The Communicative Grammar of English Workbook (2013)

Answer key


Spoken and written English

1.1. Informal spoken English

Sections 17–19

Task one **

Non-grammatical features: er(m) (×7) / you know (×2) / repeated elements (suggesting stammer), especially in line 4 / WHOOSH!

Grammatical features: me (instead of ‘my’) / half a dozen sentences beginning with ‘and’ / free direct speech: She said fill it up … / subject dropped in two sentences beginning with ‘Was . .’ / omission of other sentence elements: Just take it back … (= answers ‘what’ in preceding sentence) – Straight across the counter. – Dust coal everywhere.

Task two **

We lived in Cambridge when I was young. One day, my mother got very angry because the coal had some rocks and bits of scale in it. She told me to get a strong bag and fill it up with the coal and stuff. Then we took it by bus to the coal office at the bottom of Hills Road Bridge. Inside the office, there was an old oak table, about as long as this room. I thought she was just going to take it back and tell them coal wasn’t very good. But she went in, bent down, picked up the bag and threw it straight across the counter. There was coal dust everywhere. “Take it back,” she said. “And come and get the rest of it.” They couldn’t believe it. I can see their faces today.

Task three ***

1.At the polling station tell the clerk your name and address. It’s on the front of the card. After that the Presiding Officer will give you a ballot paper. Make sure that he or she stamps it before they give it to you.

2.Then you go to one of the booths. You’ll see some instructions, telling you how to vote. The main thing is that you can only put one cross in the box next to the name of your favourite candidate. Some people put two or three crosses, but these votes are not counted.

3.Now suppose you’ve made a mistake. That would mean you’ve spoilt your ballot paper. No problem, though. You just show it to the Presiding Officer and they’ll be happy to give you another one.

4.Then fold the ballot paper into two. Show the official mark to the Presiding Officer, but be careful; no one should see who you voted for. The last thing you do is, of course, put the ballot paper in the ballot box and then simply leave the place.

5.There are also two alternative ways of voting. You can, for example, appoint somebody else to vote for you. Such a person is called a proxy. However, some people change their mind at the last minute and want to vote themselves. No problem again, as long as the proxy hasn’t voted before you.

6.The other alternative is postal voting. That’s a different thing. Once you’ve been allowed to vote through the post, you can’t change your mind anymore.

Task four ***

1.– (your name and address) as shown on the ballot paper: as + past participle clause sounds very official

– (s)he: conventional gender neutral way of referring to any male/female (person), only used in writing

2.– (Mark only one cross) as stated in …: as + past participle clause (cf above)

– alongside: (slightly) more formal preposition than ‘next to’

– place: more formal than ‘put’ (= lexical feature)

3.– if by mistake you …: rather formal word order


5.– you may: rather formal way of granting permission

– complex sentence: if-clause + infinitive clause, followed by main clause, followed in turn by if-clause and time clause

6– fairly complex sentence

– to be entitled to …: expression which is typical of official documents, regulations, etc.

General comment: None of the imperatives in the original text is preceded by the covert subject ‘you’, while this is quite common in spoken English.

1.2. Cooperation in conversation

Sections 21–23

Task one ***

1.Comment on features of turn-taking:

– At first turn-taking is restricted to brief contributions by S2 (laughs/yes/yeah).

– When S3 joins in, he makes a truly interactive comment, followed by a question addressed by S2 to S1. This is followed in turn by a counter-question by S1 addressed to S2.

– Next we get a succession of discourse markers by all three speakers. The third speaker (S3) goes on to add an interactive comment, is briefly interrupted by S2, then completes his comment and also gets a minimal response from S1.

– S3 elaborates on his comment, which contains an indirect question. S1 abruptly answers his question and gets ‘laughs’ from both S2 and S3.

– S1 ‘takes the initiative’ again, contributing several sentences. S2 asks for further information, which S1 hesitates to answer straight away. S2 helps to get S1 ‘going again’.

– S1 resumes where she left off and continues her story. At first she gets a minimal response from S3 and a somewhat more meaningful one from S2. Towards the end of the conversation the balance between S2 and S3 shifts, with S2 only producing minimal responses to what S1 is saying and S3 participating in a more meaningful way.

2.Discourse markers:


purely interactive: (laugh) – oh – yes – er – yeah – yeah – yeah – yeah – (laugh) – (laugh) – yeah – er – er – oh – mmm – oh – yeah – oh – mmm – mmm


mainly interactive: you see – well – you see – now – you know – that’s right – well – you know – you know – er – well – no


also interactive: maybe – maybe – anyway – of course

1.3. Tag questions and ellipsis

Sections 24–25; 684

Task one *

1.  didn’t you; 2. didn’t it; 3. aren’t they; 4. will we; 5. didn’t it; 6. has he; 7. do you; 8. would it; 9. aren’t I; 10. won’t we

Task two *

1.  He is …; 2. I …; 3. It’s …; 4. It was …; 5. You’re …; 6. You …; 7. I …; 8. He will …; 9. You will …; 10. We’ve …

Task three *

1.  I …; 2. Would (or: do) you …; 3. I …; 4. I(’ve) …; 5. I …; 6. Could you …; 7. It …; 8. I … 9. Do you …; 10. We’ve …

Task four **

1.Hope you don’t mind me asking, but you really threatened to resign?

2.Can’t believe a word he says.

3.Saw them out together last night. Getting on very well, aren’t they?

4.Didn’t help you were half an hour late.

5.Gotta get this in the post by tonight.

6.Doesn’t matter if you don’t get the best grades.

7.Don’t know why he thought we weren’t coming.

8.No problem about leaving so early.

9.Didn’t bother to let him know, did you?

10.Can’t help thinking we should have done more to help her.

1.4. Coordination

Section 26

Task one **

1.Be late again and you’ll be fired.

2.He’s been to Italy, and now he wants to live there.

3.John can’t answer the question and neither can Mary (or: and Mary can’t either).

4.Go to the new coffee bar and you’ll meet Sally there.

5.You’ve been paid, be happy now.

6.Irene can’t understand this new tax form and neither can I (or: and I can’t either), and we’re both accountants.

Or: Irene and I are both accountants and yet neither of us can understand this new tax form.

7.That tree will grow higher and damage the telephone lines.

8.Stop eating so late and you’ll sleep better.

9.The Wilsons went to Egypt for their holiday and so did the Brooks.

10.He upset the old lady, so I don’t want to meet him.

Task two **

1.If you finish that work tonight, you can take the rest of the week off.

2.Now (that) he’s got the manager’s job, he won’t speak to his old friends.

3.Now they’ve got a new car, they will be telling everyone how much it cost.

4.I don’t like that house because it’s too dark and miserable.

5.Now that / Because he’s been all over the world, he thinks he knows everything.

6.Now that we’ve changed our money from Francs to Euros, everything costs more.

7.As the fire spread quickly, the whole factory was destoyed.

8.The crowds were waiting patiently at the sides of the road, when suddenly it began to rain.

9.If you get there late, they won’t let you in.

10.If you get the early train, you’ll have a good day in the city.

1.5. Finite clauses in spoken English

Section 27; 360–374

Task one **

1.He won the race and enjoyed the prize money.

2.The boy had been in trouble in school before and was afraid to tell his mother why he was home so late.

3.He had missed the last train and stayed at his sister’s overnight.

4.He felt ill and decided not to go work that day.

5.The theatre had been built in 1903 and was too big for small, contemporary plays.

6.A number of mothers were interviewed who were not in paid work, and the majority of them intended to return to work when their children were older.

7.The stairs were very steep, so it was an accident waiting to happen.

8.He took the dog for a walk across the fields and realized that the new road they were going to build would go very near his own house.

9.She read the biography of Sophia Loren, and determined to become an actress.

10.He got home late and found everyone had gone to bed.

Task two ***

1.Peter reminded Anne about the visit, hoping she would come.

2.Having reorganized the shop, they still didn’t get a lot of customers.

3.(On) seeing her in the street, I told her the good news.

4.Having bought an old house and modernized it, they made a lot of money when reselling it.

5.On getting to the top of the hill, you get a good view over the plain.

6.Not liking that stuff they gave us to eat last night, I left most of it.

7.Having gone to a lot of trouble to get the picture, he expected they would pay him a good price.

8.They felt very depressed, their team having lost for the third time.

9.Not having been to Mexico before, I don’t know what to expect.

10.Although we yelled at the top of our voices, nobody took any notice.

1.6. Stress

Sections 33–35; 633; 743–745

Task one *

1.The ‘rain in ‘Spain ‘stays ‘mainly in the ‘plain.

2.The ‘tourist for‘got to ‘buy a ‘ticket at the ‘counter.

3.‘Janet is ‘throwing a ‘party for her ‘twentieth ‘birthday.

4.We ‘met in ‘Rome, ‘visited the ‘sights and ‘then ‘flew ‘home.

5.‘John is ‘fond of ‘chocolate but ‘Mary ‘thoroughly dis‘likes it.

6.I was ad‘miring the ‘landscape that un‘folded in ‘front of my ‘eyes.

7.This unex‘pected en‘counter with my ‘worst ‘enemy ‘really up‘set me.

8.Do you re‘member the dra‘matic e‘vents of Sep‘tember the e‘leventh?

9.The U‘nited ‘Nations de‘cided to ‘lift the em‘bargo im‘posed on ‘military e‘quipment.

10.As a ‘true ‘democrat, I sin‘cerely ‘hope that de‘mocracy will ‘always pre‘vail ‘over ‘tyranny.

11.‘Slow ‘progress has been ‘made in per‘suading the ‘warring ‘factions to ac‘cept a ‘compromise.

12.The pho‘tographer had ‘taken a ‘dozen ‘pictures, ‘all of which ap‘peared in ‘glossy maga‘zines.

Task two **

Stressed: offinupbyoutonbyun(der)downoutoffononoutdown(a)waybydownupindownupoff

Unstressed: ofonintofortoforthroughinofonforof

Task three **


prepositional adverbs: offinupbyoutonbydownoutoffononoutdown(a)waybydownupindownupoff


prepositions: ofonintofortoforun(der)throughinofonforof


prepositional adverbs are stressed, whereas prepositions remain unstressed unless they consist of more than one syllable, cf ‘under’

1.7. Nucleus and tone units

Sections 36–37

Task **

1.| My only sister is married to an accountant. |

2.| Would you give me the bottle opener, please. |

3.| Shirley was watching a film by Alfred Hitchcock, | the master of suspense. |

4.| Hurricane Freddy swept across Indonesia last night | and is now heading for Japan. |

5.| Although the war has been over for years, | there are still occasional clashes along the border. |

6.| The new car model comes in four colours: | red, | dark blue, | grey | and white. |

7.| Driving on the left-hand side | is something most people get used to in no time at all. |

8.| I haven’t got the faintest idea | if the evidence given by Karen | will prove her innocence. |

9.| Either your informant is completely ignorant of the facts | or he is deliberately deceiving us, | which is even worse. |

10.| In contrast with conventional wisdom, | forests in northern countries are expanding | rather than shrinking. |

11.| The politician said he wasn’t involved in the cover-up | but he was, | as appeared from an incriminating document | found in the flat of his former mistress. |

12.| For Christ’s sake, | why couldn’t you behave properly | in the company of such distinguished guests, | whose only fault was | that their English sounded slightly pompous? |

1.8. Tones

Sections 38–42

Task one **

1.rise: | Are any of these titles still available? |

2.fall: | Don’t lean too far out of the window. |

3.fall-rise: | I don’t want to spend ALL my dollars. |

4.fall: | How many passengers survived the plane crash? |

5.rise: | You’ve seen some of these films before? |

6.fall: | George Stephenson was the inventor of the steam engine. |

7.fall-rise: | In terms of profitability |

fall: | the current year has been quite exceptional. |

8.fall: | Why didn’t you turn up at the meeting |

rise: | because you had overslept again? |

9.fall-rise: | Technically speaking |

fall: | these devices are extremely sophisticated. |

10.(fall-)rise: | If you haven’t got enough time now |

fall: | you can write those letters tomorrow. |

11.fall-rise: | Edith may not be a very good cook |

fall: | she knows at least how to appreciate good food. |

12.fall: | There’s a wide choice of cheese here |

rise: | Cheddar |

rise: | Stilton |

rise: | Camembert |

rise: | Gorgonzola |

fall: | and Danish blue. |

Task two (suggested answers) ***

1.fall: | Members of the jury |

fall: | I thank you for your attention during this trial. |

rise: | Please pay attention |

fall: | to the instructions I am about to give you. |

(fall-)rise: | Henry Johnson |

rise: | the defendant in this case |

rise: | has been accused of the crimes of First Degree Murder with a Firearm |

fall: | and Aggravated Assault with a Firearm. |

rise: | In this case |

fall: | Henry Johnson is accused of First Degree Murder with a Firearm. |

rise: | Murder in the First Degree |

rise: | includes the lesser crimes of Murder in the Second Degree |

rise: | Murder in the Third Degree |

fall: | and Manslaughter, |

fall: | all of which are unlawful. |

rise: | If you find Mr. Peter Smith was killed by Henry Johnson |

rise: | you will then consider the circumstances surrounding the killing |

rise: | in deciding if the killing was First Degree Murder |

rise: | Second Degree Murder |

rise: | Third Degree Murder |

fall: | or Manslaughter. |



(fall-)rise: | Steve |


fall: | where’s my handbag? |



fall: | Over there, |


fall: | on the windowsill. |


fall: | You’re not going out shopping |


rise: | are you? |



fall: | Of course I am. |


fall: | How else am I to prepare dinner tonight? |



rise: | Oh |


fall | I thought we were going to a restaurant. |



fall-rise: | The last time we went to a restaurant |


fall: | you kept complaining about the food. |



fall-rise: | It was one of those very exotic places. |


fall(-rise): | You know I don’t like them. |



fall: | What would you suggest then? |


fall-rise: | As long as it isn’t fish and chips, of course. |



rise: | Well, shall we go to an Italian restaurant? |


fall-rise: | That’s not too exotic as far as I am concerned. |



fall(-rise): | All right. |


rise: | You still remember the terms of the agreement we made last time? |



fall-rise: | I don’t, quite frankly. |



fall-rise: | In that case |


fall: | let me just refresh your memory. |


fall-rise: | Whoever chooses the restaurant |


fall: | pays the bill for the two of us. |



fall: | You will have your revenge |


fall: | won’t you. |



2.1. Emotive emphasis in speech 1

Sections 298–301; 528

Task one *

Interjections: 1. wellwhy

2. Christoh

Exclamations: 1. How brave … at home!

Emphatic so/such: 1. such

Other emotive elements: 2. goddamnedthe hell

Repetition: 1. Down, down, down.

2. fought (= echo);

We were … we were … and we … (= structural parallelism for rhetorical effect);

wider and wider;

a fight, an actual fight;

You were great. You were fantastic. You really were ……. You were great!

Nuclear stress on certain words: 1. nothing (?); anything (?); never

2. reallyshe

(Note exclamation marks)

Task two (suggested answers) *

1.John Thaw was SUCH a brilliant actor.

2.WHAT A beautiful tie you’re wearing!

3.That was an awful thing to say…… AN AWFUL THING …… REALLY AWFUL.

4.HOW stupid of you to insult the ambassador like that!

5.I’m really disappointed ………. DISAPPOINTED ………… REALLY DISAPPOINTED now.

6.The lounge is SO elegantly decorated.

7.It would be far better ……… FAR, FAR BETTER to ignore that man altogether ……….. IGNORE HIM.

8.When I came back, I felt SO exhausted.

9.HOW SUDDENLY Joan’s mood changed again!

10.The Wilsons are SUCH nice people.

11.WHAT a charming hostess Olive can be!

12.A bedbug ………… A BEDBUG ……….. is a tiny ……….. TINY ………. TINY creature.

Task three **


George, what are you doing so early in the morning?


I’m awfully sorry, but I had (or DID have) to get out of bed.


DO tell me what’s the matter with you, then.


Well, I had the most horrifying nightmare.


You will have to calm down, you know. This isn’t an isolated thing. Something must be bothering you.


can’t deny that. I’ve been terribly worked up lately.


DO wish you’d tell me more. I DO have a right to know.


If I told (better: DID tell) you, you’d be incredibly angry.


You DO owe me an explanation. I am your wife, after all.


I decided to buy a hugely expensive car and it could ruin us.

Task four **

1. utterly; 2. tremendous/great; 3. absolute; 4. definitely; 5. gorgeous; 6. literally; 7. horrendous; 8. raving; 9. terribly; 10. really; 11. great/tremendous; 12. indeed

2.2. Emotive emphasis in speech 2

Sections 302–305; 417

Task one **

1. at all; 2. on earth/in heaven’s name; 3. a bit; 4. a wink; 5. ever; 6. in heaven’s name/on earth; 7. whatever; 8. a thing; 9. by any means; 10. a fig

Task two *

1.NEVER HAD I met the Sultan of Brunei before.

2.BY NO MEANS IS IT clear that the United States will sign the agreement.

3.NOWHERE ELSE ARE these magnificent flowers to be found.

4.NOT A SINGLE INSURGENT’S LIFE WILL the harsh ruler spare.

5.IN NO WAY SHOULD WE lend credibility to the witness’s account of the facts.


7.NOT UNTIL AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR DID British women get the vote.

8.NOT ONLY DID this evil man murder his wife, he also mutilated her body.

Task three ***


Oh boy, AM I tired!


You’ve NOT been overdoing it again, have you?




COULDN’T YOU ask me to lend you a hand from time to time?


ISN’T THAT a most generous offer!


DO I detect some irony in your voice?


HOW MANY TIMES HAVE I asked you in the past?


WASN’T I suffering from a depression then?


ISN’T hard work the best antidote to depression?


Oh, but DID I FEEL sleepy all the time, taking those pills!


WOULDN’T I have been a far better doctor for you, then?


Oh Dick, YOU ARE hopeless!

2.3. Describing emotions 1

Sections 306–308; 499

Task one *

1–e; 2–i; 3–g; 4–a; 5–l; 6–b; 7–c; 8–k; 9–d; 10–f; 11–h; 12–j

Task two **

1.AMAZINGLY most passengers of the crashed airliner escaped unhurt.

2.I would like to buy a flat, and PREFERABLY (to have) one with a good view.

3.TRAGICALLY, five skiers died in the avalanche.

4.Barbara FOOLISHLY carried thousands of dollars in her handbag.

5.UNFORTUNATELY too little is being done to protect the environment.

6.REGRETTABLY some people failed to appreciate my point of view.

7.LUCKILY I was not at home when the gas explosion occurred.

8.The government SENSIBLY launched a new campaign against drink-driving.

9.HOPEFULLY the economy will pick up again later this year.

10.The minister UNEXPECTEDLY handed in his resignation.

Task three **


……….. I’m afraid. Putting it more bluntly …………


…………… to be honest.


………….. you see. What’s more ………….


……………, I believe, ……………..


You bet …………..


………………., so to speak, ………….. ……………., I’m sure.


….., I see. ……………..

2.4. Describing emotions 2

Sections 309–318; 722–723

Task one **

1.  sitting; 2. to drive; 3. walking – cycling; 4. cooking; 5. to be; 6. performing/to perform; 7. sack(ing) – to introduce; 8. to say; 9. going; 10. to work; 11. being; 12. travelling – staying / to travel – to stay

Task two **

Basic emotion: 1. E; 2. G; 3. F; 4. B; 5. A; 6. C; 7. D; 8. E; 9. G; 10. C Stronger emotion: 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8. b; 9. a; 10. a

Task three ***


Viv, I’m LOOKING FORWARD to indulging in a five-course dinner this evening.


Viv, I’m EAGER to indulge in a five-course dinner this evening.


UNFORTUNATELY you’ll be stuffing yourself with fattening food again.


It’s unfortunate that you’ll be stuffing yourself with fattening food again.


I THINK IT’S STRANGE THE WAY you envy people who like a hearty meal from time to time.


IT’S SURPRISING THE WAY you envy people who like a hearty meal from time to time.


THE WAY more and more of those people are becoming overweight these days IS DISTURBING.


I’M CONCERNED THAT more and more of those people are becoming overweight these days.


HOPEFULLY, that’s not going to happen to me.


That’s not going to happen to me, I HOPE.


I’M SORRY you don’t seem to realize that too much food is bad for your health.


IT’S A PITY you don’t seem to realize that too much food is bad for your health.


I’M SURPRISED you don’t realize that I’m taking a lot of exercise now.


SURPRISINGLY you don’t realize that I’m taking a lot of exercise now.


I’M GLAD you’ve at least changed that part of your lifestyle.


IT’S GOOD you’ve at least changed that part of your lifestyle.


IT’S A PITY some of the physical activities make me feel exhausted.


WHAT A PITY some of the physical activities make me feel exhausted.


HOPEFULLY, as you lose weight, the activities will seem lighter too.


I HOPE THAT, as you lose weight, the activities will seem lighter too.



3.1. Clauses

Sections 486–495; 151; 170; 198; 202–204; 211; 499; 573–577; 588; 613; 686; 718; 724; 727; 737; 739

Task one **

1.  SVO[A]; 2. SV; 3. SVO; 4. SVOO; 5. SVOO[AA]; 6. SVC[A]; 7. SVC; 8. [A]SVA; 9. SVO; 10. SVC

Task two *

1.  when you’ve finished: finite; 2. ignoring the accident: non-finite; 3. babies among them: verbless; 4. to work for the charity: non-finite; 5. covered in mud: non-finite; 6. angered by the manager’s attitude: non-finite – to resign her job: non-finite; 7. happy with the result: verbless; 8. sending lots of Christmas cards: non-finite; 9. him to leave: non-finite; 10. opening an art gallery in such a small town: non-finite – to do: non-finite

Task three **

1.  comparative: conjSV; 2. comment: VC; 3. nominal: conjSVO; 4. adverbial: [A]SV; 5. relative: SVC; 6. comparative: conj SVA; 7. comment: VC; 8. relative: SVC; 9. adverbial: conjSVO; 10. nominal: conjSV[AA]

3.2. Combinations of verbs

Section 739; 735–737

Task one *

1. can do; 2. could have been; 3. are never going; 4. must have been built; 5. is being completed; 6. has been working; 7. has already seen; 8. can’t be going; 9. might have gone; 10. hasn’t made

Task two **

1. must have got up; 2. hadn’t arrived; 3. was only just getting; 4. had been intending; 5. couldn’t believe it; 6. were still locked; 7. should have remembered; 8. had been locked away; 9. would only be opened; 10. had been made; 11. had been losing; 12. hadn’t done; 13. had lost; 14. couldn’t



4.1. Count and non-count nouns

Sections 57–69; 510; 597–601

Task one **

set of keys; clump of trees; herd of cows; crowd of people; pack of wolves; swarm of bees; flock of sheep; stack of chairs; bundle of clothes; shoal of fish

Task two **

Note: some items may be interchangeable (e.g. ‘load’ and ‘pile’)

blade of grass; lump of sugar; cup of tea; block of ice; slice of bread; load of hay; pile of dust; sheet of paper; length of string; bottle of wine; piece of cake

Task three **

count nouns: bankbookcarrotengineergroupjokequarrelyear
non-count nouns: advicebehaviourbutterclothingconducteducationfurniturehomeworkinformationmoneynewsprogresssceneryshopping
count & non-count nouns: ceramiccheesefruitindustrylanguagenightvarietywork

Task four **

1.  pile; 2. bottles (or: glasses); 3. scraps; 4. flock; 5. clump; 6. haze; 7. cup; 8. piece; 9. herds; 10. flocks

Task five **

1.  information; 2. is; 3. work; 4. needs; 5. variety; 6. skills; 7. need; 8. engineers; 9. have; 10. language; 11. experience; 12. management; 13.  advice; 14. has; 15. help; 16. situations; 17. seem; 18. weather; 19. is; 20. transportation; 21. is; 22. education; 23. is; 24. methods

Task six **

Vienna; Beijing; (South) Africa; Mayerling: U; past: U; diet: C; cake: U; beef: U; potato: C; dish: C; wine: C; wood: C; sensation: C; apartheid: U; city: C; conversation: C; greatness: U; reference: C; way: C; question: C; rank: U; status: U; influence: U; romantic: C; story: C; prince: C; mistress: C; baroness: C; pact: C; house: C; tale: C; predilection: C; city: C; Sunday: C; grave: C; churchyard: C; command: C; time: U; lady: C; – age: C; affair: C; guest: C; case: C; trace: C; irony: U; daughter: C; bourgeois: C; tram: C; familiar: C; suit: C; middle: shopping: U; bag: C; umbrella: C; toaster: C; electrician: C; stare: C; ketchup: U; charm: C; absurdity: U; cosiness: U; anarchist: C; flesh: U; people: (irregular) plural only; child: C; father: C; majesty: C; day: C; attitude: C; glue: C; flavour: C; adhesive: C; envelope: C

Both C and U: cake; wine; wood; conversation; reference; rank; status; influence; predilection; age; irony; charm; absurdity; majesty; attitude; glue; adhesive

Both C and plural only: people

4.2. Amount and quantity

Sections 70–81; 675–680; 697–699

Task one **

2. (D); 3a. (P); 3b. (P); 4. (P); 7. (D); 10a. (P); 9. (P); 8. (P); 1. (D); 10b. (P); 6. (D); 5. (P)

Task two **


the staff considered collectively; 1b. the members of staff considered individually ⇒ same basic meaning


a number of students (= not all of them); 2b. theoretically, all of them ⇒ different meaning


whichever date is chosen (= positive); 2b. neither one date nor the other (= negative) ⇒ different meaning


whichever date is chosen (= only one date needs to be chosen); 4b. the two dates suggested (= two dates need to be chosen) ⇒ different meaning (this may depend on context, though)


there were some names he couldn’t remember; 5b. there were no names (at all) he could remember ⇒ different meaning


a very small number number indeed (= negative); 6b. a relatively small number (= more positive) ⇒ (somewhat) different meaning


speak to both my father and my mother (separately); 7b. speak either to my father or to my mother (one of them will do) ⇒ different meaning


all the things he said; 8b. some of the things he said ⇒ different meaning


neither the speaker nor a second person; 9b. neither the speaker nor a second, third, etc. person ⇒ different (implied) meaning


whichever Sunday you choose; 10b. each Sunday without exception ⇒ same basic meaning

Task three **

1.  all; 2. few; 3. many; 4. a few; 5. many; 6. majority of; 7. most; 8. half; 9. majority of; 10. few

Task four ***

1.  little (or: not much); 2. a lot of; 3. a majority of; 4. a great deal of; 5. a small number; 6. lot; 7. much; 8. more; 9. a lot; 10. a little

4.3. The use of the article

Sections 82–90; 448; 475; 579; 597; 641; 747

Task one ***

Definite article:

general rule: definite meaning of any type of noun (singular and plural count nouns; mass nouns):

identity established by postmodifier (of-phrases and complete or reduced relative clauses: the owner of a pet shop; the life of a lizard; the loss suffered up to …, etc.)

identity established by premodifier (the guaranteed time)

unique in the context (the beatthe virus, etc.)

institution shared by the community (the internetthe UK)

second, third, etc. mention (the disease)

Indefinite article:

general rule: indefinite meaning of singular count nouns

first mention (a pet shopa lizarda locusta transient infection, etc.)

Zero article:

general rule: indefinite meaning of plural count nouns, plural-only nouns and mass nouns

plural count nouns, both specific and generic (bobbieshoofed animals; humans; lost or damaged items, etc.)

plural-only nouns (police)

concrete mass nouns, including those preceded by a premodifier, both specific and generic (stolen propertymoney)

abstract mass nouns, including those preceded by a premodifier, both specific and generic (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation; foot-and-mouth disease; compensation, etc.)

Task two ***

Other uses:

Definite article: generic use with singular count nouns

Indefinite article: generic use with singular count nouns

Task three **

1.  C; 2. A; 3a. C; 3b. D; 4a. D; 4b. D; 4c. D; 4d. C; 5. C; 6a. F; 6b. B; 6c. B

Task four **

morose, tubby manby the name of; a story; (the) scum; a sympathetic but slightly bored way; the gun; a car salesman; a sale; the technical virtues and drawbacks; the various models; an odd feeling

Task five **

1. a morose, tubby man: specific, indefinite, first mention – by the name of: identity established by postmodifier (of-phrase) – a story: specific, indefinite, first mention – (the) scum: identity established by postmodifier (relative clause) – a sympathetic but slightly bored way: specific, indefinite, first mention – the gun: second or third mention – a car salesman: generic use (any member of the species) – a sale: specific, indefinite, first mention – the technical virtues and drawbacks: postmodifier (of-phrase) – the various models: postmodifer (relative clause) – an odd feeling: specific, indefinite, first mention

2. on impulse: used in a generic sense (abstract mass noun) – drawbacks: indefinite article shared with ‘technical virtues’ – on sale: generic use (abstract mass noun)

Task six ***

1. Generic uses of the article:

– Definite article before singular noun: the tigerthe lion, cheetah and leopardthe pridethe large male lionthe pride(’s)the lionthe female

– Indefinite article before singular noun: a fully-grown tigera fully-grown lionan area

– Zero article before plural noun: lions, tigers, cheetahs and leopardsstrong, razor-sharp teeth and claws, muscular bodies and excellent sensesunwary zebras, giraffes and other preybig catssnow leopardsjaguarslakestreeslionsgroupspridesother maleslions, tigers, and other big catscarnivoresflesh eaterslionslarge preyantelopes and zebras

– Zero article before mass noun: such awe

2. Few creatures are held in such awe as the lion, the tiger, the cheetah and the leopard, which we often call the big cats. These agile predators have strong, razor-sharp teeth and claws, muscular bodies and excellent senses. Their beautiful striped and dappled fur camouflages among the trees, allowing them to leap from the shadows to ambush the unwary zebra, giraffe and other prey. There are seven kinds of big cats. Tigers are the largestFully-grown tigers may measure more than three meters from nose to tail; fully-grown lions are almost as big.

The first cats lived 45 million years ago. Many, including the lion, cheetah and leopard, still inhabit parts of Africa. The snow leopard dwells in the mountains of Asia. The jaguar is the largest of the big cats in North and South America. It is equally at home swimming in a lake or climbing in a tree.

The lion is the only big cat that lives in a group, called a pride, which may be up to thirty strong. Prides roam over areas of 100 sq km or more, depending on the abundance of prey in those areasLarge male lions protect a pride’s territory against other prides. Lions also defend females against other males.

The lion, the tiger and other big cats are true carnivores (flesh eaters). A lion usually eats large prey such as the antelope and the zebra. One giraffe is often enough to feed a whole pride of lions.

4.4. Other words of definite meaning

Sections 91–101; 521; 619; 667

Task one *

1.  the – the; 2. the – the; 3. Ø; 4. the – the; 5. Ø; 6. Ø – the – the; 7. the; 8. Ø; 9. –; 10. a; 11. –; 12. the

Task two **

1.  She; 2. Doctors in the emergency departments of hospitals sometimes have to deal with violent patients so they need police support.; 3.  they – him; 4. These days teachers aren’t paid enough money and they often leave …; 5. It – it (or: she) – It (or: She); 6. she; 7. he; 8. They – it – it; 9. He – they; 10. it

Task three *

1.  E; 2. I; 3. I; 4. E; 5. I; 6. I

Task four *

You shouldn’t take it for granted that you’ll be admitted to a top university simply because you’ve been to the right school. People say that, on occasion, you can be rather disadvantaged if you’ve been to certain schools. They say that colleges like to have a balance of scholars from different backgrounds. So if your background group is full, nothing can be done.

Task five **

1.  F; 2. B; 3. B; 4. F; 5. B; 6. F – S; 7. F – S; 8. S; 9. B – F; 10. F

4.5. Expressions using ‘of’ and the genitive

Sections 102–107; 530–535

Task one *

Genitive phrases: the art gallery’sthe Shearers’David Shearer’sthe local school’sthe Cambridge college’sMason’sthe region’sMason’s

Of-phrases: of the early drawingsof Keith Masonof the regionof David Shearer’sof a very individual talentof the Cambridge college’s regular visiting lecturersof several galleries in the regionof his paintings

Task two **

1.  a teacher’s work; 2. the writers circle; 3. the over-fifties’ club; 4. Shakespeare’s plays; 5. Bruce Willis’s/Willis’ early films; 6. the United States’ economic policies; 7. the government’s performance; 8. the Managing Director’s car; 9. yesterday’s news; 10. an old boys network

Task three **

1.  people who live in Africa; 2. the main entrance; 3. the workers have concern (or: are concerned); 4. some journalists are dishonest; 5. there are no ideas; 6. ordinary people are courageous; 7. a bottle which contains wine; 8. a number of things (have) caused the economic crash; 9. his complaint resulted in; 10. the meeting has been (or: was) postponed

Task four **

1.subject-verb (his mother despairs) – the despair of his mother

2.‘have’ relation (the sovereign has certain rights) – the rights of the sovereign

3.subject-complement (the actor is charming) – the charm of the actor

4.‘have’ relation (the town has traffic problems) – the traffic problems of the town

5.subject-verb relation (the government has fallen): the downfall of the government

6.verb-object (someone (has) arrested the killer) – the arrest of the killer

7.verb-object (someone (has) murdered the child) – the murder of the child

8.‘have’ relation (the moon has an effect on the tides) – the effect of the moon on the tides

9.subject-complement relation (the father is angry) – the anger of the father

10.subject-verb (the orchestra (has) performed) – the perfomance of the orchestra

Task five ***

1.the girl told a story – the story told about the girl

2.Scott made a discovery – somebody discovered Scott

3.somebody examines a doctor – a doctor examines somebody

4.the dream he has had for many years – the dream he has of what (his) life should be like award given in recognition of a long career – the most important award one is not likely to get

6.a portrait by Manet – Manet is the subject of the portrait

7.Peter may have just one friend – one of Peter’s friends

8.The story written/told by Mary – the story about Mary

9.a particular part of that period – (about) 30 days

10.a part in a play – the job of an actor

Task six *

1.  today’s meeting; 2. the world’s most successful airline; 3. an hour’s wait; 4. Britain’s oldest married couple; 5. Scotland’s highest mountain; 6. a month’s delay; 7. a minute’s pause; 8. Liverpool’s favourite son; 9. London’s worst kept secret; 10. last year’s bush fires


Time, tense and aspect

5.1. Auxiliary verbs

Sections 477–478; 582; 735

Task one *

primary auxiliarieswas (biting)had (cut)had (never heard)had (met)be (telling)did (laugh)have (appreciated)don’t (mock)wasn’t (mocking)didn’t (like)(to) be (laughed at)

modal auxiliariescan (count)might (not be telling)would (have appreciated)must (know)

Task two *

1a. It’s going; 1b. I’ll do; 2a. I’d made; 2b. didn’t notice; 3a. needn’t worry; 3b. haven’t come back; 4a. Jim’s been; 4b. he’d better; 5a. We’re getting; 5b. who’ve been; 6. everybody’s listening; 7a. We mustn’t; 7b. we’re not setting; 8a. I don’t approve; 8b. you’ve done; 8c. I won’t tell; 9a. I’d be; 9b. I’m afraid; 9c. I can’t; 10a. Shouldn’t the Robinsons have told us; 10b. they weren’t going

5.2. The auxiliary verbs do, have and be

Sections 479–482; 736

Task one *

1a. main; 1b. auxiliary; 2a. auxiliary; 2b. main; 3a. main; 3b. auxiliary; 4a. main; 4b. main; 5a. auxiliary; 5b. main; 6a. auxiliary; 6b. main; 7a. main; 7b. auxiliary; 8a. auxiliary; 8b. main; 9a. main; 9b. auxiliary; 10a. main; 10b. auxiliary

Task two *

1.It isn’t true that we weren’t trying to help people in need.

2.Karen doesn’t realize that I didn’t do her a favour by also inviting her boyfriend.

3.Those who didn’t have dinner with Mr Partridge haven’t been told about his latest project.

4.Brian isn’t a long-distance commuter, so he doesn’t have a car of his own.

5.Don’t come over to see us if you don’t have enough time to spare.

6.Mark wasn’t appointed for the job because he didn’t have good references.

7.Don’t be silent about the points you don’t want to remain secret.

8.The fact that you haven’t reported these incidents to the police doesn’t do you credit.

9.We weren’t convinced that the door hadn’t been forced open before.

10.I didn’t do all the exercises as I wasn’t preparing for an important exam.

5.3. The modal auxiliaries

Sections 483–485; 736

Task **

1.You needn’t come back until the end of this week.

You don’t need to come back until the end of this week.

2.Sandra didn’t use to send postcards when she was abroad.

Sandra usedn’t to send postcards when she was abroad.

3.Do you dare to call me a selfish person?

Dare you call me a selfish person?

4.I don’t dare to think how disastrous such a policy might be.

I daren’t think how disastrous such a policy might be.

5.Did Mrs Barnes use to give money to charity?

6.Need I write more than thirty lines, sir?

Do I need to write more than thirty lines, sir?

7.The PM doesn’t dare to call an election yet.

The PM daren’t call an election yet.

8.We didn’t use to condemn such eccentric behaviour.

We usedn’t to condemn such eccentric behaviour.

9.Doesn’t John need to have his passport renewed?

Needn’t John have his passport renewed?

10.Didn’t people use to be afraid of ghosts in those days?

5.4. Meanings and forms

Sections 113–115; 573–578; 740–741

Task one **

is (× 2): state; simple present

gave: event; simple past

started: event; simple past

has … spread: event; present perfect

has turned around: event; present perfect

has: state; simple present

are moving: temporary; present progressive

is: state; simple present

draw: habit; simple present

are thriving: temporary; present progressive

is: state; simple present

says: event; simple present

Task two (suggested answers) ***

1.Fiona doesn’t eat meat. /Fiona never eats meat.

2.Sibyl plays the piano.

3.Winston Churchill smoked cigars.

4.We regularly went to church in those days.

5.Mr Hazelhurst taught Russian for twenty years.

6.Dr Winter operates on people’s brains.

7.Davy asks people for food and money.

8.Ms Booth defends people in court.

9.Alan Sparke sets fire to buildings.

10.My cousin refuses to join the military on moral grounds.

11.This convict has killed several people.

12.Ben Jonson acted on the stage and wrote several plays.

5.5. Present time

Sections 116–121

Task one **

1a. temporary present habit; 1b. present state; 2a. present habit; 2b. present habit; 3a. temporary present habit; 3b. present habit; 4a. present habit; 4b. present habit; 5a. persistent habit; 5b. present state; 6a. present state; 6b. present (complete) event; 7a. temporary present event; 7b. present (complete) event; 8a. present state; 8b. present habit; 9a. present state; 9b. present state; 10. present state (tactfully expressed)

Task two **

1.My car is still being repaired so I’m commuting by train this week.

2.I assure you the situation is getting out of hand very quickly.

3.Lions hunt by night and feed on any animals they can pull down.

4.Bob, you are (being) very rude again to the very person who loves you most.

5.It says in the newspaper that new measures are being considered to fight organized crime.

6.Why are you continually interrupting the speaker? He deserves your undivided attention, you know.

7.I wonder if you could possibly help me. I’m trying to fix the ventilator but it isn’t working yet.

8.Millions of people in Britain get their paper early in the morning because many newsagents organize ‘paper rounds’.

9.I’m making a mess of this job but I promise to do better next time.

10.Are you still thinking of moving to the Seychelles or do you prefer to stay in our northern hemisphere after all?

11.Dad keeps telling me that the early bird catches the worm.

12.This tropical disease is spreading fast in Central Africa, where people don’t earn enough to buy expensive medicines.

5.6. Past time 1

Sections 122–127; 550–572

Task one **

–  was shot: definite time in the past; simple past

–  has been awarded: past indefinite event; simple present perfect

– was seriously injured: definite time in the past; simple past

–  disturbed: definite time in the past; simple past

–  was staying: past activity in progress; past progressive

–  lost: definite time in the past; simple past

–  needed: definite time in the past; simple past

–  had perforated: time in the past as seen from a definite time in the past; past perfect

–  (…..) nicked: time in the past as seen from a definite time in the past; past perfect

Task two **

1a. has died; 1b. became; 2a. elected; 2b. has had; 3a. was; 3b. has spent; 4a. was founded; 4b. has helped; 5a. have risen; 5b. warned; 6a. thought; 6b. were created; 6c. struck; 7a. have made; 7b. have even succeeded; 8a. have been known / were known; 8b. contracted / had contracted; 9a. escaped; 9b. were sent; 10a. has been; 10b. (has) shed; 10c. (have) had

Task three **

1.Rural communities felt their traditions were threatened as English people bought property at prices that were out of the reach of locals.

2.Police officers approaching retirement were to be offered more money to stay on for a further five years under new Home Office plans to retain experienced staff.

Supporters of the proposals hoped they would encourage long-serving constables and sergeants in their 50s to stay on. Under the rules existing then, police in the lower ranks had to retire at 55, and many chose to take their pension after 30 years’ service. As a result, forces across the country were facing a retirement “timebomb”, with many officers due to leave the following decade.

3.Top scientists believed that global warming had caused an unexpected collapse in the number of the world’s most hunted whale.

They thought that a sharp contraction in sea ice in the Antarctic was the likeliest explanation behind findings which suggested that the numbers of minke whales in the surrounding seas had fallen by half in less than a decade. The findings greatly strengthened the arguments of conservationists who were resisting moves to lift a 15-year-old official ban on the hunt. (…)

Commercial whaling had been banned officially since 1986, but Japan and Norway each continued to kill about 500 minke whales a year. Japan did so under the guise of “scientific research”, allowed under the IWC’s treaty; Norway by exempting itself from the ban, which was also permitted under the agreement.

Task four *

1.  has been raining; 2. Have you seen; 3. have written; 4. You’ve been drinking; 5. have known; 6. have you been waiting; 7a. have been studying; 7b. have not drawn; 8a. has become; 8b. have been crossing; 9a. have never witnessed; 9b. have flown / have been flying; 10a. has been cheating; 10b. has decided; 11a. has just told; 11b. have been constantly arguing; 12a. has been working; 12b. has still not finished

Task five ***


Kevin has just died in hospital. He fell off his horse a week ago and broke a leg and several ribs. Instead of recovering after the operation, however, he suffered a stroke and lay in a coma for three or four days from which he didn’t wake up again.

I’ve already fixed a date for the funeral but haven’t contacted my husband’s brother and sister yet as I’ve been out of touch with them for years. Kevin was a wonderful man and I’ve never regretted marrying him. Did you know about Kevin’s recent conversion to Buddhism?


I heard some rumours about it at the local pub and I have considered converting to it myself lately. I’ve always believed in an afterlife, but (I’ve) kept it to myself until now.


Thank you. You have, at least, offered me the prospect of one day meeting Kevin again.

5.7. Past time 2

Sections 128–131

Task one ***

1.Harry Trotter is suspected of having killed his aunt.

2.60 per cent of viewers appear to have watched the Cup Final yesterday.

3.Edith is very pleased to have been given a second chance.

4.Millions of euros are rumoured to have been stolen from a local bank last night.

5.The police are unlikely to have identified the culprits.

6.I’m so sorry to have drawn everyone’s attention to the flaws in your project.

7.We are very much aware of the authorities having been forced to accept this questionable deal.

8.All three candidates are certain to have been screened.

9.Some people are worried about not having been informed at all.

10.Mr Bunker is the first man to have swum across the lake in winter.

11.Some politicians are alleged to have accepted bribes from lobbyists in the early 90s.

12.Dozens of drivers were fined for having exceeded the speed limit.

Task two **

1.caught; 2. lay; 3. Have you taught; 4. crept; 5. have spent; 6. has not risen; 7. chose; 8. tore up; 9. struck; 10a. burst; 10b. have had; 11a. Have you fed; 11b. has already eaten; 12a. has borne; 12b. beat

Task three **

1.used to be; 2a. would tinkle; 2b. would open; 2c. would kiss; 3. used to send; 4. used to hate; 5a. wouldn’t stop; 5b. wouldn’t ask; 5c. would work; 5d. would be working; 5e. would be doing; 5f. would be doing; 5g. would ask; 5h. would have to set

5.8. The progressive aspect

Sections 132–139

Task one **

1a. were having; 1b. burst in; 2a. have been searching; 2b. have only found; 3a. are you still considering; 3b. do you want; 4a. came in; 4b. were punching; 5a. are getting; 5b. is handling; 6a. do you normally react/did you normally react/have you normally reacted; 6b. calls/called/has called; 7a. were you whispering; 7b. saw; 8a. Have you finished; 8b. have been working; 9a. are you complaining; 9b. have eaten; 10a. were fast running; 10b. came; 11a. sent; 11b. are still waiting; 12a. has risen; 12b. took over; 12c. stabilised

Task two **

know; vividly remember; consists of; contains; had belonged to; loved; looked like; owed; remained; William understood; depended; resembled; believed; lacked; required

Task three **

1.  have been hearing; 2a. tastes; 2b. tastes/tasted; 3. was still feeling; 4a. see; 4b. are (being) / have been / were; 5a. was smelling; 5b. saw; 5c. smelt; 6. was tasting; 7a. hear; 7b. are; 8a. are (being); 8b. feel; 9. have been seeing; 10a. heard; 10b. felt

5.9. Future time 1

Sections 140–146

Task one *


It’s not going to start: future resulting from present cause; 1b. I’ll drive you home: element of intention with personal subject; 1c. we’ll phone someone: element of intention with personal subject.


I shall be an embarrassing flat mate: element of intention with personal subject; 2b. How will you explain me: neutral future of prediction; 2c. We shan’t be seeing: future event which will take place ‘as a matter of course’; 2d. If we do run into them: future in conditional clause; 2e. I shall explain: element of intention with personal subject.


Helen is about to celebrate: imminent future (= less common expression); 3b. She and Daniel will … be going out tonight: future event which will take place ‘as a matter of course’.


Encouraging news will reach you: neutral future of prediction; 4b. before you’ve been: future in time clause; 4c. it will soon pass: neutral future of prediction.


she’s starting: future event arising from present plan; 5b. what will she do: element of intention with personal subject; 5c. when school finishes: future in time clause.

Task two **; 2. Will you be staying; 3a. doesn’t take; 3b. she’ll get; 4. I’m going to throw up; 5. I’m seeing; 6. will be cruising; 7. We’re going to win; 8. begins; 9. Are you going to buy; 10a. We’re leaving; 10b. will probably return; 11a. doesn’t last; 11b. it will take; 12. It’s going to blow up; 13a. are coming; 13b. shall be; 14a. enters; 14b. you will see; 15. will be complaining / are going to complain.

Task three **


are leaving; will be; takes off.


are you spending; don’t get


we’re flying; we’ll get


Will you be lying


we’re going to tour; we’re definitely going to visit; we’ll also go


you’re going to enjoy yourselves; you’ll never get; I go

5.10. Future time 2

Sections 147–148

Task **

1.will have been; 2. weren’t going to; 3. were to rescue / would rescue; 4. will have been delivered; 5. was going to jump; 6. was never going to see; 7. was going to come; 8. would haunt; 9a. have read; 9b. will have died; 10. was going to cry; 11. would regret; 12. were just about to leave

5.11. Summary

Sections 149–150

Task one **

–  resembles: simple present – A1

–  stretch: simple present – A1

–  are hoping: present progressive – A4

–  will … grow: neutral future – C15

–  will stay: neutral future – C15

–  are getting: present progressive – A5

–  says: simple present – A2

–  are saying: present progressive – A5

–  don’t have: simple present – A1

–  imposed: simple past – B10

–  ended: simple past – B9

–  was: simple past – B8

–  have risen: present perfect – B4

–  doubled: simple past – B9

–  is seeking: present progressive – A4

–  is encouraging: present progressive – A5

–  have … seen: present perfect – B1

–  are expected: simple present – A1

–  have … stopped: present perfect – B4

–  are: simple present – A1

–  has risen: present perfect – B4

–  represents: simple present – A1

–  spend: simple present – A3

Task two ***


are you going to tell; 1b. are leaving; 1c. gets; 1d. bet; 1e. is; 1f. will be; 1g. do you want


is being rapidly reduced; 2b. reveals; 2c. concludes; 2d. has been cut; 2e. are beginning; 2f. promises


do the natives in the Amazon Rainforest live; 3b. is discovering; 3c. have traditionally relied; 3d. have been used; 3e. started; 3f. have not been; 3g. am


was; 4b. were; 4c. was; 4d. followed; 4e. passed; 4f. had been; 4g. spent; 4h. earned; 4i. were; 4j. was; 4k. had loved; 4l. has ever featured; 4m. was experiencing; 4n. turned; 4o. was struggling; 4p. appeared


constitutes; 5b. have already travelled; 5c. is; 5d. recognise; 5e. requires; 5f. has been; 5g. is; 5h. will put; 5i. will never forget; 5j. have listed; 5k. has been; 5l. are providing

Task three (suggested answers) ***

Vivien asked Pearl, as she was a social worker running a project for single mothers, if it was possible for them to keep their babies.

Pearl replied that, in some parts of her country, those women were still experiencing problems. She said that often the family couldn’t afford to feed an extra mouth, but she had found that, if a woman and her baby got some support, they were accepted into the family.

Vivien asked what happened if they were not accepted.

Pearl said that the less fortunate women were told that there were support services at several refuges. She added that over two hundred single mothers had passed through them since 1998 and most were coping well on their own.

Vivien suggested that, in spite of all their efforts, they didn’t always reach those who needed to be helped most.

Pearl agreed. She said she knew dozens of women who had given up their babies, but she felt sure their numbers would keep going down, as they had over the past few years.



6.1. Adjectives

Sections 440–444

Task one **

Used attributively: 1. medical – vegetable – chief; 2. sheer – main – utter; 4. mere 5. live

Used predicatively: 2. afraid; 4. alive and kicking; 5. asleep – awake

Used attributively & predicatively: 1. obvious – healthy; 2. lazy – clumsy; 3. bright – cloudier – odd – late; 4. ill – deadly – complete; 5. shocking – clear – heinous – evil – unpunished

Task two *

1.  quite; 2. extremely; a little; 3. mainly; 4. really; 5. wide – abundantly

Task three (suggested answers) ***


the worried parents; 1b. the parents involved


the people on the board now; 2b. the members who are there at this moment


five times one square metre; 3b. five metres times five metres


the complicated calculations; 4b. the calculations that had to be done


proper = correct; 5b. London proper = within the real boundaries of London

Task four ***

1.(b) reduced present progressive (‘to be’ is understood, and an object governed by a preposition follows).

2.(a) preceded by premodifying degree adverb

3.(a) preceded by degree adverb

4.(b) present progressive (‘is … ing’ is followed by direct object)

5.(a) preceded by degree adverb

6.(a) preceded by degree adverb

7.(a) is synonym for another adjective, e.g. ‘positive’

8.(a) preceded by degree adverb

9.(b) passive construction; (b) followed by direct object

10.(a) is a synonym for another adjective, e.g. ‘difficult’; (b) followed by direct object

11.(b) passive construction; (a) preceded by degree adverb

12.(a) is a synonym for another adjective, e.g. ‘furious’; (a) is a synonym for another adjective, e.g. ‘very strong’; (b) reduced passive: ‘which was voiced by …’

Task five **

towering; spongy; former; wiry; sharp; prickly; dressed; oily; rear; sure; working; useful; plastic; squeaky

6.2. Adjective or adverb?

Sections 445–447

Task one **

1. angrily; 2. angry; 3. courageous; 4. courageously; 5. marvellous; 6. marvellously; 7. deliciously; 8. delicous; 9. fatal; 10. fatally; 11. hazy; 12. hazily

Task two **

1. direct; 2. highly; 3. close; 4. bare; 5. short; 6. lately; 7. barely; 8. strong; 9. directly 10. loud and clear; 11. shortly; 12. high; 13. hard; 14. loudly and clearly; 15. late; 16. closely; 17. rightly; 18. hardly; 19. strongly; 20. right

6.3. Adjectives as heads

Section 448; 90; 579–580

Task one *

1. the unemployed; 2. the disabled; 3. the rich/well-off/wealthy; 4. the faithful/religious; 5. the oppressed; 6. the homeless; 7. the British; 8. the Welsh; 9. the Irish; 10. the Spanish; 11. the French; 12. the Dutch

Task two ***

1. the supernatural; 2. the obvious; 3. the absurd; 4. the impossible; 5. the insane; 5. (all) the necessary; 7a. the eternal; 7b. the temporary; 8. the unimaginable/unthinkable

6.4. Adjective patterns

Sections 436–438

Task one **

1. on; 2. of; 3. for; 4. with; 5. with; 6. in; 7. to; 8. of/for/about; 9.with; 10. at; 11. on; 12. for

Task two **

1.I am shocked that / It is shocking that so many people are using drugs these days.

2.It is essential that the government forms / should form a Royal Commission.

3.I am grateful that you are offering me this unique opportunity.

4.I was proud that I had helped in the attempt to fight poverty.

5.It is shameful that we have not learned any lessons from this bloody conflict.

6.It is/was outrageous that Titanic beat Star Wars at the box office.

7.I am confident that the scheme will be very successful.

8.I am not surprised / It is not surprising that Mr Welsh offers useful advice on how to deal with the war on drugs.

9.I am/was alarmed / It is/was alarming that Peter tried to deny the gravity of the problem.

10.I was convinced that I was watching another movie altogether.

11.It is evident that we should move forward in positive and productive ways.

12.I am hopeful that I will begin to get some real answers at last.

6.5. Adjective patterns with a to-infinitive

Section 439

Task one **

1.The doctor slowly realised the seriousness of his patient’s condition.

2.It was wise of Susan to ditch her boyfriend. / Susan wisely ditched her boyfriend.

3.It is almost impossible to come by manual typewriters these days.

4.It made the Queen (feel) astonished to see so many well-wishers.

5.It is likely that such vicious attacks will recur in the next few months.

6.It can be very pleasant to teach sixteen-year-olds.

7.It is certain that the 6 o’clock plane for Tokyo will arrive on time.

8.It was foolish of you to accept a bribe from that man.

9.It is increasingly hard to catch some species of fish.

10.It made the couple next door (feel) relieved to get news of their son.

11.It was clever of Bob to write a letter of apology to the headmaster.

12.It made me (feel) happy to be invited to the Prime Minister’s birthday party.

Task two **

1.slow: type 4 (quick)

2.wise: type 1 (clever, foolish, silly, stupid, unwise)

3.impossible: type 2 (hard, difficult, easy)

4.astonished: type 3 (amazed, surprised)

5.likely: type 5 (unlikely, certain)

6.pleasant: type 2 (easy, hard)

7.certain: type 5 (uncertain)

8.foolish: type 1 (silly, stupid, unwise, clever, wise)

9.hard: type 2 (difficult, easy)

10.relieved: type 3 (glad, amazed, astonished)

11.clever: type 1 (wise, foolish, silly, stupid, unwise)

12.happy: type 3 (glad, sad)


Adverbs, adverbials and prepositions

7.1. Adverbs

Sections 464–469

Task one *


Task two **

too: pre-modifier of adjective; effectively: adverbial in sentence;

largely: adverbial in sentence; directly: adverbial in sentence;

otherwise: adverbial in sentence; fully: pre-modifier of noun phrase;

even: pre-modifier of adverb; so: adverbial in sentence; right: adverbial in sentence;

why: adverbial in sentence; else: post-modifier; back: pre-modifier of preposition

Task three **

far; just; still; normally; beautifully; well; still; mainly; almost/nearly; nearly/almost; only; certainly; more; ago; however; never; never

Task four (suggested answers) **

1. somewhere else/elsewhere; 2. powerful enough; 3. how impertinent a young man; 4. hardly any; 5. sufficiently familiar; 6. what a ludicrous; 7. very little; 8. no-one else; 9. not an experienced enough pilot; 10. too honest a stockbroker ever to cheat

7.2. Adverbials – Introduction

Sections 449–452

Task one **

In the last 50 yearsin Newfoundland economicsalthough the fishing industries are still the largest employersstillno longerexclusivelyfor its livelihoodIn recent yearsoff the coast of the island and off Labradorjust off the east coast of St John’sIf plans are realizedby the millennium

Task two **

(a)adverbs: still (MP); exclusively (EP)

adverb phrases: no longer (MP)

prepositional phrases: In the last 50 years (FP); in Newfoundland economics (EP); for its livelihood (EP); In recent years (FP); off the coast of the island and off Labrador (EP); just off the coast of St John’s (EP); by the millennium (EP) finite subclause: Although the fishing industries are still the largest employers (FP); If plans are realized (FP)

(b)Short adverbials (adverbs and adverb phrases) have MP, except for ‘exclusively’, which has EP here (still followed by a longer adverbial). Long adverbials (prepositional phrases and subclauses) all have FP or EP.

Task three **

1a.General elections always take place on a Thursday.

1b.They are not public holidays. People have to work in the normal way, so polling stations are open from seven in the morning till ten at night to give everybody the opportunity to vote.

2a.Not long ago, Andrew Nugée would pack an SLR film camera and about 30 rolls of film when he went on vacation.

2b.Now he simply takes a digital camcorder for capturing both moving and still images.

2c.Nugée is just one of many who have been bitten by the digital-imaging bug. “It’s completely changed my approach to photography. I take my camcorder everywhere,” he says.

7.3. Time-when 1

Sections 151–155; 455–456

Task one *

1. in the 1960s; 2. in 2000, on 5 August; 3. last Friday; 4. in the 19th century; 5. by/at night; 6. at midnight; 7. during a recession; 8.  next week; 9. at 10.45 a.m.; 10. early autumn/in the early autumn; 11. Tuesday morning / on Tuesday morning; 12. in 1918, at 11 a.m. on 11 November.

Task two (possible answers) **

1. in 1962 / on 1 May / at 3 a.m.; 2. in 1967 / in September 1967; 3. two years ago; 4. at university between 1985 and 1988; 5. at half-past six …….. at midnight; 6. now; 7. in the dark; 8. after the evening meal; 9. next week; 10. in June

Task three **

1a. at 3.30 a.m.; 1b. at half-past nine; 2a. in July; 2b. again; 2c. in August; 3a. on 11 May 1926; 3b. on 14 May; 3c. three years later; 4a. when I get back indoors; 4b. this autumn

7.4. Time-when 2

Sections 156–160

Task one **

1.I decided to talk to my wife first and see my solicitor afterwards.

2.Over 170 nations had already signed the non-proliferation treaty by the end of 1999.

3.The European Union may well consist of about twenty-five member states a few years from now.

4.George Bush Sr. was President of the United States before he was succeeded by Bill Clinton.

5.The missing girl left home two weeks ago and has not been seen since.

6.The Boeing 747 took off from Dubai Airport hours ago, so it should have landed in Delhi by now.

7.The situation in Eastern Europe began to change very fast after the collapse of communism.

8.I still don’t know whether a solution has yet been found.

9.Hostilities had resumed earlier that month, but fortunately things quietened down after a while.

10.We were soon to learn that the suspect had previously been convicted of drugs trafficking.

Task two **

1.I met Sheila when I was 17 years old.

2.The tourists picnicked in the city’s main park before visiting a local museum.

3.Two wings of the castle were destroyed by fire after it was struck by lightning.

4.I will phone you as soon as I have finished this repair work.

5.The car crash happened while it was raining heavily.

6.We can all heave a sigh of relief now that the worst of the storm is over.

7.Steering a canoe is relatively easy once you get the hang of it.

8.The patient’s condition seemed to stabilize as time passed.

9.I do not want to fly to Canada until the international situation has improved.

10.There has only been one single burglary since a security camera was installed.

7.5. Duration

Sections 161–165; 457

Task one **

1. for millennia; 2. briefly; 3. up to now; 4. all winter long; 5. for several years now; 6. until his grasp loosened; 7. ever since I’ve known about the health risks involved; 8. for ever; 9. from 1837 to 1901; 10. temporarily

Task two **

1. for four years; 2. for the rest of this century; 3. forever; 4. for a few weeks now; 5. up to Easter; 6. the whole day; 7. for a short time now; 8. at the week-end; 9. The heatwave continued throughout the summer; 10. … while police officers were (simultaneously) combing the woods for the missing girl.

7.6. Frequency

Sections 166–169; 458

Task one **

1.I’ve often met this famous comedian.

2.I used to see Mum every other day.

3.Even hardened soldiers occasionally become sentimental. / Even hardened soldiers become sentimental from time to time.

4.I go to the sauna monthly.

5.I’ve frequently been to the United States.

6.Our neighbours have a barbecue nearly every weekend.

7.Mr Sweethome seldom/rarely travels abroad.

8.Some people go for a walk daily.

9.We have breakfast at 7.30 most days.

10.My elder brother is rarely/seldom at home.

11.I borrow books from the library every fortnight.

12.Bossy people are frequently difficult to communicate with.

Task two ***

1.True vegetarians NEVER eat meat.

2.A footballer performing a hat-trick is a player who scores THREE TIMES.

3.Gypsies are people who are ALWAYS/CONSTANTLY on the move.

4.Bill Clinton was TWICE elected President of the United States.

5.Drink-driving is ALWAYS a serious offence.

6.The Olympic Games take place ONCE EVERY FOUR YEARS.

7.Even the best actors SOMETIMES forget their lines.

8.A bimonthly journal is published EVERY TWO MONTHS.

9.Most adults NORMALLY go to bed between 10 p.m. and midnight.

10.Astronauts have orbited our planet MANY TIMES.

11.People aged over 100 HARDLY EVER live on their own.

12.Commuters ALWAYS travel to work. / Commuters travel to work DAILY.

7.7. Place, direction and distance

Section 170; 454

Task one **

1.Nowhere in Chesterof the River Deeon the north bankthereon the Deeon the Grovespast Eaton Estateof Westminster.

2.Australiafrom northto southeastback to the Pacific coaston to New Zealandthe most southerly landfallon this side of the Rimacross flat plainspast Broken Hillwhereanywhere in the worldthrough the Blue Mountainsinto Sydney

Task two **

a.of the River Deeof WestminsterAustraliathe most southerly landfallon this side of the Rim

b.adverbs and adverb phrases: Nowhere in Chesterthereeastwhereany-where in the world
prepositional phrases: on the north bankon the Deeon the Grovespast Eaton Estatefrom northto southback to the Pacific coaston to New Zealandacross flat plainspast Broken Hillthrough the Blue Mountainsinto Sydney

7.8. Prepositions of place

Sections 171–178

Task one **

1a. at/in; 1b. outside; 2a. off; 2b. into; 3a. from; 3b. to; 3c. through; 4a. through; 4b. on; 5a. to/into; 5b. from/out of; 5c. to; 6a. from; 6b. across/over; 6c. on; 7a. across; 7b. through; 7c. along; 8a. in/inside; 8b. away from; 9a. at; 9b. off/out of; 9c. on to; 9d. into; 9e. to; 9f. on; 10a. at; 10b. to; 10c. in; 10d. to; 10e. in; 10f. through; 10g. within (or: to/by/along)

Task two (suggested answers) **

1. off his horse; 2. out of it; 3. out of / into the station; 4. on the statue; 5. over the bridge; 6. in the bus; 7. close to the shore; 8. over the wall; 9. on to the next town; 10. from Western Docks; 11. on her finger; 12. in a bar

7.9. Overlap between types of prepositions

Sections 179–183

Task **

1. on; 2. at; 3. in; 4. at; 5. on; 6. at; 7. in; 8. at; 9. to; 10. into; 11. at; 12. in

7.10. Various positions

Sections 184–186

Task one (suggested answers) ***

1. above the eyes; 2. below street-level / underneath the house; 3. by the fire; 4. between two countries; 5. under his shirt; 6. behind each other; 7. in front of you; 8. behind him; 9. opposite yours; 10. among colleagues; 11. round the walls; 12. on top of the pile

Task two **

1.Most of the divers had resurfaced but one or two were still trapped BELOW.

2.During the occupation of the area only the old and sick stayed BEHIND.

3.Dozens of B-52s and other warplanes were flying OVERHEAD that morning.

4.Young children travelling in cars are not normally allowed to sit IN FRONT.

5.I was awakened by a persistent stamping of feet produced by the people living ABOVE.

6.Before putting the pizza in the oven just sprinkle some Parmesan ON TOP.

7.The man sitting OPPOSITE leaned forward and suddenly grabbed me by the shoulders.

8.I lifted the carpet to find out what had been hidden UNDERNEATH.

9.Hours after the tragedy groups of relatives and friends were still standing AROUND.

10.On this side of the road are several detached houses, with a few remaining plots of land IN BETWEEN.

7.11. Motion

Sections 187–189

Task ***

1. came/went into; 2. came down; 3. went round; 4. coming towards; 5. get out of/away from; 6. went by; 7. going up; 8. got through; 9. went along; 10. drive over; 11. get on; 12. get over

7.12. Space and motion

Sections 190–192

Task one **

1. up; 2. across; 3. beyond; 4. through; 5. down; 6. round; 7. throughout; 8. all over the; 9. are out of; 10. be away from

Task two **

1. beyond; 2. under; 3. behind; 4. below; 5. out of; 6. into; 7. along; 8. past; 9. on top of; 10. amid; 11. over 12. beneath

Task three ***

1. walked in; 2. sailed over; 3. drove away; 4. came up; 5. moved out / went away; 6. carried on; 7. dropped by/in; 8. broke/split up

7.13. Distance

Section 193

Task **

1. thousands of miles away; 2. thousands of miles; 3. about two hundred yards from here; 4. five thousand feet below; 5. six hundred miles; 6. a few hundred yards; 7. just inches from my head; 8. a hundred feet above our heads; 9. miles away; 10. two inches

7.14. Manner, means and instrument

Sections 194–197; 453

Task one **

1.extremely carefully: adverb phrase; at a slow speed: prepositional phrase; in as high a gear as possible: prepositional phrase; very gently: adverb phrase; particularly slowly: adverb phrase; progressively: adverb; smoothly: adverb; by choosing a safe place to brake gently: adverbial clause; gently: adverb a soldier: prepositional phrase; at a fast cat-like crouch: prepositional phrase; weaving and ducking and using the river bed for cover: adverbial clause

Task two **

1.The trade unions protested VIGOROUSLY (or: IN A VIGOROUS MANNER / WITH VIGOUR) against the government’s measures.

2.The new proposal was ENTHUSIASTICALLY received / The new proposal was received ENTHUSIASTICALLY.

3.The losing team COURAGEOUSLY fought back / The losing team fought back COURAGEOUSLY.

4.The local tribes were treated CRUELLY AND UNJUSTLY.

5.I was dressing the patient’s wounds LIKE A QUALIFIED NURSE.

6.Mr Pym was behaving LIKE A SIXTEEN-YEAR-OLD towards the new trainee.

7.The front gate was locked, so I tried to get in BY THE BACKDOOR.

8.Fortunately, we were able to communicate BY MOBILE PHONE.

9.The employers sought to win over the workers WITH A PAY RISE.

10.Why don’t we resolve the problem WITH A CHANGE OF TACTICS.

11.The burglars knocked the night porter unconscious WITH A BASEBALL BAT.

12.We cannot reduce the flood risk WITHOUT PROPER SEA DEFENCES.

Task three **

1. using an old-fashioned fountain pen; 2. with great difficulty; 3. by the path we always used; 4. so slowly; 5. with a crowbar; 6. with fond approval; 7. by road or by rail; 8. like an Arctic explorer; 9. as if it were your last day on earth; 10. by sounding your horn; 11. by a perilously slim extending ladder, with a little piece of rope for support; 12. clearly and accurately, by the use of symbols

7.15. Prepositions (general)

Sections 657–660

Task one **

1. in; 2. in; 3. at; 4. in; 5. before; 6. on; 7. of; 8. between; 9. along; 10. in; 11. for; 12. to; 13. in; 14. of; 15. in; 16. to; 17. into; 18. for; 19. about (or: on); 20. with; 21. of; 22. with; 23. out; 24. about

Task two **

1. P; 2. PA; 3. PA; 4. PA; 5. PA; 6. PA; 7. P; 8. P; 9. PA; 10. P

7.16. Two or more adverbials

Section 460

Task **

1. in Iceland in fifty years; 2. into the small colonial room at the front of the building; 3. in an armchair with a magazine in her lap; 4. among the boulders by the tower; 5. on Stella’s door at ten past four; 6. eastward on the Transsiberian Express; 7. intimidatingly in my direction; 8. in the penal colony in 1840 after a career of crimes, arrests and escapes; 9. extensively in the North for several years; 10. in his office on the fourth floor of a supermarket in Hong Kong; 11. fixedly at the paving stone under her feet; 12. to starboard about 1 o’clock in the afternoon.

7.17. Degree

Section 215; 459

Task *

1. particularly: H, M; 2. simply: L, A; 3a. Just: L, A; 3b. monumentally: H, M; 4. quite: H, M; 5a. pretty: H, M; 5b. much: H, A; 6. almost: L, M; 7. deeply: H, A; 8. ill: L, A; 9. totally: H, A; 10. all but: L, M; 11. a little: L, M; 12. terribly: H, M; 13a. really: H, A; 13b. right: H, M; 14a. piercingly: H. M; 14b. only: L, M; 14c. partly: L, A; 15a. rather: H, M; 15b. barely: L, M; 15c. fully: H, M

7.18. Gradable words and degree 1

Sections 216–218

Task one **

1.The situation in the border area is getting PRETTY desperate.

2.High Street spending has increased CONSIDERABLY over the last two months.

3.Teachers are complaining about class sizes A GREAT DEAL these days.

4.In her early nineties now, Mrs Wilson is beginning to look VERY frail.

5.Ricky’s mood swings are making me feel A LITTLE uncomfortable.

6.On the whole, I QUITE like these after-dinner speeches.

7.Careful, that wooden chest is RATHER heavy!

8.Aren’t you getting A BIT worried about Mandy’s recent behaviour?

9.Teenagers tend to admire pop stars VERY MUCH.

10.I think we should reword this letter SLIGHTLY.

11.We were given a FAIRLY accurate description of the situation.

12.Dear Kenny, I’m looking forward to your visit A LOT.

Task two *

1. rather; 2. exactly; 3. too; 4. strictly; 5. utterly; 6. a great deal; 7. in the least; 8. slightly; 9. altogether; 10. quite; 11. a little; 12a. almost; 12b. extremely

7.19. Gradable words and degree 2

Sections 219–221

Task one **

1. much; 2. very much; 3. altogether; 4. very; 5. very much; 6. much; 7. very; 8. a lot; 9. altogether; 10a. very; 10b. very much

Task two **

1.Jimmy looked RATHER pathetic standing in the rain outside.

2.Joan seemed ENTIRELY at ease in this new environment.

3.It’s QUITE a pleasant walk now that the heather is in full bloom.

4.The information we received was FAIRLY accurate.

5.The next of kin were UTTERLY devastated by the news.

6.I’m not AT ALL convinced that this is the ideal approach.

7.For thirty years Mr Lee made a FAIRLY easy living as a fisherman.

8.I’ve been A BIT worried about my health lately.

9.What you were saying is COMPLETELY beside the point.

10.It would be EXTREMELY foolish to support such a stupid idea.

7.20. Other aspects of degree adverbs

Sections 222–223

Task one ***

1. absolutely unique; 2. literally starving; 3. absolutely desperate; 4. absolutely livid; 5. almost impossible; 6. absolutely fascinating; 7. absolutely amazing; 8. absolutely superb; 9. utterly crazy. 10. completely wrong

Task two **

An old ruler was complaining that he was not AT ALL loved by his subjects. However HARD he tried to convince them of HIS love for THEM, it was all to no avail. The old man UTTERLY failed to realize that people THOROUGHLY disapproved of the way he managed the finances of the realm.

Years of excessive spending had left his country with ABSOLUTELY no money / no money AT ALL. Endless military campaigns had been draining it of funds BADLY needed elsewhere.

Was it AT ALL possible to make the ruler change his policies? It HARDLY seemed so. Even though his subjects BADLY wanted reformhe THOROUGHLY disagreed with even the suggestion of change.

7.21. Role, standard and point of view

Section 224

Task one *

1. In theory: point of view; 2. at dealing with extreme weather conditions: role; 3. technically: point of view; 4. For a man over sixty: standard; 5. at solving problems: role; 6. As a football player: role; 7. In a political sense: point of view; 8. for such a young team: standard; 9. on paper: point of view; 10. for a beginner: standard; 11. as a teacher and trainer: role; 12. Objectively … Subjectively: point of view

Task two **

1.THEORETICALLY, most of our environmental problems can be solved.

2.Britain DEALS BADLY with extreme weather conditions.

3.If you inadvertently wander off the footpath, IN A TECHNICAL SENSE, you are trespassing.

4.CONSIDERING THAT HE IS a man aged over sixty, running such a distance was quite an achievement.

5.We have become successful AS PROBLEM-SOLVING EXPERTS.


7.POLITICALLY, the uninsured hardly formed a group at all.

8.The coach said we did well CONSIDERING THAT WE WERE such a young team.

9.AS THEY ARE FORMULATED, this set of rules looks impressive.

10.Six out of ten is not too bad CONSIDERING THAT HE IS a beginner.

11.Ms Carpenter is excellent AT TEACHING AND TRAINING.

12.FROM AN OBJECTIVE POINT OF VIEW, this war is terrifying. IF WE LOOK AT IT SUBJECTIVELY, it remains strangely uninvolving.

7.22. Sentence adverbials

Sections 461–463

Task one *

1. Oddly (enough); 2. Clearly; 3. Frankly; 4. Hopefully; 5. As an expert; 6. Admittedly; 7. Unfortunately; 8. Honestly; 9. Surprisingly; 10. Characteristically; 11. Undoubtedly; 12. Superficially / On the surface

Task two **

1.The Prime Minister is suffering from a hernia. AS A RESULT, he will not be able to attend the European summit.

2.The peace process is in deep trouble. HOWEVER, the various parties involved are prepared to continue their efforts.

3.Nursery education has been transferred to community colleges. SIMILARLY, teacher training has been shifted to colleges and universities.

4.We could travel by train. ALTERNATIVELY, we could travel by plane.

5.I did not feel put off by this unexpected confrontation. ON THE CONTRARY, I was already looking forward to the next challenge.

6.We are not going to buy a sunbed as it is too expensive. MOREOVER, someone told me UV-radiation can cause skin cancer.

7.I think we should show some more understanding for Susan’s behaviour. AFTER ALL, she’s been through a lot lately.

8.Is there a cheaper solution? IN OTHER WORDS, can you make a cheaper device?

9.Don’t forget to tell the boss. OTHERWISE, you will get into a lot of trouble.

10.The suspect did not answer any of my questions. INSTEAD, he kept staring into the distance.


Clause types

8.1. Cause, result, purpose and reason

Sections 198–206; 323; 365; 613–615

Task one ** I had to get to work by car: consequence

2.Because I set off early: reason

3.on account of the strike: reason

4.that there were long queues of traffic: result

5.with the result that nothing was moving: result

6.Since I had been stuck for so long: cause I decided to stay in a hotel that night: consequence

8.Because so many people had the same idea: cause

9.As I still didn’t want to drive home in all the traffic: reason I was woken at five o’clock in the morning when the cleaners came in: result

Task two ***

1.The weather was very stormy, so people were advised not to travel.

2.A full survey of the house wasn’t done, so that many faults were discovered later.

3.As the Post Office lost over £2m last year, some postal deliveries must be curtailed.

4.A virus was sent through the e-mail, with the result that whole programs were lost on the computer.

5.Since public services need more investment, taxes will have to be raised.

6.Because of a sudden death in the family, his trip to Hungary was cancelled.

7.Because of his sedentary life, Gabor was very overweight.

8.His doctor told him to do more exercise (in order) to lose weight.

9.The ski resorts lost a lot of money last year because there was very little snow.

10.The trains were running late and consequently the meeting was postponed.

Task three *** (some possible sentences)

–It is surprising that British people are becoming dangerously overweight because there is so much information about healthy life-styles.

–Our eating habits need to change, so people should dedicate time to sit down and eat properly.

–Some experts say there is an epidemic of obesity because we take in more calories than we burn off.

–People get anxious about work so they eat to cheer themselves up.

–Since many people try diets but then fall back we also need to do more exercise.

–Diets often leave us feeling hungry and miserable, consequently it gets harder to shed weight each time we diet.

Task four **

1. as; 2. resulted in; 3. so … that; 4. because; 5. so that; 6. as a result of; 7. (in order) to; 8. seeing that; 9. (so as) to; 10. as a result; 11. for

Task five **

1. reason; 2. result; 3. result; 4. reason; 5. result; 6. result; 7. purpose; 8. reason; 9. purpose; 10. result; 11. reason

8.2. Concession and contrast

Sections 211–212; 361; 462

Task one **

1.Although it was raining heavily last Sunday, we (still) went out for a walk after lunch.

2.In spite of the fact that he lost all his money (or: In spite of losing all his money), he maintained an air of calm reassurance.

3.Much as I admire his paintings, I doubt if he is a major artist.

4.Whereas film directors in Hollywood have a long training, young British directors can go straight into making major films.

5.For all the hard work he puts in, he never gets any promotion.

6.The administration maintains an aggressive stance. Nevertheless there are signs of compromise among some of its members.

7.Notwithstanding these favourable weather conditions, the rough terrain should persuade them not to make the trip.

8.Some critics had written some very bad notices. Even so the play was sold out for all performances.

9.While the evidence points strongly towards a conviction, the defence still believes the woman will be found not guilty.

10.The ruined abbey is in a very beautiful setting. All the same, I’m not sure I want to see it.

Task two ***

1. although; 2. despite; 3. while; 4. whereas; 5. in spite of; 6. so; 7. though; 8. however; 9. nevertheless; 10. yet



9.1. Linking signals

Sections 351–359; 238; 470–472

Task **

1. well; 2. in other words; 3. by the way; 4. for example; 5. now; 6. well; 7. first; 8. second; 9. third; 10. altogether; 11. that is; 12. for instance; 13. in short; 14. moreover; 15. that is to say; 16. in a word; 17. in fact; 18. incidentally; 19. namely; 20. in fact (or: on the contrary)

9.2. ‘General purpose’ links

Sections 371–374; 110–111; 493–494; 686–694

Task one **

1.They won’t finish the work today and (consequently) this causes a problem.

2.I don’t like mobile phones because they have a musical repetitive tone.

3.He was always late, with the result that he lost his job.

4.When (or: If) you buy a savings bond, make sure it gives you a good return on your investment.

5.The books were badly stacked so that they fell across the floor.

6.They have problems with their neighbours because they are very noisy.

7.Many people found themselves always playing ‘Solitaire’ on their computer and have therefore had the game removed.

8.People shouldn’t ski off-piste, as it is dangerous.

9.The arrangements for the conference angered him because they were very bad.

10.He fell madly in love with Barbara, and she was directing the play.

Task two **

1.  B (reason); 2. G (purpose); 3. I (reason); 4. E (result); 5. H (condition); 6.  C (negative condition); 7. A (reason); 8. J (cause); 9. D (reason); 10. F (reason)

Task three **

–Knowing it was time to go, …

–Not wanting to leave, he …

–Now empty of all his books and papers, …

–Just looking round the room, he …

–Feeling proud, he had determined to …

–If seen to be a keen and co-operative worker, …

–Not understanding the corporate culture, …

–Having grown tired of this, they …

–Soon failing to get things done on time, he …

–Knowing there was nothing to do, he …

9.3. Cross-reference to noun phrases and substitutes for a noun phrase

Sections 375–382; 510; 529; 597–601; 619–622; 675–680

Task one **

1. it; 2. him; 3. its; 4. he – his – his; 5. them; 6. their; 7. them; 8. our; 9. this – it; 10. we

Task two **

1. them; 2. those; 3. those; 4. none; 5. himself; 6. one; 7. ones; 8. they; 9. one – another; 10. some – them; 11. one; 12. this; 13. one; 14. one; 15. some – some

9.4. Substitutes for structures containing a verb

Sections 383–385; 479; 482

Task one *

1. do – don’t; 2. did; 3. have/have done/did; 4. o – may; 5. didn’t; 6. will; 7.  have; 8. don’t; 9. was; 10. can

Task two **

1. … if Susan will; 2. … but I don’t think he will; 3. … but he can; 4. Yes, he is; 5. I know I should have; 6. Why should I?; 7. It might be; 8. …, but not the one for those in Singapore; 9. … you should have; 10. I could but I don’t want to.

Task three **

1. do that; 2. do it; 3. do that; 4. do that; 5. does so; 6. do so; 7. do that; 8. do that; 9. do that; 10. do so

9.5. Substitutes for wh-clauses and to-infinitive clauses

Sections 387–389; 94; 99; 376

Task **

1. I don’t know where; 2. I’d love to; 3. I don’t know when; 4. if you want to; 5. it; 6. that; 7. this; 8. if you want me to; 9. I don’t want to; 10. How do you know that?; 11. I can’t bear to; 12. this

9.6. Omission with non-finite and verbless clauses

Sections 392–394; 493–494

Task one **

1.This man, well-known to me, caused all the problems in the department.

2.I expect to see you while I’m in London.

3.Next month is the time to visit Italy.

4.A born leader, James soon attracted the attention of the company management.

5.Having retired from the army, he gave up his title of General.

6.Doubting that she would come, he made plans to go with another woman.

7.Knowing how you behaved in the past, I cannot accept you as a member of the group.

8.Ian had thought of seeing a film that evening.

9.Having been given so much time, he should have completed the work.

10.Please get me a taxi. Having drunk so much, I mustn’t drive my car tonight.

Task two **

1.While knowing Maria had cheated in the exam, Tom, nonetheless, congratulated her warmly.

2.Going to Sweden for his job, he decided to wait until he was there before buying a new winter coat.

3.Since living here, I’ve not made any real friends.

4.Whether rich or poor, Joe always organized a good party on his birthday.

5.After reading that best-seller about an old woman, Mary felt she was able to cope with old age.

6.When meeting her after several years; he felt very sorry they had not become close friends.

7.After retiring, he lived in Tasmania.

8.Not knowing the way, I’d rather you drove.

9.Since knowing the truth about them, he has become very wary of them.

10.Though unsuccessful in their last business, they are determined to start again.



10.1. Open and hypothetical conditions

Sections 207–210; 275; 366–367

Task one *

1. Type 2; 2. Type 1 – ‘provided that’ can be replaced with ‘if’; 3. Type 3 – ‘supposing’ can be replaced with ‘if’; 4. Type 1 – ‘so long as’ can be replaced with ‘if’; 5. Type 1 – a general truth, ‘unless’ can be replaced with ‘if … not’; 6. Both Type 1 – general truths, ‘slowing down if necessary’ = ‘you should slow down if it is necessary’; 7. Type 1 – ‘provided that’ can be replaced with ‘if’; 8. Type 1 – general truth, ‘unless’ can be replaced with ‘if … not’; 9. Type 2 – ‘if given’ = ‘if they were given’; 10. Type 1 – general truth, ‘in case of burglary’ = ‘if you are burgled’; 11. Type 2 – ‘in the event of renewed terrorist attacks’ = ‘if there were renewed terrorist attacks’; 12. Type 3 – ‘without the official sanction of the Nazi regime’ = ‘if the Nazi regime hadn’t sanctioned it’.

Task two **

1. Given the opportunity = If it is given / If there is the opportunity; 2.  Without fear = If people weren’t afraid; 3. In case of anticipated payment = If you have already paid; 4. Giving people confidence = If you give people confidence; 5. In the case of the latter’s death, removal from office or disability = If the governor dies, is removed from office or is disabled; 6. Don’t drive so fast or = If you drive so fast; 7. If you don’t comply with the rules, one point will be deducted or you will be disqualified; 8. In the event of my not being elected = If I am not elected; 9. But for the protesters = If there hadn’t been any protesters; 10. in case of a conflict = if there was a conflict; 11. By a proper freedom of information bill = If there had been a proper freedom of information bill; 12. Without reform and better relations with the United States = If there isn’t any reform or there aren’t better relations with the United States; 13. Cling too long to yesterday’s strategy and = If you cling too long to yesterday’s strategy; 14. If the violence intensified, it would be difficult to reach a negotiated settlement.

Task three **

1. ever visit – don’t miss; 2. send / would send – strike/struck; 3. rose – would be; 4. will cause – are; 5. would probably have developed – had not moved; 6. were (or: would be) – could; 7. would never have paid – hadn’t lent; 8. had not taught – would almost certainly have drowned; 9. wouldn’t have – had chosen; 10. had made – would still survive; 11. will have – arise; 12. had caught – would have sent

Task four (suggested answers) **

1.………., tell him the game starts at 7 o’clock.

2.………., would you accept his apologies?

3.………. if I can return it by Friday.

4.If you’d seen so many extra charges, ……….

5.………. if I had known it was going to be in the papers.

6.………. you explained everything, ……….

7.………., you would have been very angry.

8.………. you had thought he would have behaved in that way.

9.They’re not going to support you, ……….

10.………., get help.

11.If I misbehaved, ……….

12.………. they had managed to conquer Everest with such poor equipment.

13.………., I would raise taxes and have better public services.

14.………. Hitler hadn’t fought on two fronts in 1943.

15.………. hadn’t conquered Britain, the British would have remained a very closed society.

Task five ***

1.20 January: A leading official in Germany WOULDN’T HAVE HANGED himself IF a parliamentary group HAD NOT BEGUN an investigation into illicit payments to his party in the 1990s.

2.27 February: The Limpopo River in southern Africa WOULDN’T HAVE OVERFLOWED its banks IF THERE HADN’T BEEN weeks of heavy rain and flooding.

3.10 March: IF a dam in a Romanian mine HADN’T BROKEN, THERE WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN a spillage of toxic metals into nearby rivers.

4.5 April: IF THERE HADN’T BEEN A computer glitch, the London Stock Exchange WOULDN’T HAVE CLOSED DOWN for nearly eight hours on the last day of Great Britain’s fiscal year.

5.12 May: UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan WOULDN’T HAVE CRITICIZED the US IF IT HAD PARTICIPATED fully in peacekeeping operations in Africa.

6.9 June: Buenos Aires WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN BROUGHT to a virtual standstill IF workers HADN’T STAGED a one-day strike to protest the Argentine government’s austerity plan.

7.2 July: The former communist rulers in Mongolia WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN RETURNED to power IF they HADN’T WON a landslide victory in the general election.

8.12 August: The Russian nuclear submarine Kursk WOULDN’T HAVE SUNK in the Barents Sea IF the hull HADN’T BEEN DAMAGED by a series of explosions.

9.16 September: Public transportation in Los Angeles WOULDN’T HAVE SHUT DOWN IF the United Transportation Union HADN’T GONE on strike.

10.5 October: IF THERE HADN’T BEEN a challenge from Germany, the European Court of Justice WOULDN’T HAVE HALTED a proposed European Union-wide ban on tobacco advertising.

11.30 November: The city of Bethlehem WOULDN’T HAVE CANCELLED its traditional Christmas celebration IF THERE HADN’T BEEN ongoing violence between Israelis and Palestinians.

12.7 December: Officials in California WOULDN’T HAVE DECLARED a stage-three power alert IF electricity reserves HADN’T DROPPED to dangerous levels.

Task six ***


The world WILL BE like paradise twenty years from now IF ever more robots RELIEVE us of all sorts of boring tasks.


I don’t agree. Life on earth MIGHT BE be hell IF these robots WERE BECOMING more intelligent than humans. Some of them COULD even DEVELOP into monsters IF scientists DECIDED to fit them with brains.


What? IF scientists BEHAVED like modern Frankensteins, there WOULD BE every reason to worry. No, IF they INTRODUCE very strict guidelines, everything WILL BE be under control.


And what about cloning? It WOULD BE terrible IF a few nutty professors REPRODUCED themselves. IF we DON’T LOCK them up, things WILL GET out of hand.


You sound like one of those latter-day Luddites. IF we PUT a few of them in charge, we’RE back in the Stone Age.

10.2. Other ways of expressing hypothetical meaning

Sections 277–278

Task *

1. Had we known ………; 2. Were this to be true ………; 3. Should you have ………; 4. Had we realized ………; 5. ……… were such an incident to happen; 6. Had this man been assisted ………; 7. Should this not be ………; 8. Were they ever to build ………; 9. ……… should anything go wrong.; 10. Were a solution to be ………; 11. Had the women been given ………; 12. ……… were someone to find …

10.3. Condition and contrast

Sections 213–214; 368

Task ***

1.This pup will win your heart, EVEN IF you don’t like dogs.

2.Your panoramic view of the lake is breathtaking WHENEVER / NO MATTER WHEN you choose to come.

3.EVEN IF your home is only temporary, you can STILL decorate with style.

4.WHETHER you have good credit OR a past history of credit problems, our experts will help you every step of the way.

5.Every child has a legal right to financial support EVEN IF they are children of divorced parents.

6.HOWEVER far away you may be, I will always love you.

7.WHEREVER you are travelling, you’ll find a familiar place where you can relax.

8.WHETHER OR NOT you are advanced, there’s one more trick for you to consider.

9.WHATEVER people are saying, just do your own thing.

10.EVEN IF you are not an art lover, I still think this collection is something for you.

11.You are going to have fun WHETHER you like it OR NOT.

12.The US appeals court has made the right ruling EVEN IF it is difficult to enforce.



11.1. Comparison 1

Section 227; 500–504

Task one **

1. most serious – older/elder; 2. ablest / most able – further; 3. worse – more drastic; 4. unhappiest – more wrong; 5. cleverer – shallowest; 6. most carefully – more disastrously; 7. hardest – most densely; 8. more highly – best; 9. more acutely – most autocratically; 10. less – more widely – more/most truly; 11. older – more closely; 12. more heavily – nearest; 13. more/most thorough – most hotly; 14. most emphatically – least; 15. longest – greatest – more delicious.

Task two **

a. latest = the most recent; b. last = opposite to first/Germany is at the bottom of the list.

Task three **

1.The Red Bull is the best pub in the Northern Hemisphere.

2.Winnie is the most attractive of the three girls.

3.Religious fundamentalism is the worst of our enemies.

4.The Ibans are the fiercest tribe in Borneo.

5.The moon landing was the most exciting event in the 1960s.

6.Gregory is the toughest of Sam’s opponents.

7.Shirley is the most competent secretary in the department.

8.The Thirty Years’ War was the bloodiest conflict in 17th century Europe.

9.David is the brightest of my overseas students.

10.Malaria is the most common of present-day tropical diseases.

11.Bologna is the oldest university in the world.

12.Nero was the most ruthless of the Roman emperors.

11.2. Comparison 2

Sections 225–226; 505–507

Task one (suggested answers) **

1.Angela’s skin is lighter than mine. / My skin isn’t as light as Angela’s.

2.Most voters are not as optimistic as our politicians. / Our politicians aren’t so pessimistic as most voters.

3.I was feeling worse than Cynthia. / Cynthia wasn’t feeling as bad as me.

4.I don’t look as healthy as Boris. / I look less healthy than Boris.

5.There were more casualties in the coach than there were in the train. / There were fewer casualties in the train than there were in the coach.

6.Adrian arrived earlier than me. / I didn’t arrive as early as Adrian.

7.The anti-globalists weren’t dealt with as leniently as the hooligans. / The anti-globalists were dealt with less leniently than the hooligans.

8.Assertive children speak more loudly than shy ones. / Shy children don’t speak as loudly as assertive ones.

9.Madonna’s home is decorated more lavishly than mine. / My home is decorated less lavishly than Madonna’s.

10.The British athletes were running more slowly than their Ethiopian counterparts. / The Ethiopian athletes were running faster than their British counterparts.

Task two ***

1.South Africa is more populous than IRELAND, CANADA and AUSTRALIA / less populous than the UNITED KINGDOM. // The UNITED KINGDOM is the most populous / Ireland is the least populous of the five countries.

2.Canada is more sparsely populated than the UNITED KINGDOM, IRELAND and SOUTH AFRICA / more densely populated than AUSTRALIA. // The UNITED KINGDOM is the most densely / AUSTRALIA is the most sparsely populated country.

3.The UNITED KINGDOM has a lower birth rate than IRELAND, AUSTRALIA and SOUTH AFRICA / a higher birth rate than CANADA. // SOUTH AFRICA has the highest / CANADA has the lowest birth rate.

4.IRELAND has a younger population than the UNITED KINGDOM, CANADA and AUSTRALIA / an older population than SOUTH AFRICA. // SOUTH AFRICA has the youngest / the UNITED KINGDOM has the oldest population.

5.CANADIANS live longer than BRITISH, IRISH and SOUTH AFRICAN people / shorter than CANADIANS. // CANADIANS LIVE longest / SOUTH AFRICANS live shortest.

6.IRELAND has a wider gender gap than … / a narrower gender gap than … // CANADA has the widest / SOUTH AFRICA has the narrowest gender gap.

7.AUSTRALIA is richer than … / poorer than … // The UNITED KINGDOM is the richest … / SOUTH AFRICA is the poorest …

8.CANADA is wetter than … / drier than … // AUSTRALIA is the wettest … / The UNITED KINGDOM is the driest …

9.SOUTH AFRICA has a warmer climate than … / a colder climate than … // AUSTRALIA has the warmest … / CANADA has the coldest climate.

10.SOUTH AFRICA is further/farther away from the UNITED KINGDOM than … / closer to the the UNITED KINGDOM than … // AUSTRALIA is furthest/farthest away … / IRELAND is closest to the UNITED KINGDOM …

Task three (suggested answers) **

1.Simpson writes more elegantly than Williams.

2.Pete plays baseball better than Chuck.

3.Lady Carcrash drives more recklessly than Lord Slowlane.

4.Americans support euthanasia less ardently than Europeans.

5.Sarah believes as firmly in life after death as Monica.

6.Keith Michell didn’t act as brilliantly as John Gielgud.

7.Barbara protested less peacefully than Sarah.

8.Andrikos doesn’t speak English as fluently as Conchita.

9.Arthur works much harder than Hyacinth.

10.Sybil swims more energetically than Dorothy.

11.3. Comparison 3

Sections 228–229; 233

Task ***

got worse and worse; more and more worried; the longer they waited; the greater the risk; angrier and angrier / more and more angry; as food got scarcer and scarcer / more and more scarce; the louder their complaints; the sooner their plight; more and more aware; more and more speedily.

11.4. Comparison 4

Sections 230–232

Task one (suggested answers) ***

1. to go on holiday in Australia; 2. to be left to work on their own; 3. I don’t think I should drive to work; 4. that he would even believe his own lies; 5. to give evidence; 6. that I’ll have to get a porter to help me; 7. to be moved; 8. that I won’t bother to attend his lectures; 9. to understand our strengths and weaknesses; 10. that I just stayed indoors all day; 11. to ask any questions about the job; 12. that she’s certain to be promoted next time; 13. to accept that there can be peace with that group; 14. as his decision to get married last year; 15. than she thinks.

Task two ***

1.Anne is earning so little that she can’t afford to go on holiday in Australia.

Anne is earning too little to be able to go on holiday in Australia.

2.The trainees weren’t experienced enough to be left to work on their own.

The trainees were so inexperienced that they couldn’t be left to work on their own.

3.The fog is too dense for me to drive to work.

The fog isn’t thin enough for me to drive to work.

4.Tony is so foolish as to believe his own lies.

Tony is foolish enough to believe his own lies.

5.The witness was so afraid that she couldn’t give evidence.

The witness wasn’t calm enough to give evidence.

6.The suitcase isn’t light enough for me to carry alone.

The suitcase is too heavy for me to carry alone.

7.The patient was so weak that she couldn’t be moved.

The patient wasn’t strong enough to be moved.

8.Professor Puniverse is too boring for me to bother to attend his lectures.

Professor Puniverse isn’t interesting enough for me to bother to attend his lectures.

9.We had been practising so long that we understood our strengths and weaknesses.

We had been practising too long not to understand our strengths and weaknesses.

10.It had been snowing too heavily for me to leave the house.

It had been snowing heavily enough for me to stay indoors.

11.Some of the interviewees were so nervous that they didn’t ask any questions about the job.

Some of the interviewees weren’t calm enough to ask questions about the job.

12.Ms Lovelace works so hard that she’s certain to be promoted next time.

Ms Lovelace works hard enough to be promoted next time.

13.The President is realist enough not to accept that there can be peace with that group.

The President is so realistic that he won’t accept that there can be peace with that group.

14.Ted’s sudden departure was as surprising as his decision to get married last year.

Ted departed so suddenly that we were as surprised as when he got married last year.

15.Tracy’s poor marks at school aren’t as worrying as she thinks.

Tracy’s poor marks at school cause her to worry more than she needs to.


Addition, exception and restriction

12.1. Addition

Sections 234–235

Task one ***

1.The play was far too long; it was also badly acted.

2.At the party Bianca sang and danced too.

3.The department offers a BA in political science. In addition, it serves the community in various ways.

4.Besides speaking English and Russian, Jane spoke fluent Arabic.

5.In addition to building the South, slaves created the wealth of the North.

6.As well as being a frequent guest on NBC’s Weekend Today, Ms Moore has done more than 200 television interviews.

7.In addition to having hundreds of hotels and motels, Arkansas has more than 170 bed and breakfast inns.

8.As well as being absolutely necessary, a good guide is very affordable.

9.The Amazon rain forest faces peril, and another Brazilian jewel too.

10.Not only do we have a tradition of sparkling wine, but we have also just begun brewing beer.

11.Prisoners of war received the same rations and supplies, and comparable medical care as well.

12.Healthy aging depends not only on physical activity but also on social activity.

Task two **


So was mine; Nor/Neither did I; So have lots of other people; Nor/Neither can I; Nor/Neither do some people sitting behind desks; Nor/Neither should lorry drivers


So would I; So did most of their generation; So are cyclists and pedestrians … and even animals crossing roads; So do I

12.2. Exception

Section 236

Task **

1. otherwise; 2. bar; 3. except for; 4. but; 5. apart from; 6. except that; 7. else; 8. except; 9. even; 10. except for; 11. otherwise; 12a. apart from; 12b. else

12.3. Restriction

Sections 237–238

Task (suggested answers) ***

1a.… only interviewed …, they didn’t photograph him / they didn’t take pictures of him.

1b.… only … the Prime Minister, they didn’t interview any other members of the government (or: …, not any other members of the government).

2a.… isn’t just a keen tennis player, she’s also a very talented player.

2b.… isn’t just a keen tennis player, but also a keen chess player.

3a.… merely suggested changing …, he didn’t insist on changing them.

3b.… changing priorities, not changing the party programme.

4a.… didn’t even try to deal …, let alone succeed in dealing with them.

4b.… with the worst types of crime, let alone petty crime.

5a.… also had to underline the adjectives, in addition to classifying them.

5b.… to underline the adjectives, not only the adverbs.

6a.… isn’t merely against modern music, she’s against classical music as well.

6b.… against modern music, but also against modern painting and modern architecture.

7a.… not only envied his cousin but also despised him.

7b.… not only envied his cousin but also his only sister.

8a.… couldn’t even understand simple questions, let alone answer them.

8b.… couldn’t even understand simple questions, let alone difficult ones.

9a.… didn’t just go to Arizona to meet … but also to Oregon and Utah.

9b.…. to meet Native Americans, but also local business people.

10a.… also fined for not wearing …, not just reprimanded.

10b.… for not wearing his safety belt, not only for speeding.


Information, reality and belief

13.1. Questions and answers

Sections 240–242; 536–541; 609–612; 681–683

Task one *

1.Are they going to build a new bridge across the river?

2.Can motorists park in the town square on Sundays?

3.Has Arthur lived in South Africa all his life?

4.Were two gunmen killed by the security forces yesterday?

5.Will inflation start rising again in the next few months?

6.Did Charlotte catch pneumonia last winter?

7.Is skin-diving Uncle Toby’s favourite pastime?

8.Had patients been waiting for hours before seeing a doctor?

9.Should these measures have been taken years ago?

10.Does the postman always ring twice?

11.Was Susan disappointed after the job interview?

12.Does the principal have a fourteen-year-old daughter?

Task two **

1. Who; 2. Which; 3. What/Which; 4. Who; 5. What; 6. Which; 7. What; 8. Whose; 9. Who; 10. Which; 11. Why; 12. How; 13. Where; 14. When; 15. How

Task three **


Yes, he will try to get in touch with one of our senior staff.


Yes, he will.


(I think) it will be declared at midnight.


At midnight.


I think we should buy a new car.


A new car.


The second candidate is the most suitable for the job.


The second candidate.


No, they didn’t catch any of them./ Yes, they caught one of them.


No, they didn’t./ Yes, they did.


I think we should cancel the cruise.


Cancel the cruise.


We have to read at least five of them.


At least five.


Yes, all the necessary precautions have been taken.


Yes, they have.


Yes, they taught us how to pronounce “thoroughly”.


Yes, they did.


They eat junk food because it’s cheap and tastes good.


Because it’s cheap and tastes good.


I’d prefer a house in the country.


A house in the country.


Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick.


Herman Melville.

Task four ***

What is the name of one of Africa’s most active volcanoes?

How many volcanoes are there along the borders of Rwanda, Congo and Uganda?

When was Nyiragongo last active?

What happened in its summit crater?

How serious is the latest eruption compared with the one in 1994?

How fast can lava from Nyiragongo travel?

How far might the lava go and what might happen?

Who said lava could react with gas in the lake?

What did Bill Evans of the US Geological Survey say?

What is the gas composed of?

How could it affect local people living around the lake?

Where are Nyiragongo and another active volcano located?

Which border does the Virunga mountain range straddle?

How many of Africa’s historical eruptions are the pair responsible for?

Task five ***

What is your name?

Where and when were you born?

Did you always live in Cape Town?

Did you go to school in Durban?

Did you go to university in South Africa?

Why did they do that?

Which university did you go to?

Do you have any foreign languages?

How did you pay for that?

Are you looking for a full-time job now?

How much do you want?

Do you have / Have you (got) any references?

13.2. Questions and answers 2

Sections 243–244

Task ***

1.Are some of the candidates unsuitable for the job?

2.Did you see all of the candidates?

3.It won’t make any difference?

4.Have they ever been successful?

5.Are any of them being taken care of?

6.Not many people knew about it?

7.You had already met all of them?

8.Have you written to any of them?

9.They protest sometimes?

10.There’s no one on earth who can?

11.It’s not going to get better at all?

12.Couldn’t it make a big difference for some of them?

13.3. Questions and answers 3

Sections 245–248; 612; 684

Task one *

1. isn’t he; 2. did they; 3. can you; 4. don’t they; 5. won’t it; 6. is it; 7. haven’t there; 8. shouldn’t they; 9. doesn’t she; 10. have they; 11. aren’t they; 12. would they

Task two ***

1.Who wants to visit what?

2.Who did you give it away to, and why?

3.Who is going where?

4.How did you kill it, and when?

5.How many did she order, and for when?

6.Who is who?

7.Where have you put what?

8.Who was driving how fast?

9.Where and when is it going to take place?

10.Who stayed on to do what?

13.4. Responses

Sections 249–252; 22–23

Task one (suggested answers) **

I see; Yeah; That’s right; No; Really; Sure; Uhuh; Of course; Thank you; Indeed

Task two **


Where? 1b. In Birmingham.


What about? 2b. The possible merger.


How many? 3b. Ten.


Why not? 4b. It’s too far from the family.


When? 5b. Three o’clock yesterday.


Which ones? 6b. To Düsseldorf and Brussels.


How often? 7b. Every afternoon.


How long? 8b. Three days.


How? 9b. I’ll take her to dinner.


What stuff? 10b. Over there, by the gate.


How? 11b. By a motorbike.


Who for? 12b. Caroline.

Task three **

1.What did you lose? / You lost what?

2.He considers himself an excellent driver? / An excellent driver?

3.He should have his head examined? / His head examined?

4.What did she become? / Became what?

5.Where did you spend two months? / Spent two months where?

6.You’re going to buy a speedboat next summer? / Buy a speedboat?

7.How much did he earn? / He earned how much?

8.You admire body builders for their big muscles? / Body builders for their big muscles?

9.When was she born? / She was born when?

10.The government wants to privatise the prison system? / Privatise the prison system?

11.Who’s a specialist in medieval manuscripts? / Brother who?

12.Why did they kill the hamsters? / Killed them for what?

13.5. Omission of information

Sections 253–255

Task one (suggested answers) ***

There certainly is.; True enough.; Oh, no.; You can’t do that.; Excellent.; They are?; I suppose they could.; Not sure about that.; You mean that?; Rubbish.

Task two **

1. Not so fast! 2. Some more? 3. Not fair. 4. Want a drink? 5. Can’t understand you. 6. Help! 7. Well done! 8. Oh God! 9. Democrats forever. 10. Sorry! 11. (Beg your) pardon? 12. Excuse me!

13.6. Reported statements

Sections 256–258

Task one **

1.Edith said that she was leaving for Thailand that evening.

2.A spokesman declared that two suspects had been caught by the police the day before.

3.Helen confided to her friends that she didn’t want to stay there for the rest of her life.

4.The weatherman added that there would also be widespread frost the next day.

5.The drunken driver claimed that he hadn’t touched a drop of alcohol since the previous week-end.

6.The chairman told his audience that they couldn’t imagine what the situation had been like two years before.

7.Replying to the detective, Tom refused to reveal the truth then because he was being blackmailed.

8.Susan promised Mark that, if he lent her his sportscar for a day or two, she would invite him to her party.

9.The old couple explained to the social worker that they hadn’t realised he/she was taking care of those problems.

10.The Secretary-General emphasised that the United Nations must become more active if the organisation was to keep its credibility.

11.The doctor warned his patient that he/she might be in pain for a few days, but he/she would definitely feel better by the end of that week.

12.The principal told the parents that it was regrettable that children watched so many violent programmes on TV these days.

Task two (a) *


The government is putting the lives of elderly people at risk and is jeopardizing its own plans to reform the health service, according to a report published on Thursday, 31 January 2002.

It says residential care and support in people’s own homes is being rationed and more than a million old people are suffering as a result.

A spokesperson stresses that the report was compiled by 21 organizations, including Help the Aged, Age Concern and the Alzheimer’s Society.

It suggests that, while the National Health Service might grab the headlines and the lion share of resources, social care is in crisis.

There are more old people than ever, yet the number receiving support in their own homes is actually falling with only the most needy qualifying for help, the document says.

Some 35,000 residential care beds have been lost in the past three years, it adds.

The organizations claim that many elderly people do not receive the help they need with washing, dressing and other forms of personal care.

Others have to wait, sometimes in NHS hospital beds, because they cannot be discharged anywhere else.

Ministers acknowledge that funding for social care has not kept up with the health service.

The report suggests that, without substantial investment, the problems in this area could jeopardize attempts to modernize the NHS.

(slightly adapted from, 31 January 2002)

Task two (b) ***


A report published on Thursday 31 January 2002 said that the government was putting the lives of elderly people at risk and was jeopardising its own plans to reform the health service.

It said that residential care and support in people’s own homes was being rationed and more than a million old people were suffering as a result.

A spokesman stressed that the report had been compiled by 21 organisations, including Help the Aged, Age Concern and the Alzheimer’s Society.

It suggested that, while the National Health Service might have grabbed the headlines and the lion share of resources, social care was in crisis.

The document said that there were more old people than ever, yet the number receiving support in their own homes was actually falling with only the most needy qualifying for help.

It added that some 35,000 residential care beds had been lost in the previous three years.

The organisations claimed that many elderly people did not receive the help they needed with washing, dressing and other forms of personal care.

They also claimed that others (had) had to wait, sometimes in NHS hospital beds, because they couldn’t be discharged anywhere else.

Ministers acknowledged that funding for social care had not kept up with the health service.

The report suggested that, without substantial investment, the problems in this area could jeopardise attempts to modernise the NHS.

(slightly adapted from, 31 January 2002)

13.7. Indirect questions

Sections 259–260; 681

Task **

1.Margaret suddenly asked her roommate if she was right-handed or left-handed.

2.The consultant asked the personnel manager which of those candidates he/she preferred.

3.Mr Patten kept wondering why the council couldn’t put off the meeting until the next day.

4.The talk show host asked the superstar if he/she had ever suffered from stage fright.

5.The insurance man asked what had caused the car crash on the railway bridge two days before.

6.The nurse wanted to know if he/she might/could give the patient two pills instead of one.

7.The inquisitive woman asked the shop assistant where exactly they stored the yoghurt.

8.The 10-year old wondered if parents had taught their children good manners in the 1970s.

9.I wanted to know which platform the number 17 bus left from.

10.The PR woman inquired whether the foreign delegation would start arriving that afternoon.

11.The learner driver asked the instructor how he/she should reverse the car. (or: … how to reverse the car)

12.I wondered if I should send a card or a bunch of flowers. (or: … whether to send a card or a bunch of flowers)

13.8. Denial and affirmation 1

Sections 261–262; 581–585; 610–611; 697–699

Task one *

1.I have not been here before. / I haven’t been here before.

2.We will not be running out of money shortly. / We won’t be running out of money shortly.

3.Charles does not teach English to Asian immigrants. / Charles doesn’t teach English to Asian immigrants.

4.We had not received an invitation from the local council. / We hadn’t received an invitation from the local council.

5.Some people do not like watching soap operas. / Some people don’t like watching soap operas.

6.I would not buy a holiday cottage if I were you. / I wouldn’t buy a holiday cottage if I were you.

7.Jessica is not being stalked by her ex-boyfriend. / Jessica isn’t being stalked by her ex-boyfriend.

8.Bill has not been listening to the concert. / Bill hasn’t been listening to the concert.

9.David did not strike me as a very dedicated young man. / David didn’t strike me as a very dedicated young man.

10.They did not build a new tunnel to link the two islands. / They didn’t build a new tunnel to link the two islands.

11.I shall not see the leading actress after the performance. / I shan’t see the leading actress after the performance.

12.Our gardener did not cut down the big chestnut trees. / Our gardener didn’t cut down the big chestnut trees.

Task two **


I absolutely don’t believe what happened last night.


I can’t completely believe what happened last night, but it might be true.


The things Jim doesn’t like most are the fruit-cakes.


Jim doesn’t like the fruit-cakes very much.


It is obvious that smoking isn’t forbidden.


It isn’t obvious if smoking is forbidden.


It is true that Frank doesn’t know why Paula is upset.


Frank doesn’t know everything about why Paula is upset.


We may be able to come tomorrow, but it’s not certain.


It is absolutely certain that we can’t come tomorrow.

Task three ***


The applicants were (probably) not interviewed at all. (scope of ‘not’: interviewed)


The applicants were interviewed by someone else. (scope of ‘not’: interviewed by the human resources officer)


I (probably) haven’t discussed the children’s future with anyone at all. (scope: discussed the children’s future)


I have discussed the children’s future with someone else. (scope: discussed the children’s future with my wife)


There (probably) isn’t going to be a demonstration at all. (scope: going to stage a demonstration)


There’s going to be a demonstration at another time. (scope: going to stage a demonstration next week)


I (probably) didn’t offend Patricia at all. (scope: offend Patricia)


I offended Patricia in some other way. (scope: offend Patricia by telling her she looked a bit under the weather)


I don’t vote for them and the reason is that I want to please my dad. (scope: vote for the New Democrats)


I vote for them but the reason is not that I want to please my dad. (scope: vote for the New Democrats to please my dad)


The patient (probably) didn’t suffer any pain anywhere. (scope: suffer any pain)


She suffered pain while she was somewhere else. (scope: suffer any pain while she was in hospital)


The party leader was not re-elected and the reason was the smear campaign. (scope: re-elected)


The party leader was re-elected but the smear campaign was not the reason. (scope: re-elected as a result of a smear campaign)


Monica collided with the van but she didn’t get injured. (scope: get injured)


Monica was injured by something else. (scope: get injured when she collided with the van)


I (probably) haven’t been able to contact Jack at all. (scope: been able to contact Jack)


I’ve been able to contact Jack by some other means. (scope: been able to contact Jack on my mobile phone)


I didn’t want to see Sylvia and the reason was that I felt depressed. (scope: want to see Sylvia).


I wanted to see Sylvia but the reason was not that I felt depressed. (scope: want to see Sylvia because I felt depressed)

Task four ***


outside; 1b. I have seen some of the famous Walt Disney films, but not all.


inside; 2b. Alice hasn’t visited the Taj Mahal up to now, but she may in the future.


inside; 3b. We’d never been notified of the health risks involved.


outside; 4b. Young Mr Plimsoll sometimes attends Professor Barnaby’s lectures, but not always.


inside; 5b. Nobody was around to show me the way to the boardroom.


outside; 6b. Look, we’ve already got enough problems.


outside; 7b. The problem with Terry is that there are times when he doesn’t listen to what I’m saying.


inside; 8b. The suspect said he wasn’t involved in the recent spate of burglaries.


inside; 9b. There is no sign so far that relations between the two countries are improving, but there may be in the future.


inside; 10b. This untalented and boorish ‘artist’ should never be allowed in here again.


outside – inside; 11b. There are some more applicants to see.


outside – inside; 12b. It’s not possible that the bus has arrived and none of the stranded passengers have been picked up.

Task five **

As I was looking for the fruit juice this morning, I found there was SCARCELY any left in the refrigerator. I wondered why there was so LITTLE of it so early in the week, but NEITHER Pam NOR Ruth could give a reasonable explanation. “Well,” I sighed, “I suppose there’s NOTHING to be done about it.”

Going back to the refrigerator, I also found that there were very FEW oranges left. And as for grapefruits, there were NONE whatsoever. This was something that had NEVER happened before. I was about to ask Pam and Ruth again, but they were NOWHERE to be seen any more. As I had NOBODY to turn to now, I saw NO option but to hurry to the shop around the corner. RARELY had I felt so let down by my two roommates, sending me off to the grocer’s on an empty stomach like this.

Task six **

As I was looking for the fruit juice this morning, I found there was VERY LITTLE left in the refrigerator. I wondered why there WASN’T MORE of it so early in the week, but Pam AND Ruth couldN’T give a reasonable explanation. “Well,” I sighed, “I suppose there ISN’T ANYTHING to be done about it.”

Going back to the refrigerator, I also found that there WEREN’T MANY oranges left. And as for grapefruits, there WEREN’T ANY AT ALL. This wasN’T something that had EVER happened before. I was about to ask Pam and Ruth again, but they WEREN’T ANYWHERE to be seen. As I hadN’T ANYONE to turn to now, I DIDN’T SEE ANY option but to hurry to the shop around the corner. I HADN’T OFTEN felt so let down by my two roommates, sending me off to the grocer’s on an empty stomach like this.

13.9. Denial and affirmation 2

Section 263; 586–587

Task one ***

1.NO news is good news.

2.Hubert gave me a NOT ENTIRELY CONVINCING reply.

3.NOT MANY of the students disliked their history teacher.

4.It is NOT UNUSUAL for tribespeople to behave in this extraordinary way.

5.A NOT UNIMPORTANT detail was overlooked by all those present.

6.Beatrice did sell her caravan, but NOT WITHOUT some regret.

7.Most observers agreed that the workers’ demands were NOT (ENTIRELY) UNREASONABLE.

8.NO electricity means that people have to live in primitive circumstances.

9.In spite of everything, NOT ALL of these deprived children are UNHAPPY.

10.The President will visit South Korea in the NOT-TOO-DISTANT future.

11.Dyslexia in children NOT INFREQUENTLY goes unrecognized for years.

12.We can put off the scheme for some time, but NOT INDEFINTELY / NOT FOR (TOO) LONG.

Task two **

1.I tiptoed through the room (SO AS) NOT TO wake up the sleeping toddler.

2.NOT BEING ABLE TO tell the difference between the twins, I asked them both to wear name tags.

3.The ideal solution would be FOR DRIVERS NOT TO think of their vehicles as race cars.

4.NOT BEING rich doesn’t necessarily mean that you are unhappy.

5.Mr Templar was the only person NOT TO drink a single drop of alcohol.

6.Laura was livid with rage AT NOT BEING invited to the wedding party.

7.The instructor began by telling us how NOT TO respond in an emergency situation.

8.One student objected to NOT HAVING access to the Internet.

9.Most observers expect THERE NOT TO be too many problems.

10.NOT KNOWING where to go, I simply decided to stay at home.

Task three **


Boris, I DON’T think I’LL be coming to your party after all.


No problem. I DON’T suppose ANYBODY will miss you.


What a rude thing to say! I DON’T believe you REALISE how badly some of your guests behaved last month.


Well, I DON’T expect that bunch of lager louts WILL show up this time. They haven’t been invited.


Oh, good. You see, I DIDN’T THINK I would have ANY chance at all of enjoying myself with them around.


Look, I’m sorry about what I said. I DON’T suppose you WOULD be willing to change your mind?


Hmm. I DON’T feel I SHOULD give in too easily. I can be very stubborn, you know.


Yes, I do know that. Still, I WOULDN’T expect you TO BE too stubborn, just for my sake.


Turning on the old charm again? OK, you win. I DON’T think I SHOULD make you feel miserable for the rest of your life.


Great! I DIDN’T believe I could EVER win you over. Thanks for proving me wrong.

13.10. Denial and affirmation 3

Sections 264–269; 611–612

Task one **

1.There will be an inquiry (but it may not be held until next month).

2.It is going to be built (but not in this part of the city).

3.I didn’t buy it (I found it in the attic).

4.They didn’t arrive late (they were here in time).

5.I can lend a hand (if they are not too heavy).

6.It doesn’t have secret funds (neither here nor abroad).

7.I don’t keep refusing to learn a foreign language (I’m studying Spanish).

8.They should get upset (they don’t want to encourage truancy.)

9.He doesn’t deserve praise (his innovations are worthless).

10.They aren’t coming over (they are staying at home).

11.She still does want to see you (but first you should apologise to her).

12.Someone has called an ambulance (but it collided with a van).

Task two **


Mark, are YOU interested in history?


NO, I’M NOT, I think it’s extremely boring.


You are not being serious.


YES, I AM. People should be interested in the future, not in the past.


I hope you understand that SOME people take an interest in the past.


YES, I DO. It’s just that I’ve always disliked the subject.


You probably had teachers who insisted on students remembering lots of dates.


NO, I DIDN’T, as a matter of fact. One of them even got the dates wrong himself.


Well, he can’t have been fully qualified for the job.


NO, HE WASN’T. He told us one day that Napoleon had died in 1812.


Oh, he should have said 1821, of course.


YES, HE SHOULD. And he claimed that the Battle of Waterloo had taken place in 1805.


That was an even more stupid thing to say.


YES, IT WAS. So I became convinced that history was a subject for nerds.


And you didn’t want to become a nerd yourself.


NO, I DIDN’T. That’s why I started reading science fiction novels instead. They are the most interesting books I can think of.


THEY ARE NOT. Nothing’s more boring than sci-fi. Anyway, librarians will take such unscientific books off the shelves in the years to come.


NO, THEY WON’T. Some of those books are works of literature. You’ve never read Wells, Huxley … Orwell, I suppose.




Well, there you are! We seem to agree at last.

Task three (suggested answers) **

1.………….., but he’s done well in his job.

2.………….., but I’ve got a nice house.

3.………….., but the people feel free.

4.………….., but I’d like to go to Bali.

5.………….., but she should be told to behave better.

6.………….., but we found a ticket machine on the platform.

7.………….., but to a private TV station.

8.………….., but why it originally appealed to the people.

9.………….., but she DOES get on well with our foreign visitors.

10.………….., but he WAS a member of the gang.



14.1. Restrictive and non-restrictive meaning

Sections 110–112

Task one **

1. the house for sale; 2. the business that went bankrupt; 3. the local history society; 4. a visitor from Latvia; 5. a heavy fall of snow; 6. the marketing manager; 7. the Hungarian president; 8. the delayed 6.45 train; 9.  the woman who reported the crime; 10. the school on the hill

Task two **

1.R: only the animal parks that are large vs N-R: all the animal parks are large

2.R: only the houses that were old vs N-R: all the houses were old

3.R: only the train services that were unreliable vs N-R: all the train services were unreliable

4.R: only the Finnish students enjoyed the course vs N-R: all the students were Finnish

5.R: only the students who had worked hard vs N-R: all the students had worked hard

6.R: only the voters who were democratically sophisticated vs N-R: all the voters were democratically sophisticated

7.R: only the hospitals that are understaffed vs N-R: all the hospitals are understaffed

8.R: only the teachers who were/taught French vs N-R: all the teachers were French

9.R: only the students who were poor vs N-R: all the students were poor

10.R: only the portraits that were famous vs N-R: all the portraits were famous

Task three **


French paintings are naïve. vs 1b. The naïve group of French paintings.


It was the first time we’d had a sunny day. vs 2b. The first day also happened to be a sunny one.


There had already been one disastrous game. vs 3b. Their second game, unlike their first, was disastrous.


The best of typical Greek music. vs 4b. The Greek music which is classical music.


The last romatic novel she wrote. vs 5b. Her last novel was romantic.

14.2. Post-modifiers

Sections 641–649; 70; 106; 110 etc.

Task one ***

1.I’ll always remember the moment when the lawyer realized he’d lost the case. (clause of time)

2.What you wrote in that article about the new laws offended people who had fought hard for changes in the law. (relative clause)

3.There’s no reason why you should have to go there. (clause of reason)

4.There is no other way to do it but this one. (clause of manner)

5.It’s next to the old building they are going to pull down. (relative clause)

6.The doctor will have time to see you. (clause of time)

7.I’ll do it some time next week when I’m free. (clause of time)

8.That is just one reason why he should not be allowed to go. (clause of reason)

9.That’s the best play to see. (appositive clause)

10.That was not the right time to do it. (clause of time)

Task two **

1.I shall be detailing the plans in a paper to be distributed next week.

2.Everyone working in that department was angered by the proposal.

3.The couple next door both work in the Social Studies department.

4.All those wary of walking too close to the edge of the cliff should stay near the leader.

5.Hillary and Tensing were the first men to get to the top of Everest.

6.I have nothing to do this afternoon.

7.People in the train delayed for three hours were given a full refund for the ticket.

8.There is no more for anyone to do.

9.I have nothing to say.

10.The train going to London will leave from platform 4.

14.3. Pre-modifiers

Sections 650–653; 440; 459; 522

Task one ** adjective

2.anorexic: adjective

3.sworn: -ed participle

4.published: -ed participle

5.very long: degree adverb + adjective

6.interesting: -ing participle

7.train: noun – great: adjective

8.government: noun

9.very exciting: degree adverb + -ing participle

10.punishment: noun

Task two **

1. that Victorian terraced house; 2. a red lambswool jersey; 3. a successful self-made man; 4. the artistically designed oak table; 5. the self-financed institute; 6. the very old black-and-white television; 7. the three-door estate car; 8. the hard-working student; 9. that early-flowering rose; 10. the expiry date on the credit card

Task three ***

1. very wet English spring; 2. beautiful oriental; 3. strong German wheat; 4. long university summer; 5. strong blond Australian; 6. very small unknown French textile; 7. craggy south-facing Welsh; 8. cold snow-covered; 9. very kind patient old; 10. classic Hungarian dessert

Task four **

famous (adjective) Manchester (noun) flat (classifying adjective); new (adjective); Commonwealth (noun)

northern (adjective); flat (classifying adjective) cap (noun); official (adjective); games (noun)

cotton (adjective); no-nonsense (compound noun) northern (classifying adjective); squashy (adjective); all-conquering (compound -ing participle) baseball (noun); games (noun)

tested (-ed participle); Yorkshire pudding (compound noun); Soviet (noun); Soviet worker’s (classifying genitive noun phrase); homely (adjective); Manchester (noun) Asda (classifying noun)

particularly (degree adverb); chief (adjective); supermarket (noun); 11-day (noun phrase)

nearest (adjective); traditional (adjective); snazzy (adjective); water (noun)

14.4. Relative clauses

Sections 685–694; 110–111; 371–372; 461; 595; 659; 747

Task one *

1. c; 2. f; 3. e; 4. a; 5. h; 6. i; 7. b; 8. j; 9. g; 10. d

Task two **

1.It is something (which/that) I’m expected to do.

2.She was a clever woman, who(m) the company exploited.

3.He was an actor (who/that) no-one had ever heard of.

4.I like being married to a chef whose sister owns a restaurant.

5.I enjoyed the production of ‘No man’s land’ (which/that) Ian Holm starred in.

6.I’ve finished the book (which/that) you got as a prize.

7.How do you like living in the town (which/that) you work in/where you work.

8.It was a lovely day when we went to Brighton.

9.He’s got a new computer, which he can’t use.

10.He told me about it in the letter which/that came this morning.

Task three **

1. which/that; 2. who; 3. which; 4. who; 5. of whom; 6. of whose; 7. in which; 8. of which; 9. in which; 10. who

Task four **

1. The bike tethered to a tree …; 2. The house in need of repair ….; 3. The man driving too fast …; 4. Any company hiding its accounts …; 5. The article discussing the use of nuclear power …

Task five *

1.He’s working very hard now, which is a good thing.

2.Jane’s finished her thesis, which is amazing.

3.Jack’s working in Tokyo for two years, after which he’s hoping to go to Hong Kong.

4.The old lady died on her husband’s birthday, which is sad.

5.The train was an hour late, which was not unusual.

14.5. Apposition

Sections 470–472; 397; 589; 593; 646

Task one **

1.David Brown, owner of the garage across the road, has a good reputation.

2.Mrs Davies, a teacher at the local school, is loved by all the children.

3.Anne and Peter Austin, the executors of my aunt’s will, have retired and gone to live in New Zealand.

4.I once knew James Kane, the star in last year’s Oscar-winning movie.

5.John Williams, a writer of poetry, has won several prizes.

6.That building over there was designed by James Stirling, a celebrated architect in the 1970s and 80s.

7.The production is by Richard Jones, director of both opera and theatre.

8.I always book my holidays at Compston’s, the travel agency opposite the bank.

9.Impact 92, a language consultancy, does a lot of work in Scandinavia.

10.Nokia, now a mobile phone company, started as a company selling rubber goods such as tyres.

Task two **

1.A: David James has bought the house next door to mine.

B: Which David James? David James our school friend or David James the dentist? (R-R)

2.Hello. Is that Robert Hunt the builder? (R)

3.I was at university with the actor James Marlow. (R)

4.Barbara Castle, the British socialist politician, died on 2 May 2002. (N-R)

5.One of my oldest friends is Keith Godard, the New York-based graphic designer. (N-R)

6.Your doctor, John Beasley, is retiring next year. Did you know? (N-R)

Task three ***

1. such as; 2. especially; 3. for example; 4. in particular; 5. notably; 6. for instance



15.1. Agreement and disagreement

Sections 270–273

Task one **

1.Well, it WAS a rather silly story, but the actors seemed to believe in the parts they were playing.

2.I’m not so sure they made a big mistake: she is very young and may still grow in her job.

3.I would say it’s undercooked MOST of the time, especially when there are too many customers to be served.

4.Aren’t you being a little unfair? His latest idea may be provocative but it’s also very innovative.

5.Yes, it’s a rather unusual colour, but now the house will stand out from the rest.

6.I think I agree with you, but it’s just his youthful enthusiasm that makes him say these things.

7.Well, it wasn’t their best match to be sure, but in my opinion the game should at least have ended in a draw.

8.There are definitely people who are more suitable for such a job. On the other hand, he’s a good communicator and that’s an important asset too.

9.I would even say it had some EXCELLENT ideas, but not enough people are receptive to them.

10.Well, the average score was lower than last year, but half a dozen students got top marks this time.

Task two **

1.Yes, they should have won by a large margin.

2.I agree, in fact some people will be in for a nasty surprise.

3.Oh, it was a fantastic film! I could see it three or four times.

4.Oh, it’s pure art, a real masterpiece!

5.Yes, he gets better and better all the time.

6.No, there aren’t any at all. The real leaders are the CEOs of big corporations and they pull the strings in politics.

7.It was incredibly good. I’d do it again.

8.Absolutely. You must be out of your mind to travel by car these days.

9.If you ask me, he’s definitely NOT going to be happy working under Alan. He’s going to feel utterly miserable.

10.You can’t imagine how much I enjoyed it. It was a terrific play.

Task three **

1.Oh, it wasn’t too bad.

2.It’s difficult to please ALL the voters, you know.

3.They may live to regret that.

4.She may not be very intelligent, but she’s very generous.

5.Don’t you think his work for the club deserved to be rewarded?

6.There may be better teachers but I rather like him.

7.I think some, not all, are quite good.

8.Well, perhaps he was rather technical. But he did make a number of points that were fairly clear to me.

9.I’m not so sure that this is the best time to invest.

10.Well, he IS very rich, but I know of at least half a dozen people who are richer.

15.2. Fact, hypothesis and neutrality

Sections 274–282; 416; 493; 589; 609

Task one **

1. F; 2. H; 3. F; 4. N; 5. H; 6. H; 7. F; 8. H; 9. M; 10. N

Task two **

1. Should you get the job; 2. Do you know whether; 3. I’d be surprised if; 4. It’s time; 5. Suppose; 6. Did you know that; 7. I’m glad; 8. Had you known; 9. They were surprised; 10. I doubt whether

Task three **


It is (somewhat) less likely that he will come. (= more tentative)


The very idea makes me feel angry. (= not just the fact / putative ‘should’)


He assumes it will take place. (= somewhat less certain than ‘will’ used on its own)


The very idea surprises me. (= not just the fact / putative ‘should’)


The government has made a decision in principle, but could still be prevented from going ahead with its decision.

15.3. Degrees of likelihood

Sections 283–292; 461–463; 483; 501; 542

Task one ***

1. hypothetical possibility; 2. tentative possibility; 3. certainty or logical necessity; 4. probability; 5. hypothetical necessity; 6. tentative possibility; 7. possibility of the fact; 8. hypothetical ability; 9. prediction and predictability; 10. certainty or logical necessity

Task two **

1. can’t; 2. must; 3. should – may; 4. must; 5. can’t; 6. can; 7. It is possible; 8. could; 9. can; 10. must

Task three ***

1.Well, it is possible that she will get the grades she needs for university entrance.

2.It is necessary for jobs to go. There is a need for the company to restructure itself.

3.Don’t worry. They are certain to give in in the end.

4.It is (very) likely the play has started by now.

5.John would be able to make that business work if he wanted to.

6.It is just possible / There is a remote possibility that there was an accident. You don’t know.

7.After all these years, it’s impossible that she’s still living in Brook Street.

8.I assume there will be a bus home after the concert. After all, the concert finishes at 9.30.

9.It is possible that she’s not the best 400-metre runner in the world, but she deserves a place in the team.

10.I’m bound to be dreaming. It is impossible that it’s you after all these years.

Task four **

1.Someone had to tell him to stop; otherwise we’d have had a lot of trouble from the management.

2.Right from the beginning, they couldn’t have selected her for the team.

3.By mid-century people may be taking holidays on the moon.

4.The financial director must have been in deep trouble and must have chosen to disappear.

5.You don’t have to finish the project by the end of the week. The boss told you …

6.It’s a pity for the old people, but the bus service will have to be cancelled. Hardly anybody uses it.

7.Can you/are you able to increase the fonts available on this computer?

8.They can order a review of the way the money was spent.

9.They must have questioned her about the missing documents.

10.If you had to choose, would you want to do research or teach?

15.4. Attitudes to truth

Sections 293–297; 508; 587; 733

Task one **

1. feeling of certainty (or: firm belief); 2. feeling of certainty, expressed by a double negative; 3. assumption; 4. certainty; 5. confident assumption

Task two **

1. take it; 2. it seems to me that; 3. in my view; 4. conviction; 5. presumably; 6 seems; 7. thought; 8. don’t you think; 9. supposes; 10. don’t believe

Task three **

1.In my opinion, the newspaper report suggested she had committed suicide. (belief or opinion)

2.He’s convinced the world revolves around him. (belief or opinion)

3.Apparently, she never had the ring in the first place. (appearance)

4.Presumably you knew exactly what the results of such an action would be. (assumption)

5.I think we should give in now and take what we have. (belief or opinion)

6.It seems he’s not coming. (appearance)

7.I’m of the opinion that during this century overhead cables will disappear … (belief or opinion)

8.You do know, presumably, that this work must be completed within two weeks. (assumption)

9.I think you behaved rather stupidly. Telling him … (belief or opinion)

10.He should have got there by now. (assumption)

15.5. Volition

Sections 319–324

Task one ***

1.The government is going to press ahead with the new security bill in spite of strong opposition.

(prediction ⇒ intention or speaker’s feeling of certainty)

2.Are we going to work together on this new project?

(mild exhortation ⇒ more neutral question about (possibly) shared intention)

3.She’d rather not spend time watching programmes like Coronation Street. She considers them to be trivial and no more than a fantasy world.

(purely hypothetical ‘would’ ⇒ preference)

4.The chairman isn’t going to postpone the shareholders’ meeting just because the venue is considered to be too small.

(prediction ⇒ intention or speaker’s feeling of certainty)

5.They are going to help you in the garden. They enjoy doing that.

(prediction ⇒ intention or speaker’s feeling of certainty)

6.I’d be willing/prepared to put money into it if they could guarantee a minimum return for the investment.

(purely hypothetical ‘would’ ⇒ hypothetical ‘would’ in combination with explicit willingness)

7.Do you want to be rich and famous like Cliff Richard?

(more tentative ⇒ more direct)

8.I hope she succeeds. She’s worked very hard.

(tentative wish ⇒ even more tentative wish or preference / hypothetical)

9.The minister refuses (or: is unwilling) to admit he was wrong about the Sports stadium.

(very little difference)

10.Ivan wants Tim to teach with him in Hungary.

(more tentative ⇒ more direct)

Task two **

1. ’ll; 2. intends to; 3. want; 4. would like; 5. wish; 6. I wish; 7. want; 8. shall; 9. are going to; 10. always WILL

15.6. Permission and obligation

Sections 325–329; 483

Task one **

–Permission: 2, 8

–Hypothetical permission: 1

–Obligation or compulsion: 3, 4

–Hypothetical obligation: 5

–Prohibition: 6, 7, 10

–Exemption: 9

Task two **

1. C; 2. F; 3. E; 4. A; 5. C; 6. E; 7. C; 8. A; 9. E; 10. F; 11. C; 12. C

Task three **

1.You should write to the head teacher of a school at once.

2.You will have to pay your travelling costs to Britain.

3.You don’t need to register with the police.

4.You mustn’t take any disciplinary action yourself against unruly pupils.

5.You can take your car to Britain if you want.

6.You may (or: are allowed to) contact anyone who has done this before.

7.You must arrive in Britain at least three weeks before the beginning of the term.

8.You mustn’t live more than four miles from the school.

9.You don’t need to attend any special induction courses.

10.You mustn’t take pupils out of school without special permission.

15.7. Influencing people 1

Sections 330–335 & 339; 417

Task one **

1.request: lunch

2.request: doing

3.invitation: down

4.command: home – home(work)

5.advice: out

6.suggestion: (A)ca(demy)

7.warning: care(ful)

8.promise: post – morn(ing)

9.warning/threat: (a)gain – (re)gret

10.threat: shoot

Task two **

1.(Be) careful! …

2.… or I’ll send the bailiff.

3.Would you be kind enough to …

4.You must (definitely) …

5.Could you …

6.You should (go and) see A Midsummer Night’s Dream….

7.… You may/can depend on it.

8.Shall we go …

9.If I were you, I would have …

10.Would/Will you join …

Task three **



Could we discuss it some other time?



I must ask you to go.



Well, let’s discuss it some other time …, shall we?



Would you please not testify in this particular case.



I’m afraid you simply can’t testify in this particular case



It would be better if you agree not to testify …



If I were you, I wouldn’t testify …



If you do testify, you and your family will be facing grave consequences.



Testifying … could harm your career in the Civil Service.



… the currents in the middle of the river are very dangerous.



… you should stay close to the river bank.



… you’d better stay close to the river bank.



If you don’t accept them, we won’t have a garage.



Why not put them behind the garden shed and cover them with tarpaulin?



If I were you, I’d put them behind the garden shed and cover them with tarpaulin.



Would you please keep some in your garden.

15.8. Influencing people 2

Sections 336–338 & 340; 608; 730

Task one *

1. E; 2. J; 3. G; 4. A; 5. H; 6. I; 7. F; 8. C; 9. B; 10. D

Task two **

1.Mary, let’s invest in the new company (together). (or: Why don’t we invest … ?)

2.David, don’t go near the station after dark. (or: It’s not at all safe to go …)

3.Mrs Johnson, would you please stand for President of the society? (or: Mrs J., we invite you to …)

4.Jane, you should do more exercise. (or: I strongly advise you to do more exercise.)

5.I won’t support this government on the matter of lowering taxes. (I refuse to support …)

6.We are going to sue the newspaper (or: you) if you don’t publish an apology.

7.I promise to give back all the money I(‘ve) borrowed by March. (or: I will give back all the money …)

8.You mustn’t come into the club until you’ve paid your debts. (or:You are not to enter the club …)

9.You should spend at least four weeks travelling round Australia. (If I were you, I would spend …)

10.Flights will be delayed because of a strike in France.

Task three ***

1.Staff were told (by management) there would have to be some redundancies.

2.My boss promised me I was definitely being considered for promotion.

3.Rob suggested finishing the work that evening/night so as to be able to have the next day off.

4.Shirley asked Mary if she could possibly lend her £50.

5.I advised X not to invest in a dot com company.

6.I was told to finish this by nine o’clock.

7.We were told to finish this quickly or else we would have to stay here/there all night. (or: … if we were not to stay here/there all night.)

8.The club rules prohibit(ed) members from introducing anyone under the age of eighteen into the club.

9.The secretary promised the manager the report would be on his desk the next/following morning.

10.She asked me to get the tickets for her.



16.1. Vocatives

Sections 349–350

Task **

1. Dear Sarah; 2. Mr President; 3. Eric; 4. Operator; 5. grandma; 6. Ladies and Gentlemen; 7. Your Honour; 8. darling; 9. Slocombe; 10. Dad; 11. Doctor; 12. Your Excellency

16.2. Commands

Sections 497–498

Task one **

Leave; make; Take; Be; Bear; turn; Cross; climb; Beware; Keep

Task two **

1.Let me give you another example.

2.Let’s go for a drink.

3.Somebody move that stuff out of the way.

4.Let them eat cake.

5.Let’s not pretend we support the idea. / Let’s not pretend to support the idea.

6.Let me warn you just one more time.

7.Let’s settle the problem once and for all.

8.Let there be no doubt at all about our resolve.

9.Let’s move as fast as we can.

10.Don’t let me detain you any longer.



17.1. Focusing information

Sections 396–401; 744

Task one **

1.I like Kent, // but I prefer Sussex.

2.I find / that with so many of these problems – // marriage, // sex education – // as soon as you try to make it a sort of formal lesson, // the whole thing falls flat.

3.The fact that Burti feels only bruised and battered / after the accident with Schumacher // is a measure of the progress we have made on the safety measure / over the past two seasons.

4.We had our breakfast in the kitchen // and then we sort of did what we liked.

5.We took some children / to the environmental study centre the other day, // and they have various animals around there.

6.And the thing is / that the journalists – // I mean I’ve met some of these people – // they know nothing about the country at all.

7.Spectator sports are dying out. // I think people are getting choosy. // There’s more to do, of course. // More choice.

8.Sundays in London. // If we’re all working / or cooking / or things like that, // it can get fearfully dull.

9.Dave rang me about this business / of changing the groups.

10.Of course / the children have their own inhibitions / about talking about sex. // They’re just not frank about it.

Task two ***

1. f; 2. a – b – g – g – g; 3. g – a – g; 4. f; 5. g – f; 6. g – c – g; 7. g – g – g – g; 8. g – g – g – a; 9. g; 10. d – g – g

Task three ***

1.She’s been painting that door / for three days now. (rising – falling)

2.Sue teaches at the school in Queen Street. (falling)

3.No. // Sue teaches at the school. // She’s not the social secretary. (falling – falling – fall-rise)

4.A: That’s a fine penguin. // Are you taking it to the zoo? (fall-rise – rising)

B:No, // I took it to the zoo yesterday. // I’m taking it to the cinema today. (falling – fall-rise – falling)

5.I saw that film at the Duke’s. (falling)

6.It was the film version of Orlando that I saw at the Duke’s. (fall-rise)

7.The phone’s ringing. (falling)

8.Ivan lives in London / in King Street. (falling – falling)

He lives in London, // but he also has an apartment in Cambridge. (fall-rise – falling)

9.Can you understand all that? // If you can’t, // just phone again. (rising – rising – falling)

10.I want more time, // more money // and more coffee. (rising – rising – falling)

11.The editor was John Wrigley. (falling)

12.Studio production was by Paul Moore; // the editor was John Wrigley. (rising – falling)

Task four **

1.No, // it was the summer before last.

2.Yes, I have, // I’ve been several times.

3.… but only forty-six per cent of the voters / replied on time.

4.…, but he’s not a very good actor.

5.I say / he’s just an opportunist / who arrived at the right time.

6.Yes. // And it still drives well.

7.haven’t. // The one I gave you / was incorrect.

8.…, but the time will fly past.

9.I have to be hands-on.

10.He’s had four already.

Task five **

1.For me perfect happiness is a good meal with good friends.

2.What I fear most is drowning.

3.The most obvious one is Queen Victoria, a small lady.

4.Something I hate is an inability to laugh at yourself.

5.The only one I have is a car.

6.Something I love to spend money on is shopping.

7.My greatest regret is that life is too short.

8.I hope it will be suddenly and painlessly.

9.A great form of relaxation is crossword puzzles.

10.The most important thing I’ve learned is to take each day as it comes.

17.2. Organising information – Given and new information

Sections 402–407

Task one **

1.“Did they enjoy Singapore?” “No, it was raining all the time.”

2.“That’s a lovely vase Anne gave you.” “Joan gave it to me, not Anne.”

3.The driver wasn’t going very fast when he crashed through the barrier.

4.I know you find the noise from the trains disturbing, but here the planes are worse.

5.I took my holiday in Hungary.

6.There’s someone at the door.

7.Can I speak to Alison, please?

8.Tell her it’s Mike.

9.I went to Berlin in February because the U-Bahn was a hundred years old.

10.It’s true. He won the lottery.

Task two **

1.The outbreak of foot and mouth disease was detected in England on 20 February.

2.Since then it has spread in the UK in an explosive manner.

3.By 2 March the disease was found in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

4.The virus causes foot and mouth disease only in hoofed animals but may cause a transient infection in horses and people.

5.Hoofed animal species include cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, reindeer and elks.

6.The disease causes no risk for humans.

7.As a disinfectant you may use diluted citric acid available from pharmacies.

8.If you bring animals to Finland from the risk areas, wash them thoroughly with shampoo after arrival as pets may transport the virus.

9.As the situation in the UK is critical, it is the duty of travellers to be cautious.

10.Do not visit premises where animals are kept for at least 48 hours.

17.3. Organising information – Order and emphasis

Sections 411–414

Task one **

1.Some awful films: E

2.Poor: C

3.Most of this work: S

4.Some days: C – others: C

5.Hard work: E houses in a traditional style: C

7.Stupid: C

8.Romantic novels: C – serious works: C

9.This: S

10.Street names: C

Task two **

1.That cat they just don’t look after properly. (S)

2.These new working conditions the company has already put into practice. (S)

3.Some foreign films they show, but the really important ones they don’t show. (C – C)

4.Very clever he may be, but practical he isn’t. (C – C)

5.In a very strange way she behaved at the meeting. (E)

6.Didn’t they paint the house an awful colour? (S)

7.A lot of people his speech at the funeral offended. (S)

8.The reason for this celebration I don’t understand. (S)

9.They gave the money to her; but to him they gave the painting. (C)

10.The problems you’re speaking about the management looked into last week. (S)

Task three ***

Dear Edward,

Many thanks for giving me a chance to read your story. I think it is of importance to all people like us and most will find it reflects their own experience. The structure of the story is something I was very impressed by. The way the story shifted back and forth between the two protagonists and, because of this, shifted between the seasons to show the development of the main character are things I liked. I was a bit frightened by the introductory monologue. I think this was because I am shy of exposing myself and you had written this in the first person. When I discovered you had called the character Tim, I was relieved. The way the characters moved in and out of the story reflecting the parallels of experience was to my liking.

The way you described the town, the sea and the vineyard I also liked. I could imagine myself there, especially by the sea and in the vineyard. The philosophy underpinning the story I found interesting. There is never a beginning. Where we think there is a beginning, it is really a development of ideas and events that have gone before. You conveyed this brilliantly.

Well done, Edward. Many thanks again for letting me read this. Others will have this opportunity, I hope. Your story has a lot to say.



17.4. Organising information – Inversion

Sections 415–417; 584–585; 590–594; 681–684

Task one **

1.There by the fence is John.

2.Over there is the house for sale.

3.Look; there is the person you want.

4.On the left is Rick; on the right is Nick.

5.Down the road, laughing and shouting, came Janet and Paul.

6.Up into the sky flew the kite.

7.Here lies John Nehemiah – looking up at his friends.

8.Outside the house stood the car of his dreams.

9.On the hill stood a city, proud surveyor of the valley below.

10.As the storm raged, down crashed an enormous tree.

Task two **

1.Only if the managing director quit would the government agree to bail out the company.

2.Never has England played better than with its new manager.

3.In no way (or: Not in any way) does your proposal touch on the real problem.

4.Not even the smallest concession did the Prime Minister make to the opposition.

5.Not only did their son fail his exam; he also refused the chance to repeat it.

6.Not a penny were they left in their mother’s will. All the money went to charity.

7.Hardly had she had time to take in the new rules for welfare payments when she was put in charge of the office.

8.Little could the head of department do to stop the erosion of confidence in any future developments.

9.Little did he give away about his own future plans.

10.Rarely have I seen such a poor display of sportsmanship.

Task three ***

(Not far from Manchester is Eccles.) Not only is it famous for its special cake; it also has the world’s only swinging aqueduct, carrying water from the Manchester Ship Canal. Now the people of Eccles are afraid that no-one will come to experience these jewels. Why?

Nowhere on the new ordnance survey map is there a town called Eccles.

“We’re very sorry about this. Rarely do we make such mistakes,” confessed a spokesman for the ordnance survey team.

“Little do they understand about how we feel,” said a town councillor. “Hardly had I sat down at my desk this morning when the phone started ringing with complaints. When we are back on the map, only then shall I be satisfied.”

Unfortunately, in no way can that happen until the next edition of the map.

Another mistake is that the map shows Ladywell and Salford Royal hospitals. No longer do these hospitals exist.

Seldom have residents of Eccles felt so confused and angry. “In no way can strangers to the region find us now,” sighed one resident.

17.5. Organising information – Fronting with ‘so/neither’

Section 418

Task one *

1.So did Miles.

2.Neither have Sara and Rowan.

3.So is Marc.

4.So is Rowan.

5.So did Rowan.

6.So does Miles.

7.Neither do Marc and Sara.

8.So did Helen.

9.So will David, Miles and Helen.

10.So does Marc.

Task two **

So catastrophic was the event that most people couldn’t take in the enormity of the disaster. In reality, so small was the area covered that the majority of the world could only look on in disbelief. However, so enormous was the building that, as it crumbled, it brought others down in its wake.

“We have seen the end of an era,” claimed one commentator.

“So we have,” replied the politician.

“I had friends in there.”

“In fact, so did we all.”

“The world will never be the same again.”

So extraordinary were the messages that flashed round the world that only pictures could help people understand what had happened. So often did commentators describe the scene as if it were from a Hollywood movie that the comparison became devoid of meaning.

“I saw that film ‘Independence Day’”.

“So did we all.”

“It had scenes like this.”

“So it did.”

And so shocked and frightened were the people that they went home and left an eerie silence on the streets.

17.6. Organising information – Cleft sentences

Sections 419–423; 496; 592

Task one **

1.It was in Sweden that I spent last week, not Switzerland.

2.No, it was Shakespeare who wrote Much Ado about Nothing, not Marlowe.

3.It was the lower interest rate that she supported at the meeting of the fiscal committee.

4.It was by our camera crew that the prince was filmed.

5.It’s the 1960s that nobody will ever forget.

6.It was in 1969 that my sister got married, not 1970.

7.It wasn’t I who told them and I don’t know who did.

8.It’s a global recession that we now face.

9.It was as an investment that they bought the house, not to live in it.

10.It was the movie Michael Apted directed I liked.

Task two **

1.What we now face is a global recession.

2.What I was working with was the army, not the navy.

3.What isn’t known is when he will get there.

4.What Emily Dickinson wrote was poetry not plays.

5.What attracts the over fifties is cybereconomics.

6.What is on the increase is E-crime.

7.What the head of department needs tomorrow morning are the annual turnover figures.

8.What delayed him was a last minute error.

9.What the streets of London are covered with is concrete, not gold.

10.What Mick Jagger has become is a film producer.

17.7. Organising information – Postponement

Sections 424–429

Task one **

1.It’s lovely to be here.

2.It’s expected they will soon attack.

3.It isn’t clear why the government is being so cautious.

4.It’s disappointing that he failed his exams so badly.

5.It’s amazing how long elephants live.

6.It’s very gratifying to be proved right in this case.

7.It’s stupid to walk all the way to the university.

8.It’s a problem if you always refuse.

9.It’s hard to predict what will finally happen.

10.It’s important for him to win the prize.

Task two **

1.A place has been found for him to stay.

2.The train was late coming from Berlin.

3.What a problem it has been finding this address!

4.How serious are you about resigning?

5.The commander gave the order to shoot himself.

6.The manager paid for the breakages himself.

7.Footballers have more status as celebrities than they used to.

8.All the bills have been paid except the one for the new computer system.

9.He’s earned more money in a year writing that one novel than his father earned in his whole life.

10.What a story she had to tell about her adventures in Thailand.

Task three **

It is thought that the British National Health Service is badly run, when it is generally known that it is underfunded. You hear tales of vastly overcrowded hospitals, and it is frequently reported that people have had to wait months, if not years for minor surgery. Set against this, however, is the fact that the British people value the principle of the National Health Service, and it is acknowledged that no government would dare try to dismantle it. When it is suggested by politicians that there could be some kind of private investment, there is strong opposition, but on the other hand there is equally strong opposition when it is said that there will have to be tax increases to fund the service properly. Most analysts acknowledge that, in many ways, the service is the most efficient in Europe and that with more investment, it could be one of the best. It is assumed that it will always be there, but it is also feared that it will disappear because of lack of financial support. It isn’t appreciated how determined the government is to see it survive.

17.8. Organising information – Other choices

Sections 430–432; 488; 608; 613–618; 730; 740

Task one **

1.How could he afford such a large house?

He was given the money by his parents.

2.They have proved false the reasons he gave for meeting that woman.

3.How did such a successful company collapse like that?

Some poor decisions were made by the Chief Executive.

4.In 2001, they gave the prize for the second time to Peter Carey.

5.The writer carefully checked the samples he’d been sent.

6.Don’t leave to the last minute work for the exam!

7.His father was finally pleased that he’d done so well in his career.

8.Marc’s girl friend was irritated because he insisted on spelling his name with a ‘c’ instead of a ‘k’.

9.Ivan often failed for months to contact his friends.

10.Cathie asked for a second time if she could leave early.

Task two **

More than fifty years after the event, it is instructive to look at how honestly the civilian population was treated by Second World War leaders. Were we regarded as delicate flowers? Were we given all the truth and nothing but the truth compatible with security?


They are revisionist historians, these beady-eyed people who have second thoughts about mighty events. (…) Sometimes we are forced to face freshly revealed unpalatable truths by burrowers and snufflers through the once-secret archives: in the war, there was the usual tarnished brass – the military geniuses, heroes, yeomen who were worthy of their country were supported by cowards, deserters, psychopaths and black marketeers.

17.9. Organising information – Avoiding intransitive verbs

Sections 433–434

Task **

I paid her a visit.; … Christine goes for a swim.; …, she takes a rest.; They do very little work.; Well, Tom was having a shower.; Suddenly he gave a shout.; I gave the door a hard kick.; Will you have dinner with me tonight?