Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam
Content Review for the AP Chemistry Exam
Big Idea #2: Bonding and Phases
Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.
Atoms join to form molecules because atoms are most stable with a full outer shell of electrons. This usually means having eight electrons in the outer shell. So atoms with too many or too few electrons in their valence shells will find one another and pass the electrons around until all the atoms in the molecule have stable outer shells. Sometimes an atom will give up electrons completely to another atom, forming an ionic bond. Sometimes atoms share electrons, forming covalent bonds.