1,001 Chemistry Practice Problems For Dummies (2014)

Part I. The Questions

Chapter 5. Periodicity and the Periodic Table

The periodic table is much more than a simple listing of the symbols of the elements with additional information about each element. The position of an element on the periodic table indicates many of the element’s properties. In addition, the position gives information on how the properties of an element relate to those of its neighbors. However, watch out for exceptions to the general trends.

The Problems You’ll Work On

In this chapter, you work with periodicity and the periodic table in the following ways:

check Recognizing element symbols

check Understanding the structure of the periodic table

check Identifying periodic trends

Note: For reference, you can find the periodic table in the Appendix.

What to Watch Out For

Don’t let common mistakes trip you up; remember the following when working on periodicity and the periodic table:

check The position of an element on the periodic table gives important information.

check Don’t confuse periods (rows) with groups (columns).

check Learn the basic periodic trends. Note that hydrogen is an exception to nearly all trends and that the top member of each group on the periodic table shows a slight variation to most trends.

Element Symbols and Names

271–290 Check your knowledge of the symbols and names of elements on the periodic table.

271. What is the symbol for the element carbon?

272. What is the symbol for the element chlorine?

273. What is the symbol for the element aluminum?

274. What is the symbol for the element cadmium?

275. What is the symbol for the element copper?

276. What is the symbol for the element arsenic?

277. What is the symbol for the element sodium?

278. What is the symbol for the element potassium?

279. What is the symbol for the element iron?

280. What is the symbol for the element silver?

281. What is the name of the element that has the symbol N?

282. What is the name of the element that has the symbol S?

283. What is the name of the element that has the symbol Br?

284. What is the name of the element that has the symbol P?

285. What is the name of the element that has the symbol Mn?

286. What is the name of the element that has the symbol At?

287. What is the name of the element that has the symbol Ra?

288. What is the name of the element that has the symbol Hg?

289. What is the name of the element that has the symbol Sn?

290. What is the name of the element that has the symbol Pa?

Structure of the Periodic Table

291–310 Answer the questions on the structure of the periodic table.

291. A period goes in which direction on the periodic table?

292. Where are the metalloids located in the periodic table?

293. Where on the periodic table are the alkaline earth metals located?

294. Where on the periodic table are the transition metals located?

295. Where on the periodic table are the noble gases located?

296. Where on the periodic table are the inner transition metals located?

297. Where on the periodic table are the alkali metals located?

298. Which chemist is most often recognized for basing the arrangement of the periodic table on atomic mass and other physical properties of the elements?

299. Which scientist placed the elements in order of increasing atomic number on the periodic table?

300. Where on the periodic table are most of the elements that exist as gases at room temperature?

301. To which family does the element potassium belong?

302. To which family does the element silver belong?

303. To which family does the element selenium belong?

304. To which family does the element tin belong?

305. To which family does the element iodine belong?

306. To which family does the element calcium belong?

307. To which family does the element aluminum belong?

308. To which family does the heaviest naturally occurring element belong?

309. Which family of elements contains the only metal that’s liquid at room temperature?

310. Which family of elements contains the only nonmetal that’s liquid at room temperature?

Periodic Trends

311–330 Examine your knowledge of periodic trends.

311. Members of which family have three valence electrons?

312. Members of which family have five valence electrons?

313. Members of which family have two valence electrons?

314. The atomic masses of the elements generally __________ (increase/decrease/remain the same) going from left to right in a period and __________ (increase/decrease/remain the same) going down a family.

315. The atomic radii of the elements __________ (increase/decrease/remain the same) going from left to right in a period and __________ (increase/decrease/remain the same) going down a family.

316. What term describes the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a gaseous atom?

317. What term describes the energy change that results from adding an electron to a gaseous atom or ion?

318. The ionic radius of an anion is __________ (larger than/smaller than/the same size as) the atomic radius of the neutral atom because the ion has __________ (more/fewer/an equal number of) electrons compared to the atom.

319. The atomic radii of the elements __________ (increase/decrease/remain the same) going from left to right in a period because the effective nuclear charge __________ (increases/decreases).

320. Rank the following elements from smallest to largest atomic radius: Ba, Be, Ca.

321. Rank the following elements from smallest to largest atomic radius: Cl, P, S.

322. Rank the following elements from lowest to highest ionization energy: B, C, Li.

323. Rank the following elements from lowest to highest ionization energy: Br, Cl, I.

324. Rank the following elements from lowest to highest electron affinity: F, O, N.

325. Rank the following elements from lowest to highest electron affinity: S, Se, Te.

326. Rank the following elements from most to least metallic character: Cl, Si, Sn.

327. Rank the following elements from smallest to largest atomic radius: K, Mg, Na.

328. Rank the following ions from largest to smallest ionic radius: F, O2–, S2–.

329. Rank the following elements from highest to lowest ionization energy: Cs, F, Li.

330. Rank the following elements from lowest to highest ionization energy: Ba, Bi, N.