The Communicative Grammar of English Workbook (2013)

UNIT EIGHT. Clause types

8.1. Cause, result, purpose and reason

Sections 198–206; 323; 365; 613–615

The clauses in this section answer the question “why?”

Cause: This is indicated by an adverbial because-clause or by a prepositional phrase beginning because of, on account of, from, out of. Also used are for with nouns of feeling and through. We also use verbs such as lead toand result in.

ResultResult is the opposite of cause. This is often expressed by a clause beginning with so that, or just so.

Purpose: This is an intended result. It can be introduced by an adverbial of purpose, usually a to-infinitive clause. We can also use so that, in order to or in case (for a negative purpose).

Reason & consequence: This can be expressed in a similar way to cause, using because, because of, on account of. As and since are also used. Other ways of expressing this are with conjunctions such as seeing that and now that or the use of for-phrases. We can also use the linking adverb consequently.

Also important for expressing cause or reason are linking adverbials such as therefore, hence, accordingly, so and in that case.

Task one **

In the following examples, underline the phrase or clause in each sentence which expresses cause/reason or result/consequence. Indicate the meaning of each of these underlined elements as either cause, reason, result or consequence

1.The trains were badly affected by strikes again last week so I had to go to work by car.

2.Because I set off early, I thought the roads would be clear.

3.However, on account of the strike, everyone had taken the same action as I had.

4.By as early as seven o’clock, the roads were so crowded that there were long queues of traffic.

5.There had been several accidents with the result that nothing was moving.

6.Since I had been stuck for so long, I was over an hour late getting to work.

7.I couldn’t face the same problems going home, so I decided to stay in a hotel that night.

8.Because so many people had the same idea, all the hotels were fully booked.

9.As I still didn’t want to drive home in all the traffic, I made myself as comfortable as possible and slept in the office.

10.I forgot to put a notice on my office door, so I was woken at five o’clock in the morning when the cleaners came in.

Task two ***

Join the pairs of sentences using one of the conjunctions or constructions below according to the function by each item. In some cases, it will be necessary to rewrite the sentences. e.g.: He wasn’t able to afford such an expensive holiday. He decided not to go with his friends. [cause]

Not being able to afford such an expensive holiday, he decided not to go with his friends.

and consequentlyasbecausebecause ofon account ofsincesoso thatto-infinitive clausewith the result that

1.The weather was very stormy. People were advised not to travel. [result]

2.A full survey of the house wasn’t done. Many faults were discovered later. [result]

3.The Post Office lost over £2m last year. Some postal deliveries must be curtailed. [reason]

4.A virus was sent through the e-mail. Whole programs were lost on the computer. [result]

5.Public services need more investment. Taxes will have to be raised. [reason]

6.There was a sudden death in the family. His trip to Hungary was cancelled. [reason]

7.He led a busy but sedentary life. Gabor was very overweight. [cause]

8.His doctor told him to do more exercise. He would lose weight. [purpose]

9.The ski resorts lost a lot of money last year. There was very little snow. [cause]

10.The meeting was postponed. The trains were running late. [reason]

Task three ***

Using the conjunctions and phrases listed, make as many sentences as you can by linking the clauses below. Some examples have been done for you.


The problem is often psychological so that telling people to diet or take exercise is not the easy answer.

Our parents and grandparents did more manual work in the home because there weren’t the labour-saving devices.

Causebecause, because of, on account of, bound to and result in.

Resultso that, so.

Purposeto-infinitive clause, so that, in order to, in case.

Reason & consequencebecause, because of, on account of, as, since, seeing that, now that, a participle clause, for-phrase, consequently.

there is so much information about healthy life-styles

people should dedicate time to sit down and eat properly

it is surprising that British people are becoming dangerously overweight

we must look at the real reasons why we eat too much

you can now buy many healthy foods

diets often leave us feeling hungry and miserable

the problem is also psychological

it gets harder to shed weight each time we diet

telling people to diet and take exercise is not the easy answer

people try different diets

many people try diets but then fall back

some experts say there is an epidemic of obesity

our work patterns often give us little time

we take in more calories than we burn off

people get anxious about work

there weren’t the labour-saving devices

they eat to cheer themselves up

our parents and grandparents did more manual work in the home

we also need to do more exercise

our eating habits need to change

(adapted from Chris McLaughlin: Losing Weight & Keeping it off, in World Cancer Research Fund Newsletter, issue 45, Winter 2001)

Task four **

Complete the following text with conjunctions or phrases indicating cause, result, purpose, reason & consequence. The first one has been done for you: ………(1)………….. few people will admit to taking astrology seriously…

As few people will admit to taking astrology seriously, it is surprising how many people read their horoscopes each week. This has ………(2)………….. even some serious newspapers and journals publishing horoscopes. It is ………. popular ………(3)………….. there has been a huge increase in the number of “professional” astrologers. This is strange ………(4)………….. during the 18th & 19th centuries astrology became marginalised. People were becoming more independent and educated ………(5)………….. irrational beliefs such as our fate being influenced by the position of the stars on the day we were born seemed absurd. ………(6)………….. this, by the beginning of the 20th century, astrologers had almost disappeared from public view. What has brought about the change? In August1930, ………(7)………….. boost circulation, the Sunday Express invited an astrologer to draw up a birth chart for the newly born Princess Margaret. ………(8)………….. the public was entertained by this press stunt, other newspapers copied the idea. Then, during the second World War, many people turned not only to religion but to the occult ………(9)………….. find comfort in difficult times. While many of the stranger activities disappeared when the war was over, horoscopes maintained their hold on the public. Now as life becomes more complicated, people want to know more about their possible fate. ………(10)………….. we even have horoscopes on the internet. Many people laugh at themselves ………(11)………….. being so foolish. Meanwhile the sales of horoscope year-books continue to rise.

(adapted from Michael Watts: Who says our fate is in the stars, in Saga Magazine, January 2002)

Task five **

Read through your own completed text for Task Four and label the conjunctions or constructions you have used, e.g. reason, result, cause, etc.

8.2. Concession and contrast

Sections 211–212; 361; 462

The clauses in this section relate to a situation where two circumstances are in contrast. This means that one is surprising or unexpected in view of the other.

Task one **

Connect the pairs of clauses using the conjunction or adverbial phrases indicated. In some cases, it will be necessary to rewrite one of the clauses.

1.It was raining heavily last Sunday. We still went out for a walk after lunch. (although)

2.He lost all his money. He maintained an air of calm reassurance. (in spite of)

3.I admire his paintings. I doubt if he is a major artist. (much as)

4.Film directors in Hollywood have a long training. Young British directors can go straight into making major films. (whereas)

5.He puts in a lot of hard work. He never gets any promotion. (for all)

6.The administration maintains an aggressive stance. There are signs of compromise among some of its members. (nevertheless)

7.These are favourable weather conditions. The rough terrain should persuade them not to make the trip. (notwithstanding)

8.Some critics had written some very bad notices. The play was sold out for all performances. (even so)

9.The evidence points strongly towards a conviction. The defence still believes the woman will be found not guilty. (while)

10.The ruined abbey is in a very beautiful setting. I’m not sure I want to see it. (all the same)

Task two ***

Complete the text with the following conjunctions or adverbial phrases. Each one can only be used once.

although, despite, however, in spite of, nevertheless, so, though, whereas, while, yet

…………..(1)………… he walked on the moon in 1969, Edwin Aldrin still has space-travelling ambitions. …………..(2)………… his age, he’s still interested in space-travel and is involved in developing ‘cyclers’ as a means of getting to Mars. …………..(3)………… he went direct from the earth to the moon in a space-craft, going to Mars is much more complex. …………..(4)………… the moon is always the same distance from the earth, the distance between the earth and Mars can vary from 33m miles to 250m miles, and periodically the planets are at opposite sides of the sun. …………..(5)………… all the problems this presents, scientists believe it will be possible to go there by 2018. …………..(6)………… they are now looking for plants which will provide food and keep the air fresh in the ‘cyclers’. …………..(7)………… ‘cyclers’ will be principally shuttles between earth and Mars, they will provide all the comforts of a good hotel. Absurd it may be now, …………..(8)…………, two men, one a billionaire and the other a multi-millionaire, have already booked themselves to be among the first to holiday on a space-station. It might seem to be very exciting to be travelling in space, …………..(9)………… scientists are concerned about the effects of boredom on long journeys. Mars is a long way away, …………..(10)…………, it is no longer a fantasy destination.