The Biology Book: From the Origin of Life to Epigenetics, 250 Milestones in the History of Biology (2015)

Further Reading

Many sources have been used to write this book, only some of which we have listed. We have also included these readings to provide you with sources for greater in-depth information on the topics discussed. We welcome your comments about any significant or interesting milestones in biology that might be included in future editions of this book at mcgeraldweb@gmail.com.

General Reading and Sources

Alberts, B., et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science, 2007.

Alcock, J., Animal Behavior. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2013.

Gardner, E. J., History of Biology. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing, 1972.

Kandel, E. R. (ed.), et al., Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2012.

Kardong, K., Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.

Mauseth, J. D., Botany. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett, 2012.

Nelson, D. L., et al., Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012.

Pierce, B. A., Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2010.

Reece, J. B., et al., Campbell Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2013.

Sherwood, L., et al., Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms. Independence, KY: Cengage, 2012.

Smith, T. M., Elements of Ecology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

Tortora, G. J., et al., Microbiology: An Introduction. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

c. 4 Billion BCE, Origin of Life

Dyson, F, Origin of Life. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

c. 3.9 Billion BCE, Last Universal Common Ancestor

Woese, C., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1998 95(11): 9710.

c. 3.9 Billion BCE, Prokaryotes

Lengeler, J. (ed.), et al., Biology of Prokaryotes. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999.

White, D., et al., The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes. New York: Oxford University Press. 2011.

c. 2.5 Billion BCE, Algae

Graham, J. E., et al., Algae. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008.

c. 2 Billion BCE, Eukaryotes

Keeling, P., et al., Eukaryotes, http://tolweb.org. Tree of Life Web Project.

c. 1.4 Billion BCE, Fungi

Petersen, J. H., The Kingdom of Fungi. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013.

c. 570 Million BCE, Arthropods

Minelli, A. (ed.), et al., Arthropod Biology and Evolution: Molecules, Development, Morphology. New York: Springer, 2013.

c. 530 Million BCE, Medulla: The Vital Brain

Kandel, E. R. (ed.), et al., Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2012.

c. 530 Million BCE, Fish

Bone, Q., Biology of Fishes. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2008.

Helfman, G., et al., The Diversity of Fishes: Biology, Evolution, and Ecology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

c. 450 Million BCE, Land Plants

Lewis, L. A., et al., American Journal Botany. 2004 91(10): 1535.

c. 417 Million BCE, Devonian Period

McGhee, G. R., When the Invasion of Land Failed: The Legacy of the Devonian Extinctions. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.

c. 400 Million BCE, Insects

Daly, H. V., et al., Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Gullan, P. J., The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

c. 400 Million BCE, Plant Defenses against Herbivores

Howe, H. F., Ecological Relationships of Plants and Animals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

c. 360 Million BCE, Amphibians

Duellman W. E., et al., Biology of Amphibians. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Wells, K. D., The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

c. 350 Million BCE, Seeds of Success

Bewley, J. D., et al., Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy. New York: Springer, 2012.

c. 320 Million BCE, Reptiles

Vitt, L. J., et al., Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. New York: Academic Press, 2013

c. 300 Million BCE, Gymnosperms

Bhatnagar, S. P., Gymnosperms. New Delhi: New Age International, 1996.

c. 230 Million BCE, Dinosaurs

Fastovsky, D. E., et al., Dinosaurs: A Concise Natural History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Samson, S. D., Dinosaur Odyssey: Fossil Threads in the Web of Life, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009.

c. 200 Million BCE, Mammals

Attenborough, D., The Life of Mammals. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Macdonald, D. W., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Mammals. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

c. 150 Million BCE, Birds

Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology Handbook of Bird Biology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

c. 125 Million BCE, Angiosperms

Soltis, P.S., et al., Phylogeny and Evolution of Angiosperms. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 2005.

c. 65 Million BCE, Primates

Fleagle, J. G., Primate Adaption and Evolution. New York: Academic Press, 2013.

Nystrom, P., et al., The Life of Primates. Cambridge, UK: Pearson, 2008.

c. 55 Million BCE, Amazon Rainforest

Morgan, B., Rainforest. London: DK, 2006.

c. 350,000 BCE, Neanderthals

Papagianni, D., et al., The Neanderthals Rediscovered: How Modern Science is Rewriting Their History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2013.

c. 200,000 BCE, Anatomically Modern Humans

Lieberman, D., The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease. New York: Pantheon, 2013.

Smith, F. H., et al., The Origins of Modern Humans: Biology Reconsidered. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

c. 60,000 BCE, Plant-Derived Medicines

Gerald, M. C., The Drug Book: From Arsenic to Xanax, 250 Milestones in the History of Drugs. New York: Sterling, 2013.

Pendleton, J., Plants as Medicine: Healing Compounds Derived from Medicinal Herbs. Traditional Healing Press, 2013.

c. 11,000 BCE, Wheat: The Staff of Life

Kirby, E. J. M., Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations—Botany of the Wheat Plant.

c. 10,000 BCE, Agriculture

Denison, R. F., Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.

c. 10,000 BCE, Domestication of Animals

Manning, A., et al., Animals and Human Society: Changing Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 1994.

c. 8000 BCE, Coral Reefs

Sheppard, C. R. C., et al., The Biology of Coral Reefs (Biology of Habitats). New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

c. 7000 BCE, Rice Cultivation

Tsunoda, S. (ed.), Biology of Rice. New York: Elsevier Science (1984).

c. 2600 BCE, Mummification

Aufderheide, A. C., The Scientific Study of Mummies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

c. 2350 BCE, Animal Navigation

Gould, J. L., et al., Nature’s Compass: The Mystery of Animal Navigation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.

c. 400 BCE, Four Humors

paei.wikidot.com/Hippocrates-galen-the-four-humors

c. 330 BCE, Aristotle’s The History of Animals

Lennox, J. G., Aristotle’s Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

c. 330 BCE, Animal Migration

Milner-Guilland, et al., Animal Migration: A Synthesis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Ueda, H. (ed.), Physiology and Ecology of Fish Migration. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013.

c. 320 BCE, Botany

Evert, R. F. et al., Raven Biology of Plants. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012.

Taiz, L. et al., Plant Physiology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2010.

77, Pliny’s Natural History

Galus Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder), Natural History: A Selection. New York: Penguin Classics, 1991.

c. 180, Skeletal System

Kardong, K., Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. New York: McGraw-Hill Science, 2014.

1242, Pulmonary Circulation

Peacock, A. J., et al., Pulmonary Circulation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011.

1489, Leonardo’s Human Anatomy

O’Malley C. D., et al., Leonardo da Vinci on the Human Body: The Anatomical, Physiological, and Embryological Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. New York: Gramercy, 2003.

1521, Sense of Hearing

Webster, D. B., et al., The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing. New York: Springer, 1991.

1543, Vesalius’s De humani corporis fabrica

Vesalius, A, et al., On the Fabric of the Human Body: A Translation of De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem. Boston: Jeremy Norman Co., 2003.

1611, Tobacco

Gately, I., Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization. New York: Grove Press, 2002.

1614, Metabolism

Salway, J. G., Metabolism at a Glance. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004.

Stipanuk, et al., Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition. St. Louis, MO: Saunders, 2012.

1620, Scientific Method

Beveridge, W. I. B., The Art of Scientific Investigation. Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn, 2004.

Wilson, Jr., E. B., An Introduction to Scientific Research. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1991.

1628, Harvey’s De motu cordis

Mohman, D., et al., Cardiovascular Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2013.

1637, Mechanical Philosophy of Descartes

Slowik, E., Descartes’ Physics http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2013/entries/descartes-physics/>

1651, Placenta

Power, M. L., et al., The Evolution of the Human Placenta. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2012.

1652, Lymphatic System

Buckley, V., Christina, Queen of Sweden: The Restless Life of a European Eccentric. New York: Harper Perennial (2005).

Sabin, F. R., The Origin and Development of the Lymphatic System (Classic reprint). Forgotten Books, 2012.

1658, Blood Cells

Kaushansky, K., et al., Williams Hematology. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2010.

1668, Refuting Spontaneous Generation

Farley, J., The Spontaneous Generation Controversy From Descartes to Oparin. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1977.

1669, Phosphorus Cycle

Emsley, J., The 13th Element: The Sordid Tale of Murder, Fire, and Phosphorus. New York: Wiley, 20002.

1670, Ergotism and Witchcraft

Kors, A. C. (ed.), et al., Witchcraft in Europe, 400–1700: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

1674, Leeuwenhoek’s Microscopic World

de Kruif, P., Microbe Hunters. New York: Mariner Books, 2002.

1677, Spermatozoa

De Jonge, C. J., et al., The Sperm Cell. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2006.

1717, Miasma Theory

Litsios, S., Plague Legends: From the Miasmas of Hippocrates to the Microbes of Pasteur. Ballwin, MO: Science & Humanities Press, 2001.

1729, Circadian Rhythms

Foster, R. G., Rhythms of Life: The Biological Clocks that Control the Daily Lives of Every Living Thing. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

1733, Blood Pressure

Naqvi, N. H., et al., Blood Pressure Measurement: An Illustrated History. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998.

1735, Linnaean Classification of Species

Blunt, W., et al., Linnaeus: The Compleat Naturalist. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

c. 1741, Cerebrospinal Fluid

Davson, H., et al., Physiology of the CSF and Blood-Brain Barriers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1996.

1744, Regeneration

Carlson, B. M. (ed.), Principles of Regenerative Medicine. New York: Academic Press, 2007.

Lenhoff, S. G., et al., Hydra and the Birth of Experimental Biology, 1744: Abraham Trembley’s Memoires Concerning the Polyps. Pacific Grove, CA: Boxwood Press, 1986.

1759, Theories of Germination

Bewley, J. D., et al., Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy. New York: Springer, 2012.

1760, Artificial Selection (Selective Breeding)

Wood, R. J., et al., Genetic Prehistory in Selective Breeding: A Prelude to Mendel. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

1786, Animal Electricity

Plonsey, R., et al., Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach. New York: Springer, 2007.

1789, Gas Exchange

Dejours, P. J., Respiration in Water and Air: Adaptions Regulations Evolution. New York: Elsevier Science Ltd, 1988.

1791, Nervous System Communication

LeDoux, J., Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. New York: Viking, 2002.

Squire, L. (ed), et al., Fundamental Neuroscience. New York: Academic Press, 2012.

1796, Paleontology

Foote, M., et al., Principles of Paleontology. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2006.

1798, Population Growth and Food Supply

Malthus, T, An Essay on the Principle of Population. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Weeks, J. R., Population: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2011.

1809, Lamarckian Inheritance

Honeywell, R., Lamarck’s Evolution: Two Centuries of Genius and Jealousy. London: Murdock Books, 2008.

1828, Germ-Layer Theory of Development

Gilbert, S., Developmental Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2013.

McGeady, T. A., et al., Veterinary Embryology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 2006.

1831, Cell Nucleus

Misteli, T. et al., The Nucleus. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2010.

1831, Darwin and the Voyages of the Beagle

Darwin, C., The Voyage of the Beagle (many editions)

Moorehead, A., Darwin and the Beagle: Charles Darwin as Naturalist on the HMS Beagle Voyage. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

1832, Anatomy Act 1832

Abbott, G., Grave Disturbances: A History of the Body Snatchers. Cardiff, Wales: Eric Dobby Publishing, 2006.

Fido, M., Bodysnatchers: A History of the Resurrectionists. Chicago: Academy Chicago Pub (1992).

1833, Human Digestion

Chivers, D. J. (ed.), et al., The Digestive System in Mammals: Food Form and Function. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Karlawish, J., Open Wound: The Tragic Obsession of Dr. William Beaumont. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2011.

1836, Fossil Record and Evolution

Switek, B., Written in Stone: Evolution, the Fossil Record, and Our Place in Nature. New York: Bellevue Literary Press, 2010.

Taylor, T. N, et al., Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. New York: Academic Press, 2008.

1837, Nitrogen Cycle and Plant Chemistry

Stevenson, F. J., et al., Cycles of Soil: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Micronutrients. New York: Wiley, 1999.

1838, Cell Theory

Alberts, B., et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science, 2007.

Karp, G., Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. New York, Wiley, 2013.

1840, Plant Nutrition

Mendel, K., et al., Principles of Plant Nutrition. New York, Springer, 2001.

Stevenson, F. J., et al., Cycles of Soil: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Micronutrients. New York: Wiley, 1999.

1842, Urine Formation

Eaton, D., Vanders Renal Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2013.

1842, Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death)

Green, D. R., Apoptosis: Physiology and Pathology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

1843, Venoms

Gjersoe, J., et al., Venoms: Sources, Toxicity and Therapeutic Uses. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2010.

White, J., et al., Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1995.

1843, Homology versus Analogy

Kardong, K., Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. New York: McGraw-Hill Science, 2014.

1845, Photosynthesis

Eaton-Rye, J. J. (ed), et al., Photosynthesis: Plastid Biology, Energy Conversion and Respiration. New York, Springer, 2011.

Hall, D. O., et al., Photosynthesis (Studies in Biology). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

1848, Optical Isomers

chemistry.tutorvista.com>Organic Chemistry nomenclature, Isomers.

1849, Testosterone

Nieschlag, E. (ed.) et al., Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Smith, L. B., et al., Testosterone: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications. New York: Springer, 2013.

1850, Trichromatic Color Vision

Land, M. F., et al., Animal Eyes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Lazareva, O. F., How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

1854, Homeostasis

Bernard, C., An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1957.

Cannon, W. B., The Wisdom of the Body. New York: W.W. Norton, 1963.

1856, The Liver and Glucose Metabolism

Berg, J. M., et al., Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2010.

Nelson, D. L., et al., Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012.

1857, Microbial Fermentation

El-Mansi, E. M. T. (ed), et al., Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2006.

1859, Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

Darwin, C., The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (many editions)

Quammen, D., The Reluctant Mr. Darwin: An Intimate Portrait of Charles Darwin and the Making of His Theory of Evolution. New York: W.H. Norton, 2007.

Ridley, M, Evolution. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.

1859, Ecological Interactions

Howe, H. F., Ecological Relationships of Plants and Animals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Schoonhoven, L. M., et al., Insect-Plant Biology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

1859, Invasive Species

Elton, C. S., Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

1861, Localization of Cerebral Functions

Pelton, R.W., The Age Old Science of Phrenology: An Age Old Science Developed by Franz Joseph Gall, M.D. of Vienna. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.

1862, Biological Mimicry

Brower, L. P., Mimicry and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Wickler, W., Mimicry in Plants and Animals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

1866, Mendelian Inheritance

Edelson, E., Gregor Mendel: And the Roots of Genetics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

1866, Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny

Gould, S. J., Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.

Haeckel, E., et al., Art Forms in Nature: The Prints of Ernst Haeckel. New York: Prestel, 2008.

1866, Hemoglobin and Hemocyanin

Weatherall, D. (ed). et al., Hemoglobin and its Diseases (Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine). Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2013.

1869, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

Portugal, F. H., et al., A Century of DNA: A History of the Discovery of the Structure and Function of the Genetic Substance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977.

1871, Sexual Selection

Campbell, B. (ed.), Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man: The Darwinian Pivot. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2006.

Dixson, A. F., Sexual Selection and the Origins of Human Mating Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

1873, Coevolution

Thompson, J. N., The Geographic Mosaic of Coevolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005.

1874, Nature versus Nurture

Gould, S. J., The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996.

1875, Biosphere

Vernadsky, V. I., The Biosphere: Complete Annotated Edition. Göttingen, Germany: Copernicus, 1998.

1876, Meiosis

John, B., Meiosis (Developmental and Cell Biology Series). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

1876, Biogeography

Lomolino, M. V., et al., Biogeography. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2010.

Slotten, R.A., The Heretic in Darwin’s Court: The Life of Alfred Russel Wallace. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

1877, Marine Biology

Castro, P., et al., Marine Biology. New York: McGraw-Hill Science, 2012.

1878, Enzymes

Berg, J. M., et al., Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2010.

Nelson, D. L., et al., Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012.

1880, Phototropism

Davies, P., Plant Hormones and Their Role in Plant Growth and Development. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2013.

1882, Mitosis

Murray, A., et al., The Cell Cycle: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

c. 1882, Thermoreception

Braun, H. A. (ed), et al., Thermoreception and Temperature Regulation. New York: Springer, 1990.

1882, Innate immunity

Parham, P., The Immune System. New York: Garland Science, 2009.

1883, Germ Plasm Theory of Heredity

Gilbert, S., Developmental Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2013.

1883, Eugenics

Kevles, D., In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. New York: Knopf, 2013.

1884, Gram Stain

Tortora, G. J., et al., Microbiology: An Introduction. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

1885, Negative Feedback

Cosentino, C., et al., Feedback Control in Systems Biology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011.

1890, Germ Theory of Disease

Waller, J. The Discovery of the Germ: Twenty Years That Transformed the Way We Think About Disease. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

1890, Animal Coloration

Diamond, J., et al., Concealing Coloration in Animals. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2013.

1891, Neuron Doctrine

Shepherd, G. M., Foundations of the Neuron Doctrine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

1892, Endotoxins

Chaudhuri, K., et al., Cholera Toxins. New York: Springer, 2009.

1896, Global Warming

Weart, S. R., The Discovery of Global Warming: Revised and Expanded Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

1897, Adaptive Immunity

Parham, P., The Immune System. New York: Garland Science, 2009.

1897, Associative Learning

Gluck, M. A., et al., Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior. Richmond, UK: Worth, 2007.

1897, Ehrlich’s Side-Chain Theory

Silverstein, A. M., Paul Ehrlich’s Receptor Immunology: The Magnificent Obsession. New York: Academic Press, 2001.

1898, Malaria-Causing Protozoan Parasite

Shah, S., The Fever: How Malaria Has Ruled Humankind for 500,000 Years. New York: Sarah Crichton Books, 2010.

1898, Viruses

Scholthof, K.-B. (ed.), et al., Tobacco Mosaic Virus: One Hundred Years of Contributions to Virology. St. Paul, MN: Amer Phytopathological Society, 1999.

1899, Ecological Succession

Walker, L. R., (ed.), et al., Linking Restoration and Ecological Succession. New York: Springer, 2007.

1899, Animal Locomotion

Alexander, R. M., Principles of Animal Locomotion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

1900, Genetics Rediscovered

Stubbe, H., History of Genetics: From Prehistoric Times to the Rediscovery of Mendel’s Laws. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973.

1900, Ovaries and Female Reproduction

Haterius, H. O., Ohio Journal of Science 1937, 37 (6): 394.

1901, Blood Types

Kaushansky, K., et al., Williams Hematology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010.

1902, Tissue Culture

Neumann, K-H, et al., Plant Cell and Tissue Culture—A Tool in Biotechnology: Basics and Application (Principles and Practice). New York: Springer, 2009.

1902, Secretin: The First Hormone

Norris, D. O., et al., Vertebrate Endocrinology. New York: Academic Press, 2013.

1904, Dendrochronology

Stokes, M. A., et al., An Introduction to Tree-Ring Dating. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996.

1905, Blood Clotting

Doolittle, R. F., The Evolution of Vertebrate Blood Clotting. University Science Books, 2012.

1907, Radiometric Dating

Macdougall, D., Nature’s Clocks: How Scientists Measure the Age of Almost Everything. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008.

1907, Probiotics

Tannock, G. W., Probiotics and Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects. Poole, UK: Caister Academic Press, 2005.

1907, Why Does the Heart Beat?

Silverman, M. E., et al., Circulation. 2006, 113: 2775.

1908, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Model, anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/synth_2

1910, Genes on Chromosomes

Kohler, R. E., Lords of the Fly: Drosophila Genetics and the Experimental Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Sturtevant, A. H., A History of Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001.

1911, Cancer-Causing Viruses

Rockefeller University Press, A notable career in finding out. Peyton Rous, 1879-1970. New York: Rockefeller University Press, 1971.

1912, Continental Drift

Colbert, E. H., Wandering Lands and Animals: The Story of Continental Drift and Animal Populations, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1985.

1912, Vitamins and Beriberi

McDowell, L. R., Vitamin History, The Early Years. First Edition Design Publishing, 2013.

1912, Thyroid Gland and Metamorphosis

Ain, K., et al., The Complete Thyroid Book. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010.

1912, X-Ray Crystallography

Authier, A., Early Days of X-ray Crystallography. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

1917, Bacteriophages

Kuchment, A., The Forgotten Cure: The Past and Future of Phage Therapy. New York: Springer, 2011.

1919, Biotechnology

Slater, A., et al., Plant Biotechnology: The Genetic Manipulation of Plants. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Thieman, W. J., et al., Introduction to Biotechnology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

1920, Neurotransmitters

Iverson, L., et al., Introduction to Neuropharmacology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

1921, Insulin

Bliss, M., The Discovery of Insulin: Twenty-fifth Anniversary Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

1923, Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Saudubray, J-M (ed.), et al., Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Springer, 2012.

1924, Embryonic Induction

Gilbert, S. F. et al., Developmental Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2006.

1924, Timing Fertility

Gilbert, S. F., et al., Developmental Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2006.

1925, Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration

Day, D. (ed.), et al., Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function. New York: Springer, 2004.

Jacobs, J., Metabolism Basics: A Walkthrough Guide to Fermentation and Cellular Respiration. Seattle, WA: Amazon Digital Services, 2012.

1925, “The Monkey Trial”

Larson, E. J., Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America’s Continuing Debate Over Science and Religion. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

1925, Population Ecology,

Begon, M., et al., Population Ecology: A Unified Study of Animals and Plants. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 1996.

1927, Food Webs

Polis, G. A., et al., Food Webs. New York: Springer, 1995.

1927, Insect Dance Language

Stearcy, W. A., et al., The Evolution of Animal Communication: Reliability and Deception in Signaling Systems. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

1928, Antibiotics

Lax, E., The Mold in Dr. Florey’s Coat: The Story of the Penicillin Miracle. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2004.

1929, Progesterone

Avise, J. C., Evolutionary Perspectives on Pregnancy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.

1930, Osmoregulation in Freshwater and Marine Fish

Bradley, T., Animal Osmoregulation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

1931, Electron Microscope

Bozzola, J. J., et al., Electron Microscopy. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett, 1998.

1935, Imprinting

Burkhardt, Jr, R. W., Patterns of Behavior: Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and the Founding of Ethology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

1935, Factors Affecting Population Growth

Weeks, J. R., Population: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2011.

1936, Stress

Seyle, H., The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

1936, Allometry

Reiss, M. J., The Allometry of Growth and Reproduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

1937, Evolutionary Genetics

Smith, J. M., Evolutionary Genetics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

1938, Coelacanth: “The Living Fossil”

Werner, C., et al., Evolution: The Grand Experiment: Vol. 2- Living Fossils. Green Fossil, AR: New Leaf Press, 2009.

1939, Action Potential

Kandel, E. R. (ed.), et al., Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2012.

1941, One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis

Pierce, B. A., Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2010.

1942, Biological Species Concept and Reproductive Isolation

Grant, P. R., et al., How and Why Species Multiply: The Radiation of Darwin’s Finches. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011.

1943, Arabidopsis: A Model Plant

Koomneef, M., Plant Journal, 2010 61 (6): 909

1944, DNA as Carrier of Genetic Information

Portugal, F. H., et al., A Century of DNA: A History of the Discovery of the Structure and Function of the Genetic Substance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977.

1945, Green Revolution

Brown, L. R., Full Planet, Empty Plates: The New Politics of Food Scarcity. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012.

1946, Bacterial Genetics

Snyder, W. et al., Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2013.

1949, Reticular Activating System

Reticular Activating System: reticularactivatingsystem.org

1950, Phylogenetic Systematics

Wiley, E. O.,et al., Phylogenetics: Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011

1951, The Immortal HeLa Cells

Skloot, R. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown, 2010.

1952, Cloning (Nuclear Transfer)

Cibelli, J. (ed.), et al., Principles of Cloning. New York: Academic Press, 2013.

1952, Amino Acid Sequence of Insulin

Stretton, A.O.W., Genetics 2002 182(2): 527.

1952, Pattern Formations in Nature

Ball, P., The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

1952, Plasmids

Pierce, B. A., Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2010.

1952, Nerve Growth Factor

Habenicht, A. (ed.), Growth Factors, Differentiation Factors, and Cytokines. New York: Springer, 2011.

1953, Miller-Urey Experiment

Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller-Urey Experiment

1953, The Double Helix

Judson, H. F., The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1996.

Watson, J. D., The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York: Touchstone, 2001.

1953, REM Sleep

Siegel, J. M., Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2011 (15)3: 139.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep/condition_information

1953, Acquired Immunological Tolerance and Organ Transplantation

Hamilton, D., A History of Organ Transplantation: Ancient Legends to Modern Practice. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2012.

1954, Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction

MacIntosh, B., et al., Skeletal Muscle: Form and Function. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2005.

1955, Ribosomes

Garrett, R. A., et al., (eds.), The Ribosome: Structure, Function, Antibiotics, and Cellular Interactions. Washington, DC: American Society Microbiology 2000.

1955, Lysosomes

British Society for Cell Biology: bscb.org/learning-resources/softcell-e-learning/lysosome/

1956, Prenatal Genetic Testing

Stanford Children’s Health: lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/pregnant/tests.html

1956, DNA Polymerase

Lehman, I. R., Journal Biological Chemistry 2005 280: 42477

1956, Second Messengers

Lodish, H., et al., Molecular Cell Biology. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2000, Sect. 20.6.

1957, Protein Structures and Folding

Reynaud E., Nature Education 2010 3(9): 28.

1957, Bioenergetics

Nicholls, D. G., et al., Bioenergetics. New York: Academic Press, 2013.

1958, Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Ridley, M., Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code. New York: Eminent Lives, 2006.

1958, Bionics and Cyborgs

Fischman, J., National Geographic Magazine (1) 2010.

1959, Pheromones

Wyatt, T. D., Pheromones and Animal Behaviour: Communication by Smell and Taste, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

1960, Energy Balance

Body Recomposition: bodyrecomposition.com/fat-loss-the-energy-balance-equation.html

1960, Chimpanzee Use of Tools

Sanz, C. (ed.), et al., Tool Use in Animals: Cognition and Ecology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

1961, Cellular Senescence

Burton, D. G. A., Age 2009; 31(1): 1

1961, Cracking the Genetic Code for Protein Biosynthesis

Alberts, B., et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science, 2007.

1961, Operon Model of Gene Regulation

Müller-Hill, B., The Lac Operon: A Short History of a Genetic Paradigm. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1996.

1962, Thrifty Gene Hypothesis

Speakman, J.R., International Journal Obesity 2008 32: 1611.

1962, Silent Spring

Carson, R., Silent Spring. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1962.

1963, Hybrids and Hybrid Zones

Price, J. (ed.), Hybrid Zones and the Evolutionary Process. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

1964, Brain Lateralization

Schwartz, J. M., et al., The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: Regan Books, 2003.

1964, Animal Altruism

Dawkins, R., The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

1966, Optimal Foraging Theory

Stephens, D. W., Foraging Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

1967, Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics

Drlica, K. S., et al., Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press, 2011.

1967, Endosymbiont Theory

Kozo-Polyansky, B. M., et al., Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.

1968, Multi-Store Model of Memory

Gluck, M. A., et al., Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior. Richmond, UK: Worth, 2007.

Rudy, J. W., The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2013.

1968, Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis

Norris, D. O., et al., Vertebrate Endocrinology. New York: Academic Press, 2013.

1968, Systems Biology

Voit, E., A First Course in Systems Biology. New York: Garland Science, 2012.

1969, Cellular Determination

Kenyon College Biology Department: biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap11/Chapter_11.html

1970, Cell Cycle Checkpoints

Murray, A., et al., The Cell Cycle: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

1972, Punctuated Equilibrium

Gould, S. J., The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belnap Press, 2002.

1972, Sustainable Development

Rogers, P., et al., An Introduction to Sustainable Development. New York: Routledge, 2007.

1972, Parental Investment and Sexual Selection

Low, B. S., Why Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

1974, Lucy

Jurmain, R., et al., Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 2013-2014 Edition. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2013.

1974, Cholesterol Metabolism

Goldstein, J. L., Arterioscerosis Thrombosis Vascular Biolology. 2009 29(4): 431.

1974, Sense of Taste

Finger, T. E. (ed.), et al., The Neurobiology of Taste and Smell. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2009.

1975, Monoclonal Antibodies

Wikipedia: www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Monoclonal_antibodies

1975, Sociobiology

Wilson, E. O., Sociobiology: The Abridged Edition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1980.

1976, Cancer-Causing Genes

Cooper, G. M., Oncogenes. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 1995.

1977, Bioinformatics

Haddock, S., Practical Computing for Biologists. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2010.

1978, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Elder, K., et al., In-Vitro Fertilization. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

1979, Biological Magnification

biologicalmagnification.org/understanding-biological-magnification

1980, Can Living Organisms Be Patented?

Wikipedia: En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_patent

1982, Genetically Modified Crops

Halford, N. G., Genetically Modified Crops. London: Imperial College Press, 2011.

1983, HIV and AIDS

Kallen, S. A., The Race to Discover the AIDS Virus: Luc Montagnier Vs Robert Gallo. Springfield, MO: 21st Century, 2012.

1983, Polymerase Chain Reaction

Rabinow, P., Making PCR: A Story of Biotechnology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

1984, DNA Fingerprinting

Rudin, N., et al., An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001.

1986, Genomics

Ridley, M., Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters. New York: Harper Collins, 2006.

1987, Mitochondrial Eve

Sykes, B., The Seven Daughters of Eve: The Science That Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.

1987, Depletion of the Ozone Layer

Parson, E. A., Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

1990, Domains of Life

Margulis, L., et al., Kingdoms and Domains: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. New York: Academic Press, 2009.

1991, Sense of Smell

Finger, T. E.(ed.), et al., The Neurobiology of Taste and Smell. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2009.

1994, Leptin: The Thinness Hormone

Akaba, S., et al., Textbook of Obesity, Biological, Psychological and Cultural Influences. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

2000, Skin Color

Jablonski, N. G., Living Color: The Biological and Social Meaning of Skin Color. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2012.

2003, Human Genome Project

Ridley, M., Genome: The Autobiography of the Species in 23 Chapters. New York: Harper Collins, 2006.

2005, Protist Taxonomy

Reece, J. B., et al., Campbell Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2013.

2006, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell

Lanza, R. (ed.), et al., Essentials of Stem Cell Biology. New York: Academic Press, 2009.

2009, Viral Mutations and Pandemics

Kolata, G., Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus that Caused It. New York: Touchstone, 2001.

2010, Deepwater Horizon (BP) Oil Spill

Steffy, L. C., Drowning in Oil: BP & the Reckless Pursuit of Profit. New York: McGraw-Hill 2010.

2011, Translational Biomedical Research

Srivastava, R. (ed.), et al., Lost in Translation: Barriers to Incentives for Translational Research in Medical Sciences. London: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2013.

2011, Albumin From Rice

Evans, T. W., Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2002 16 (Suppl. 5): 6.

Yang He, et. al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2011 108(47): 19078.

2012, Human Microbiome Project

Hooper, L. V., Science 2001 292: 1115.

2012, Epigenetics

Francis, R. C., Epigenetics: The Ultimate Mystery of Inheritance. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011.

2013, American Chestnut Tree Blight

Freinkel, S., American Chestnut: The Life, Death, and Rebirth of a Perfect Tree. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007.

2013, De-Extinction

MacLeod, N., The Great Extinctions: What Caused Them and How They Shape Life. Richmond Hill, ON: Firefly Books, 2013.

2013, Oldest DNA and Human Evolution

Jurmain, R., et al., Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 2013–2014 Edition. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2013.