SAT Subject Test Chemistry
REVIEW OF MAJOR TOPICS
Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table of the Elements
Nuclear fission reactions have been in use since the 1940s. The first atomic bombs used in 1945 were nuclear fission bombs. Since that time, many countries, including our own, have put nuclear fission power plants into use to provide a new energy source for electrical energy. Basically, a nuclear fission reaction is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei.
EXAMPLE: U-235 is bombarded with slow neutrons to produce Ba-139, Kr-94, or other isotopes and also 3 fast-moving neutrons.
A nuclear chain reaction is a reaction in which an initial step, such as the reaction above, leads to a succession of repeating steps that continues indefinitely. Nuclear chain reactions are used in nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs.
A nuclear fusion reaction is the combination of very light nuclei to make a heavier nucleus. Extremely high temperatures and pressures are required in order to overcome the repulsive forces of the two nuclei. Fusion has been achieved only in hydrogen bombs. Scientists are still trying to harness this reaction for domestic uses. The following examples show basically how the reactions occur.
EXAMPLES: Two deuterium atoms combining
Tritium combining with hydrogen
The energy released in a nuclear reaction (either fission or fusion) comes from the fractional amount of mass converted into energy. Nuclear changes convert matter into energy. Energy released during nuclear reactions is much greater than the energy released during chemical reactions.