 1

Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10th edition. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell; 2007.

A multi-volume text which, though published some years ago, still gives detailed accounts of all the organisms covered in Medical Microbiology.

Updates on progress with genome sequencing of infectious organisms are available on the websites of the Wellcome Sanger Institute ( and The J. Craig Venter Institute (

Chapter 2

Beiting D.P., Roos D.S. A systems biological view of intracellular pathogens. Immunol Rev. 2011;240:117–128.

Gomez J.E., Clatworthy A., Hung D.T. Probing bacterial pathogenesis with genetics, genomics, and chemical biology: past, present, and future approaches. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;46:41–66.

La M.V., Raoult D., Renesto P. Regulation of whole bacterial pathogen transcription within infected hosts. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:440–460.

Pallen M.J., Loman N.J., Penn C.W. High-throughput sequencing and clinical microbiology: progress, opportunities and challenges. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010;13:625–631.

Shames S.R., Auweter S.D., Finlay B.B. Co-evolution and exploitation of host cell signaling pathways by bacterial pathogens. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:380–389.

Chapter 3

Zheng Z.-M. Viral oncogenes, non coding RNAs and RNS splicing in human tumor viruses. Int J Biol Sci. 2010;6:730–755.

Moore P.S., Chang Y. Why do viruses cause cancer? Highlights of the first century of human tumour virology. Nature Reviews. 2010;10:878–889.

Chapter 4

Howard D.H., ed. Pathogenic fungi in humans and animals. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003.

A multi-author update on recent work in fungal research.

Merz W.G., Hay R.J. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Medical Mycology, 10th edition, London: Hodder Arnold, 2007.

A detailed account of those fungi which cause disease in humans.

Hibbett D.S., et al. A higher level phylogenetic classification of the fungi. Mycol Res. 2007;111:507–547.

Chapter 5

Cox F.E.G., Wakelin D., Gillespie S.H., Despommier D.D. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Parasitology, 10th edition, London: Hodder Arnold, 2007.

Wiser M.F. Protozoa and Human Disease. New York: Garland Science; 2010.

Chapter 6

Brindley P.J., et al. Helminth genomics: the implications for human health. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e538.

Cox F.E.G., Wakelin D., Gillespie S.H., Despommier D.D. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Parasitology, 10th edition., London: Edward Arnold, 2007.

A multi-author update including sections on all the important helminth parasites of humans.

Despommier D.D., et al. Parasitic Diseases, 5th edition. New York: Apple Trees Productions; 2006.

Spielman A., et al. Arthropod vectors and human disease: an epidemiological approach. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press; 2010.

A well-illustrated text on human parasitology.

Chapter 7

Clewley J.P., Kelly C.M., Andrews N., et al. Prevalence of disease related prion protein in anonymous tonsil specimens in Britain: cross sectional opportunistic survey. BMJ. 2009;338:1442.

Wadsworth J.D.F., Asante E.A., Collinge J. Review: Contribution of transgenic models to understanding human prion disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2010;36:576–597.

Ironside J.W. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Haemophilia. 2010 Jul;16(Suppl 5):175–180.

Chapter 8

Murray P.R.. Human microbiota. Borriello S.P., Murray P.R., Funke G. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Bacteriology, 10th edition, London: Hodder Arnold, 2007.

Webster J.P. Natural History of Host-Parasite Interactions. In Advances in Parasitology. London: Elsevier; 2009. vol. 68

Chapter 9

Alt F, Marrack P, eds. Curr Opin Immunol. ISSN: 0952-7915.

Appears bi-monthly. Issue no. 1 of each volume deals with ‘Innate Immunity’.

Male D., Brostoff J., Roth D.B., Roitt I.M. Immunology, 7th edition. London: Mosby Elsevier; 2006.

Kaufmann S.H.E., Medzhitov R., Gordon S. The Innate Immune Response to Infection. Washington: ASM Press, 2004.

Chapter 10

Alt F, Marrack P, eds. Curr Opin Immunol. ISSN: 0952-7915

Appears bi-monthly. Issue no. 4 of each volume deals with ‘Immunity to Infection’.

Bottazzi B., Doni A., Garlanda C., Mantovani A. An integrated view of humoral innate immunity: pentraxins as a paradigm. Annu Rev Immunol. 2010;28:157–183.

Creagh E.M., O’Neill L.A. TLRs, NLRs and RIRs: a trinity of pathogen sensors that co-operate in innate immunity. Trends Immunol. 2006;8:352–357.

Delves P.J., Roitt I.M. Encyclopedia of Immunology, 2nd edition, London: Academic Press, 1998.

Contains articles on IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE and immunoglobulin function and domains.

Delves P.J., Martin S., Burton D., Roitt I.M. Roitt’s Essential Immunology, 12th edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2011. Chapters 1–5

Flannagan R.S., Cosio G., Grinstein S. Antimicrobial mechanisms of phagocytes and bacterial evasion strategies. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7:355–366.

Medzhitov R. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature. 2008;454:428–435.

Palm N.W., Medzhitov R. Pattern recognition receptors and control of adaptive immunity. Immunol Rev. 2009;227:221–233.

Ricklin D., Hajishengalis G., Yang K., Lambris J.D. Complement; a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:785–797.

Schroeder H.W.Jr., Cavacini L. Structure and function of immunoglobulins. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:S41–S52.

Chapter 11

Alt F, Marrack P, eds. Curr Opin Immunol. ISSN: 0952-7915

Appears bi-monthly. Issues 1, 2 and 3 of each volume contain critical reviews.

Batista F.D., Harwood N.E. The who, how and where of antigen presentation to B cells. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9:15–27.

Delves P.J., Martin S., Burton D., Roitt I.M. Roitt’s Essential Immunology, 12th edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2011.

Korn T., Bettelli E., Oukka M., Kuchroo V.K. IL-17 and Th17 cells. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:485–517.

Littman D.R., Rudensky A.Y. Th17 and regulatory T cells in mediating and restraining inflammation. Cell. 140, 2010. 845–458

Male D., Brostoff J., Roth D.B., Roitt I.M. Immunology, 8th edition, London: Mosby Elsevier, 2011. Chapters 1–6

Mueller D.L. Mechanisms maintaining peripheral tolerance. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:21–27.

Rudensky A.Y. Molecular analysis of Tregs. Annu Rev Immunol. 29, 2011.

Smith-Garvin J.E., Kennedy G.A., Jordan M.S. T cell activation. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:591–619.

Chapter 12

Jong E.C., Stevens D.L. Netter’s Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2011.

Schlossberg D., ed. Clinical Infectious Disease. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Williams J.V. Deja vu all over again: Koch’s postulates and virology in the 21st century. J Infect Dis. 2010;11:1611–1614.

Chapter 13

Beiting D.P., Roos D.S. A systems biological view of intracellular pathogens. Immunol Rev. 2011;240:117–128.

Hunstad D.A., Justice S.S. Intracellular lifestyles and immune evasion strategies of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2010;64:203–221.

Keele B.F., Derdeyn C.A. Genetic and antigenic features of the transmitted virus. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009;4:352–357.

Lavine J.S., Poss M., Grenfell B.T. Directly transmitted viral diseases: modeling the dynamics of transmission. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:165–172.

Peleg A.Y., Hogan D.A., Mylonakis E. Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:340–349.

Pulzova L., Bhide M.R., Andrej K. Pathogen translocation across the blood-brain barrier. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;57:203–213.

Vandemark L.M., Jia T.W., Zhou X.N. Social science implications for control of helminth infections in Southeast Asia. Adv Parasitol. 2010;73:137–170.

Wang L.J., Cao Y., Shi H.N. Helminth infections and intestinal inflammation. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:5125–5132.

Chapter 14

Maizels R.M., Pearce E.J., Artis D., Yazdanbakhsh M., Wynn T.A. Regulation of pathogenesis and immunity in helminth infections. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2059–2066.

Rouse B.T., Sahrawat S. Immunity and immunopathology to viruses: what decides the outcome? Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:514–526.

Vivier E., Raulet D.H., Moretta A., Caligiuri M.A., Zitvogel L., Lanier L.L., Yokoyama W.M., Ugolini S. Innate or adaptive immunity? The example of natural killer cells. Science. 2011;331:44–49.

Immunological Reviews. Special issue: Intracellular Pathogens. 2011;240:5–317.

Chapter 15

McColl B.W., Allan S.M., Rothwell N.J. Systemic infection, inflammation and acute ischemic stroke. Neuroscience. 2009;158:1049–1061.

Teeling J.L., Perry V.H. Systemic infection and inflammation in acute CNS injury and chronic neurodegeneration: underlying mechanisms. Neuroscience. 2009;158:1062–1073.

Loutet S.A., Valvano M.A. A decade of Burkholderia cenocepacia virulence determinant research. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4088–4100.

Somerville G.A., Proctor R.A. At the crossroads of bacterial metabolism and virulence factor synthesis in Staphylococci. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2009;73:233–248.

Simpson R.J. Aging, persistent viral infections, and immunosenescence: can exercise “make space”? Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2011;39:23–33.

Chapter 16

Lambris D., Rickin D., Geisbrecht B.V. Complement evasion by human pathogens. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008;6:132. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1824

Trifonov V., Khiabanian H., Rabadan R. Geographic dependence, surveillance, and origins of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:115–119.

Chapter 17

Le Douce V., Herbein G., Rohr O., Schwartz C. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence in the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Retrovirology. 2010;7:32.

Moir S., Chun T.W., Fauci A.S. Pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease. Annu Rev Pathol. 2011;6:223–248.

Wilke G.A., Wardenburg J.B. Role of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 in Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin–mediated cellular injury. PNAS. 2010;107:13473–13478.

Chapter 18

Bermon S. Airway inflammation and upper respiratory tract infection in athletes: is there a link? Exerc Immunol Rev. 2007;13:6–14.

Jackson S.J., Steer A.C., Campbell H. Systematic Review: Estimation of global burden of non-suppurative sequelae of upper respiratory tract infection: rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:2–11.

Kimura H. Pathogenesis of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection: Is this an infectious disease, lymphoproliferative disorder, or immunodeficiency? Rev Med Virol. 2006;16:251–261.

Ryan M.W. Evaluation and management of the patient with “sinus”. Med Clin North Am. 2010;94:881–889.

Chapter 19

Alonzo de Velasco E., Verheul A.F., Verhoef J., Snipple H. Streptococcus pneumoniae: virulence factors, pathogenesis, and vaccines. Microbiol Rev. 1995;59:591–603.

Couch R.B., Kasel J.A., Glezen W.P., et al. Influenza: Its control in persons and populations. J Infect Dis. 1986;153:431–447.

Department of Health and Welsh Office. The control of legionellae in health care premises. London: HMSO; 1988.

Fauci A.S. Seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness: science and countermeasures. J Infect Dis. 2006;194(Suppl 2):S73–S76.

Fauci A.S. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: influenza as a prototype of the host-pathogen balancing act. Cell. 2006;124:665–670.

Govan J.R.W., Glass S. The microbiology and therapy of cystic fibrosis lung infections. Rev Med Microbiol. 1990;1:19–28.

Hayden F.G. Antivirals for influenza: historical perspectives and lessons learned. Antiviral Res. 2006;71:372–378.

Hutchinson D.N. Nosocomial legionellosis. Rev Med Microbiol. 1990;1:108–115.

Jacobs E. Mycoplasma pneumoniae virulence factors and the immune response. Rev Med Microbiol. 1991;2:83–90.

Kash J.C., Tumpey T.M., Proll S.C., et al. Genomic analysis of increased host immune and cell death responses induced by 1918 influenza virus. Nature. 2006;443:578–581.

Kawaoka Y., Webster R.G. Molecular mechanisms of acquisition of virulence in influenza virus in nature. Microb Pathog. 1988;5:311–318.

Kunst H., Mack D., Kon O.M., et al. Parasitic Infections of the Lung: a Guide for the Respiratory Physician. Thorax. 2010. epub ahead of print

La Via W.V., Marks M.I., Stutman H.R. Respiratory syncytial virus puzzles. Clinical features, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention. J Pediatr. 1992;121:503–510.

Marrie T.J., Grayston J.T., Wang P., Kuo C.-C. Pneumonia associated with the TWAR strain of Chlamydia. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106:507–511.

Miller R., Huang L. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Thorax. 2004;59:731–733.

Moser M.R., Bender T.R., Marelolis N.S., et al. An outbreak of influenza aboard a commercial airliner. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110:1–7.

Pedersen S.S. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 1989;60(Suppl):89–97.

Sudre P., ten Dam G., Kochi A. Tuberculosis: a global overview of the situation today. Bull WHO. 1992;70:149–159.

Webster R.G., Bean W.J., Gorman O.T., et al. Evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Microbiol Rev. 1992;56:152–179.

Van den Hoogen B.G., de Jong J.C., Groen J., et al. A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat Med. 2001;7:719–724.

Chapter 20

Dielubanza E.J., Schaeffer A.J. Urinary tract infections in women. Med Clin North Am. 2011;95:27–41.

Foxman B. The epidemiology of urinary tract infection. Nat Rev Urol. 2010;7:653–660.

Larcombe J. Urinary tract infection in children. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82:1252–1256.

Litza J.A., Brill J.R. Urinary tract infections. Prim Care. 2010;37:491–507.

Chapter 21

Barouch D.H. Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature. 2008;455:613–619.

Cohen M.S., Shaw G.M., McMichael A.J., Haynes B.F. Acute HIV-1 infection. NEJM. 2011;364:1943–1954.

Greer L., Wendel G.D.Jr. Rapid diagnostic methods in sexually transmitted infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:601–617.

Hay P., Ugwumadu A. Detecting and treating common sexually transmitted diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;23:647–660.

Health Protection Agency. Health Protection Report. vol. 4, No. 47. Published on: 26 November HIV in the United Kingdom: 2010 Report

Johnson V.A., Brun-Vezinet F., Clotet B., Gunthard H.F., Kuritzkes D.R., Pillay D., Schapiro J.M., Richman D.D. Update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1: December 2010. Top HIV Med. 2010;18:156–163.

Moir S., Chun T.-W., Fauci A.S. Pathogenic mechanisms of HIV Disease. Annu Rev Pathol Mech Dis. 2011;6:223–448.

Sadeghi-Nejad H., Wasserman M., Weidner W., Richardson D., Goldmeier D. Sexually transmitted diseases and sexual function. J Sex Med. 2010;7:389–413.

Tebit D.N., Arts D.J. Tracking a century of global expansion and evolution of HIV to drive understanding and to combat disease. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:45–56.

Thompson M.A., Aberg J.A., Cahn P., Montaner J.S., Rizzardini G., Telenti A., Gatell J.M., Gunthard H.F., Hammer S.M., Hirsch M.S., Jacobsen D.M., Reiss P., Richman D.D., Volberding P.A., Yeni P., Schooley R.T. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2010 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. JAMA. 2010;304:321–333.

Chapter 22

Ghoshal U.C., Ranjan P. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: the past, the present and the future. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26(Suppl 3):94–101.

Ham M., Kaunitz J.D. Gastroduodenal mucosal defense. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008;24:665–673.

O’Brien S.J., Halder S.L. GI Epidemiology: infection epidemiology and acute gastrointestinal infections. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;25:669–674.

Pawlotsky J.M. Virology of hepatitis B and C viruses and antiviral targets. J Hepatol. 2006;44(Suppl 1):S10–S13.

Pawlotsky J.M., Gish R.G. Future therapies for hepatitis C. Antivir Ther. 2006;11:397–408.

Phillips A. Pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infection. Clin Med. 2008;8:299–300.

Radford D.A., Gaskell R.M., Hart C.A. Human norovirus infection and the lessons from animal caliciviruses. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:471–478.

Verna E.C., Brown R.S.Jr. Hepatitis C virus and liver transplantation. Clin Liver Dis. 2006;10:919–940.

Chapter 23

Dammann O., Leviton A., Gappa M., Dammann D.E. Lung and brain damage in preterm newborns, and their association with gestational age, prematurity subgroup, infection/inflammation and long term outcome. BJOG. 2005;112(Suppl 1):4–9.

Edwards A.D., Tan S. Perinatal infections, prematurity and brain injury. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2006;18:119–124.

Griffiths P.D. Progress towards interrupting intrauterine transmission of CMV? Rev Med Virol. 2006;16:1–4.

Lam N.C., Gotsch P.B., Langan R.C. Caring for pregnant women and newborns with hepatitis B or C. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82:1225–1229.

Larsen J.W., Sever J.L. Group B Streptococcus and pregnancy: a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:440–448.

Noyola D.E., Jimenez-Capdeville M.E., Demmler-Harrison G.J. Central nervous system disorders in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Neurol Res. 2010;32:278–284.

Tharpe N. Postpregnancy genital and wound infections. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2008;53:236–246.

Chapter 24

Aiken A.H. Central nervous system infection. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2010;20:557–580.

Beer R., Lackner P., Pfausler B., Schmutzhard E. Nosocomial ventriculitis and meningitis in neurocritical care patients. J Neurol. 2008;255:1617–1624.

Chuka K.B., Bellini W.J., Rota P.A., et al. Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science. 2000;288:1432–1435.

Cook T.M., Protheroe R.T., Handel J.M. Tetanus: a review of the literature. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87:477–487.

Prusiner S.B.. Human prion diseases. Zuckerman A.J., ed. Principles and Practice of Clinical Virology, 4th edition, Chichester: Wiley, 2000.

Roos K.L. West Nile encephalitis and myelitis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004;17:343–346.

Tunkel A.R. Bacterial Meningitis. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

Walker M.D., Zunt J.R. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes. Semin Neurol. 2005;25:252–261.

Whitley R.J. Herpes simplex encephalitis: adolescents and adults. Antiviral Res. 2006;71:141–148.

Whitley R.J., Gnann J.W. Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens. Lancet. 2002;359:507–514.

Ye S., Yang C.D. Central nervous system infections in the systemic vasculitides. Curr Opin Neurol. 2008;21:342–346.

Chapter 25

Cox F.E.G., Wakelin D., Gillespie S.H., Despommier D.D. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Parasitology, 10th edition, Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

Chapters deal with the major parasite groups that have representatives associated with infections of the eye.

Cronau H., Kankanala R.R., Mauger T. Diagnosis and management of red eye in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81:137–144.

Gregory M., Callegan M.C., Gilmore M.S. Role of bacterial and host factors in infectious endophthalmitis. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2007;92:266–275.

Kalkanci A., Ozdek S. Ocular fungal infections. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:179–189.

Mueller J.B., McStay C.M. Ocular infection and inflammation. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26:57–72.

Chapter 26

Curcio D. Resistant pathogen-associated skin and skin-structure infections: antibiotic options. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:1019–1036.

Grice E.A., Segre J.A. The skin microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:244–253.

Kish T.D., Chang M.H., Fung H.B. Treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in the elderly: A review. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2010;8:485–513.

Kujath P., Kujath C. Complicated skin, skin structure and soft tissue infections - are we threatened by multi-resistant pathogens? Eur J Med Res. 15, 2010. 544–453

Menendez-Arias L. Evidence and controversies on the role of XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Rev Med Virol. 2011;21:3–17.

Roberts D.T., Taylor W.D., Boyle J. Guidelines for treatment of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 2003;148:402–410.

Rodgers S., Leslie K.S. Skin infections in HIV-infected individuals in the era of HAART. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:124–129.

Uldrick T.S., Whitby D. Update on KSHV epidemiology, Kaposi Sarcoma pathogenesis, and treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma. Cancer Lett. 2011;305:150–162.

Chapter 27

Chiodini P.L., Moody A.H., Manser D.W. Atlas of Medical Helminthology and Protozoology, 4th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2001.

Cleri D.J., Ricketti A.J., Porwancher R.B., et al. Viral hemorrhagic fevers: current status of endemic disease and strategies for control. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006;20:359–393.

Daneshvar C., Davis T.M., Cox-Singh J., et al. Clinical and laboratory features of human Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 15;49(6):852–860.

Goodman J.L., Dennis D.T., Sonenshine D.E. Tick-borne diseases of humans. Virginia: ASM Press, 2005.

Kiauss H., Weber A., Appel M., et al. Zoonoses. Infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans. Virginia: ASM Press, 2003.

Labeaud A.D., Bashir F., King C.H. Measuring the burden of arboviral diseases: the spectrum of morbidity and mortality from four prevalent infections. Popul Health Metr. 2011 Jan 10;9(1):1.

Murray K.O., Mertens E., Despres P. West Nile virus and its emergence in the United States of America. Vet Res. 2010 Nov-Dec;41(6):67.

Ndip L.M., Biswas H.H., Nfonsam L.E., et al. Risk Factors for African Tick-Bite Fever in Rural Central Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Ap;84(4):608–613.

Petersen L.R., Marfin A.A., Gubler D.J. West Nile virus. JAMA. 2003;290:524–528.

Service M.W., ed. Encyclopedia of Arthropod-Transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated Animals. Wallingford, Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2001.

Thiboutot M.M., Kannan S., Kawalekar O.U., et al. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Apr 27;4(4):e623.

Whitty C.J., Lalloo D., Ustianowski A. Malaria: an update on treatment of adults in non-endemic countries. BMJ. 2006;333:241–245.

WHO. Dengue Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control. Geneva: WHO; 2009.

Available at

Yun O., Priotto G., Tong J., et al. NECT is next: implementing the new drug combination therapy for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 May 25;4(5):e720.

Updates on arbovirus infections are available at:

Chapter 28

Chomel B.B., Sun B. Zoonoses in the bedroom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:167–172.

Christou L. The global burden of bacterial and viral zoonotic infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:326–330.

Coker R., Rushton J., Mounier-Jack S., Karimuribo E., Lutumba P., Kambarage D., Pfeiffer D.U., Stark K., Rweyemamu M. Towards a conceptual framework to support one-health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:326–331.

Feng Y., Xiao L. Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:110–140.

Hartskeerl R.A., Collares-Pereira M., Ellis W.A. Emergence, control and re-emerging leptospirosis: dynamics of infection in the changing world. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:494–501.

Prugnolle F., Durand P., Ollomo B., Duval L., Ariey F., Arnathau C., Gonzalez J.P., Leroy E., Renaud F. A fresh look at the origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the most malignant malaria agent. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001283.

Singh B.B., Sharma R., Sharma J.K., Juyal P.D. Parasitic zoonoses in India: an overview. Rev Sci Tech. 2010;29:629–637.

Vrbova L., Stephen C., Kasman N., Boehnke R., Doyle-Waters M., Chablitt-Clark A., Gibson B., FitzGerald M., Patrick D.M. Systematic review of surveillance systems for emerging zoonoses. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:154–161.

WHO Informal Working Group. International classification of ultrasound images in cystic echinococcosis for application in clinical and field epidemiological settings. Acta Trop. 2003 Feb;85(2):253–261.

Chapter 29

Antonyrajah B., Mukundan D. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2008;20:96–102.

Bleeker-Rovers C.P., van der Meer J.W., Oyen W.J. Fever of unknown origin. Semin Nucl Med. 2009;39:81–87.

Chow A., Robinson J.L. Fever of unknown origin in children: a systematic review. World J Pediatr. 2011;7:5–10.

Dimopoulos G., Falagas M.E. Approach to the febrile patient in the ICU. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009;23:471–484.

Tolan R.W.Jr. Fever of unknown origin: a diagnostic approach to this vexing problem. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010;49:207–213.

Williams J., Bellamy R. Fever of unknown origin. Clin Med. 2008;8:526–530.

Chapter 30

Fishman J.A. Overview: fungal infections in the transplant patient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2002;4(Suppl 3):3–11.

Fishman J.A. Infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2601–2614.

Fishman J.A. Infection in renal transplant recipients. Semin Nephrol. 2007;27:445–461.

Fishman J.A. New technologies for infectious screening of organ donors. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:2443–2445.

Groll A.H., Walsh T.J. Uncommon opportunistic fungi: new nosocomial threats. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001;7(Suppl 2):8–24.

Ison M.G., Fishman J.A. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant recipients. Clin Chest Med. 2005;26:691–705.

Kotton C.N. Vaccination and immunization against travel-related diseases in immunocompromised hosts. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:663–672.

Linden P.K. Approach to the immunocompromised host with infection in the intensive care unit. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009;23:535–556.

Spencer S.P., Power N. The acute abdomen in the immune compromised host. Cancer Imaging. 2008;8:93–101.

Chapter 31

Forbes B.A., Sahm D.F., Weissfeld A. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th edition. St Louis: Mosby; 2007.

Garcia L.S., ed. Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd edition, Washington: American Society for Microbiology, 2010.

McPherson R.A., Pincus M.R. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 21st edition, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2006.

Larone D.L. Medically Important Fungi: a Guide to Identification, 5th edition. Washington: American Society for Microbiology; 2011.

Persing D.H., Tenover F.C., Versalovic J., et al. Molecular Microbiology: Diagnostic Principles and Practice, 2nd edition, Washington: American Society for Microbiology, 2010.

Rose N.R. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 6th edition. Washington: American Society for Microbiology; 2002.

Versalofic J., ed. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th edition, Washington: American Society for Microbiology, 2011.

Chapter 32

Gordis L. Epidemiology, 4th edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2008.

Chapter 33

Brunton L., Chabner B.A., Knollmann B.C. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011.

Dienstag J.L., Hepatitis B. virus infection. NEJM. 2008;359:1486–1500.

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Gilbert D.N., Moellering R.C., Eliopoulos G.M., Chambers H.F., Saag M.S. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, 41st edition. Sperryville, Virginia: Antimicrobial Therapy Inc; 2011.

Saag M.S., Chambers H.F., Eliopoulos G.M., et al. The Sanford Guide to HIV/AIDS Therapy 2011, 19th edition. Sperryville, Virginia: Antimicrobial Therapy Inc; 2011.

Sucher A.J., Chahine E.B., Balcer H.E. Echinocandins: The Newest Class of Antifungals. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:1643–1657.

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Versalofic J., ed. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th edition, Washington: American Society for Microbiology, 2011.

Chapter 34

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atkinson W., Wolfe S., Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (“The Pink Book”), 12th edition, Washington DC: Public Health Foundation, 2011.

Also available at:

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McElrath M.J., Haynes B.F. Induction of immunity to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by vaccination. Immunity. 2010;33:542–554.

Chapter 35

Casadevall A., Dadachova E., Pirofski L.A. Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:695–703.

Chan A.C., Carter P.J. Therapeutic antibodies for autoimmunity and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:301–316.

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Chapter 36

Alangaden G.J. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, infection control, and prevention. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2011;25:201–225.

Cook E., Marchaim D., Kaye K.S. Building a successful infection prevention program: key components, processes, and economics. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2011;25:1–19.

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Mayhall C.G. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 3rd edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Sydnor E.R., Perl T.M. Hospital epidemiology and infection control in acute-care settings. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:141–173.

Wenzel R.P., Bearmann G.M.L., Brewer T.F., Butzler J.P. A Guide to Infection Control in the Hospital, 4th edition. Boston: International Society of Infectious Diseases; 2008.

Zuckerman J.M. Prevention of health care-acquired pneumonia and transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health care settings. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2011;25:117–133.

Useful Websites

ACGM Compendium of Guidance

AJIC – American Journal of Infection Control

AMEDEO free medical literature service

American Society for Microbiiology

AMM home page

Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response

BMJ publishing group reviews of clinical evidence for medical practice

British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

(Contains latest advice on susceptibility testing)

CDC-Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Homepage

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Directory of medical and veterinary ecto and endoparasites.

Doctor’s Guide Personal Edition

Electronic Guidelines on effective healthcare or

EPIC – Evidence Based Practice in Infection Control

Federation of the European Societies for Chemotherapy and Infections

Fit for travel

Food Standards Agency

Free medical journals

The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis

Health Protection Agency England, Wales and Northern Ireland

Hospital Infection Society

IDSA Home Page

Infection Control Nurses Association – UK

Infectious Disease News from WHO

International Travel and Health

Intestinal Parasites

Johns Hopkins Division of Infectious Diseases Antibiotic Guidelines

Leprosy Info

Metaregister of controlled trials

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

National Institute for Clinical Excellence summary of guidance issued to the NHS in England and Wales

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS)

National Travel Health Network and Centre, UK, for online information on vaccines required for travellers

Rila Publications Ltd

Roll Back Malaria

Royal College of Pathologists website for information on courses, links to other learned societies and discussion sites

Sanford Guides – Antimicrobial Therapy & HIV/AIDS Therapy

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network

SHEA – Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America

The Stop Tuberculosis Initiative website

Surveillance and Response

TDR Home Page: The UNDP-World Bank-WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease

Therapeutic Guidelines

UK Clinical Virology Network

UK HPA Malaria Reference Laboratory

UK NEQAS Microbiology home page

Update on current literature and meetings reports, can be focused to infectious diseases

WHO Child Health and Development

WHO Infectious Diseases report

WHO Influenza virus vaccine compositions

WHO International Travel and Health

WHO Tuberculosis – Prevention and Control

WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record

WHO/OMS Vaccines and Biologicals

WHO/OMS: World Health Organization