PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT: Advanced English Grammar for ESL Learners (2011)
1 Noun plurals
1. clocks /s/
2. hedges /əz/
3. colleagues /z/
4. phones /z/
5. allowances /əz/
6. songs /z/
7. rivers /z/
8. moths /s/
9. trees /z/
10. mists /s/
11. garages /əz/
12. boxes /əz/
13. loves /z/
14. tricks /s/
15. zoos /z/
10. cliffs (trick question: the f to v rule does not apply to ff)
Abstractions: charity, hope, knowledge; Academic fields: geology, literature; Food: cheese, pepper, rice; Gerunds: laughing, sleeping, talking; Languages: Chinese, Russian; Liquids and gases: beer, coffee, oxygen; Materials: glass, gold, wool; Natural phenomena: gravity, time; Sports and games: football, poker; Weather words: snow, sunshine
2 Possessive nouns and personal pronouns
1. mouse’s; mice; mice’s
2. thief’s; thieves; thieves’
3. child’s; children; children’s
4. goose’s; geese; geese’s
5. ox’s; oxen; oxen’s
6. deer’s; deer; deer’s
7. foot’s; feet; feet’s
8. tooth’s; teeth; teeth’s
9. fish’s; fish; fish’s
10. wolf’s; wolves; wolves’
1. it is; it’s
2. it is; OK
3. it is; its
4. it is; it’s
5. it is; its
6. it is; it’s
7. it is; OK
8. it is; its
9. it is; OK
10. it is; it’s
1. a week’s postponement (5) measurement
2. Joan’s friends (2) association
3. John’s interference with another player (4) action
4. Sally’s lunch (1) possession
5. the court’s refusal (4) action
6. Jason’s cheerful nature (3) attribute
7. the couples’ friends and relatives (2) association
8. a week’s vacation (5) measurement
9. the judge’s decisions (4) action
10. everyone’s investments (1) possession
1. the duration of two years
3. the recommendation of the lawyer
4. the status of the yen
5. the runway of the airport
9. the firmness of the tissue
3 Articles and quantifiers
1. the checks: defined by modifiers
2. the equator: uniqueness
3. the necklace: defined by modifiers
4. the windshield wiper: normal expectations
5. the capital: uniqueness
6. the memo: defined by modifiers
7. the Internet: uniqueness
8. the boat: previous mention
9. the menus: normal expectations
10. the verbs: defined by modifiers
11. the performance: previous mention
12. the bus: defined by modifiers
13. the sand: normal expectations
14. the package: previous mention
15. the mole: defined by modifiers
1. some rain
2. a note
3. a page
4. some pages
5. some circumstances
6. a reservation
7. some advice
8. a suggestion
9. some disappointment
10. some progress
1. some reporters
2. any concern
3. some rice
4. any brown rice
5. some big mountains
6. any encouragement
7. some responses
8. any choices
9. some gas
10. any gas
1. some clean shirts
2. any remorse
3. any impression
4. some errors
5. any idea
6. any passengers
7. some games
8. any ballots
9. any passenger trains
10. some professors
1. Did they come to any agreement about the contract?
2. Did any cars get stuck in the snow?
3. Are there any direct flights left?
4. Did he order any soup?
5. Was there any frost during the night?
6. She didn’t have any congestion this morning.
7. They won’t take any time off.
8. There aren’t any apartments available.
9. I didn’t see any empty boxes at the grocery store.
10. I haven’t had any pain in my wrist.
1. some sunshine: noncategorical
2. sunshine: categorical
3. bridges: categorical
4. assignments: categorical
5. the last assignment: noncategorical
6. engines: categorical
7. location: categorical
8. a new location: noncategorical
9. a freeze: noncategorical
10. failure: categorical
1. an answer
2. Ø cheese
3. some cheese
4. Ø live performances
5. some TV channels
6. Ø traveling
7. Ø conferences
8. some locations
9. Ø sea birds
10. a glass of water
1. many ducks
2. much coffee
3. many high schools
4. a lot of flu cases
5. much patience
6. many replacement parts
7. much snow
8. a lot of grief
9. much time
10. a lot of concern
1. little relief
2. any judges
3. few buildings
4. little confidence
5. any food
6. any pictures
7. little assistance
8. any pilots
9. little pride
10. any messages
1. less pressure
2. fewer job openings
3. less floor space
4. less paperwork
5. less inflation
6. fewer accidents
7. fewer steps
8. less time
9. fewer deaths
10. less light
1. ancient: more/most
2. modern: more/most
3. silly: -er/-est
4. civil: more/most
5. friendly: more/most; -er/-est
6. ready: -er/-est
7. common: more/most
8. dreadful: more/most
9. shallow: -er/-est
10. mindless: more/most
11. private: more/most
12. recent: more/most
13. sincere: more/most
14. tiring: more/most
15. easy: -er/-est
1. the (
2. a very (tempting/
3. the (
4. a new (recording/
5. a (
6. a (
7. a very (moving/
8. Napoleon’s (retreating/
9. the (
10. the (existing/
11. the (striking/
12. the (
13. a (passing/
14. a very (encouraging/
15. the (
5 Verb forms and tenses
1. will be cleaning
2. have stayed
3. were attracting
4. will be expanding
5. had adopted
6. will be emerging
7. should be delivering
8. might have heard
9. are threatening
10. couldn’t have seen
1. had been proposing
2. has been affecting
3. will have been claiming
4. had been repairing
5. had been issuing
6. have been having
7. had been hoping
8. should have been preparing
9. might have been staying
10. have been having
1. present progressive
2. present perfect
3. future progressive
4. past perfect progressive
5. future progressive
6. simple present
7. future perfect progressive
8. present perfect
9. present perfect progressive
10. future progressive
1. should have been (future perfect)
2. will be continuing (future progressive)
3. must have been (future perfect)
4. have been hearing (present perfect progressive)
5. must be talking (future progressive)
6. have been having (present perfect progressive)
7. should have been studying (future perfect progressive)
8. have been being (present perfect progressive)
9. should have had (future perfect)
10. might have been being (future perfect progressive)
6 Talking about present time
1. She misses
2. You are missing
3. He is avoiding
4. Her company publishes
5. She is teaching
6. He always enjoys
7. I am coming down
8. We are thinking
9. He always puts on
10. I am facing
1. Exercise reduces (assertion)
2. moon determines (fact)
3. Health insurance costs (assertion)
4. We always get (habitual)
5. Water covers (fact)
6. they drive (fact)
7. People seldom save (assertion)
8. increase in inflation proves (assertion)
9. we watch (habitual)
10. A decision by the supreme court binds (fact)
1. am counting
2. dislikes: stative
3. is threatening
4. want: stative
5. is finding
6. is examining
7. consists: stative
8. is reviewing
9. contains: stative
10. know: stative
1. states: narrative
2. begins: narrative
3. closes: future
4. ends: narrative
5. are: narrative
6. spend: future
7. close: narrative
8. is: future
9. is: narrative
10. sets: future
2. They have studied together all this semester.
3. The company has lost money ever since the recession began.
5. We have always discussed our differences openly.
6. They have worked on the project ever since it was first approved.
10. They have always argued over it.
1. has collected: (3) completed action
2. has administered: (1) continuous activity
3. have spoken: (2) immediate past action
4. has fixed: (1) continuous activity
5. has stepped: (2) immediate past action
6. have accomplished: (3) completed action
7. has rained: (1) continuous activity
8. has kept: (3) completed action
9. have urged: (1) continuous activity
10. have figured: (2) immediate past action
7 Talking about past time
1. turned: past time
2. could: polite
3. graduated: past time
4. were: hypothetical
5. didn’t: past time
6. did: polite
7. got: hypothetical
8. concluded: past time
9. quit: hypothetical
10. could: polite
closed had closed
was had been
used had used
confirmed had already confirmed
made had made
closed had already closed
spent had already spent
looked had looked
made had made
come had come
8 Talking about future time
1. shouldn’t fear: main verb
2. must have adjusted: perfect helping verb
3. I’ll have: main verb
4. will be retiring: progressive helping verb
5. must have noticed: perfect helping verb
6. will invite: main verb
7. will be: main verb
8. must be going: progressive helping verb
9. will have cost: perfect helping verb
10. might be dropping: progressive helping verb
1. may: (1) prediction
2. may: (4) permission/request
3. can: (5) capability
4. might: (1) prediction
5. should: (2) obligation
6. should: (1) prediction
7. must: (3) necessity, but also: (2) obligation
8. shall: (4) permission/request
9. may: (5) capability
10. won’t: (1) prediction
1. you can do it.
2. devices should meet
3. we will meet
4. it might rain
5. they could make
6. I would be happy
7. you may go outside
8. devices shall meet
9. animals can take care
10. We will keep
1. storm is drift ing
2. he is coming
3. Christmas falls
4. I am taking
6. When does the office open?
7. banks close
8. they are catching
10. we are getting
9 Causative verbs
1. raising tobacco
2. rise before noon
3. rates have been rising
4. raise the money
5. raised the anchor
6. raised in California (passive)
7. raise the ceiling
8. rising tide (adjective derived from present participle)
9. skirt length rises
10. eyebrows were raised (passive)
1. please sit
2. set my keys
3. sit next to the door
4. have not been set (passive)
5. I’m sitting
6. the fort sits
7. set the coffee
8. his face set (passive)
9. everyone was sitting
10. Has the agenda been set? (passive)
1. lie back
2. had lain
3. she laid
4. had been laid (passive)
5. was lying
6. must lay
7. town lies
8. best laid plans
9. he lay back
10. have been lying around
1. to turn
2. to take
4. to brush
6. to reject
8. to pull
10 The passive
1. were helping: the past participle verb form is missing
2. had been met: passive
3. has appeared: be as a helping verb is missing
4. will be continued: passive
5. have learned: be as a helping verb is missing
6. should have been taken: passive
7. are making: the past participle verb form is missing
8. must have been lost: passive
9. are carrying: the past participle verb form is missing
10. will be believed: passive
1. have been issued: (2) impersonal entity or institution
2. was made: (1) unknown or unknowable agent
3. has been sent: (4) agent withheld because embarrassing or awkward
4. is often misspelled: (3) universal or generalized agent
5. had been covered: (1) unknown or unknowable agent
6. were always told: (3) universal or highly generalized agent
7. has been rejected: (4) agent withheld because embarrassing or awkward
8. is more often praised: (3) universal or highly generalized
9. has been closed: (2) impersonal entity or institution
10. was filmed: (1) unknown or unknowable agent
1. The doctor offered several alternative treatments.
2. The children had grown the tomatoes in our garden.
3. The Chief Justice was administering the oath of office.
4. Everyone had learned a valuable lesson.
5. The people in the neighborhood should have alerted the police.
6. An MRI scan first identified the tumor.
7. A large corporation was buying out the company.
8. The local paper would have covered the accident.
9. Fortunately, the Coast Guard rescued the crew.
10. Someone had forced open the door during the night.
1. I got selected to give the introduction.
3. All of us got sunburned on our camping trip.
4. They got pulled out of the ditch by a tow truck.
6. Did all of the items get sold?
8. Didn’t their e-mail get answered?
9. Did she get hurt in the accident?
11 The structure of adjective clauses
1. Use the desk (that) is next to the window for now.
2. I finally got the mosquito (that) had bothered me all night.
3. We searched for a place (where) we could cross the river.
4. I wanted you to meet the people (who) were so helpful during the power outage.
5. Let’s pick a time (when) we can all meet.
6. I can’t stand the sugary cereal (that) the kids eat.
7. I only know the people in the building (who) work in finance.
8. My parents live in a little town (where) everyone knows everyone else.
9. The symptoms (that) I had were pretty typical.
10. It was a period (when) everything seemed to go wrong all at once.
1. whom: object
2. whose: possessive
3. that: subject
4. where: spatial
5. that: object of preposition
6. that: object
7. who: subject
8. whose: possessive
9. that: object of preposition
10. that: object
1. We learned that from the students whom we met on the campus tour.
2. The police were searching the area where the campers had last been seen.
3. I remember the day when she was born.
4. He is a person whom one could always turn to.
5. I will introduce you to the teacher whose class you will be taking.
6. Two thousand three was the year when they were married.
7. Do you know the place where they are planning to meet?
8. Unfortunately, he is a man whom no one can depend on.
9. She is the author whose book we are reading in my literature class.
10. They visited Sutter’s Mill where gold was first discovered in California.
1. We really like the color that you painted the living room.
2. The children whom we saw must belong to the couple next door.
3. The time when we were supposed to meet will not work after all.
4. The food that they serve in the cafeteria would choke a goat.
5. Everyone hopes that the place where we want to meet is still available.
6. We talked to the young couple whom you told us about.
7. The defense challenged the evidence that the prosecution presented at the trial.
8. They were happy to accept the offer that we had agreed on.
9. The dean congratulated the seniors whom the department chairs had nominated.
10. We ended up buying the place where the real estate agent had taken us.
1. The gate that we had driven through earlier was closed by the police. The gate through which we had driven earlier was closed by the police.
2. The story that we reported on last night has become national news. The story on which we reported last night has become national news.
3. The people whom we made friends with invited us over for dinner. The people with whom we made friends invited us over for dinner.
4. We made an offer on the apartment that we looked at yesterday. We made an offer on the apartment at which we looked yesterday.
5. We finally resolved the issues that we had been fighting about for some time. We finally resolved the issued about which we had been fighting for some time.
6. We had to reconsider the items that we had not budgeted for. We had to reconsider the items for which we had not budgeted.
7. He was finally given the reward that he was entitled to. He was finally given the reward to which he was entitled.
8. I brought up the issues that we had talked about before. I brought up the issues about which we had talked before.
9. We went back to the doctor whom we had previously consulted with. We went back to the doctor with whom we had previously consulted.
10. We bought the house that my parents had lived in. We bought the house in which my parents had lived.
12 Restrictive and nonrestrictive adjective clauses
1. Nonrest: My car, which is fifteen years old, has . . .
2. Rest: The car that is in front of us is leaking oil badly.
3. Nonrest: . . . father, who seemed very anxious to talk to you.
4. Nonrest: . . . my high school math teacher, whom I hadn’t seen in years.
5. Rest: The math teacher who taught me algebra in the ninth grade did . . .
6. Nonrest: The Congo River, which crosses the equator twice, flows . . .
7. Rest: There is only one man in town who can repair foreign cars.
8. Rest: The people whom we met at lunch seemed very nice.
9. Rest: The town where they live is about . . .
10. Nonrest: A police officer, who seemed to come out of nowhere, stopped . . .
1. The first layer of paint, which was a white undercoat, dried in less than an hour.
2. The snowstorm Ø we had been worrying about turned out to be nothing.
3. He called a meeting that is in confl ict with an important client session.
4. The mouse came out of a hole Ø I had never even noticed before.
5. My workday, which was pretty long to begin with, was extended thirty minutes.
6. His temperature, which had now climbed to 103 degrees, was beginning to scare us.
7. We need to rent a truck that is big enough to hold all this stuff.
8. During the concert, my cell phone, which I had forgotten to turn off, rang loudly.
9. He swatted hopelessly at a mosquito that was buzzing around our heads.
10. The only menus Ø the restaurant had were in Italian.
1. The course,
which is required for all new employees, is offered every month.
2. The books
that are required for the course may be purchased at the office.
who are renewing their licenses after January 1 must take an eye exam.
4. We talked to the reporter
who was covering the story.
5. All of the children
who were born after 2004 have been vaccinated.
6. He is always looking for stocks
that are selling at historically low prices.
7. The company,
which was once nearly destroyed by labor disputes, is now doing well.
8. The mechanic found the problem
that was causing the car to suddenly lose power.
that was reflected off the building was blinding drivers on the highway.
10. Her first book,
which was published when she was only twenty, became a bestseller.
1. The new apple, developed to be pest-resistant, has proved a commercial success. Developed to be pest-resistant, the new apple has proved a commercial success.
2. Many college students, living on their own for the first time, incur far too much debt. Living on their own for the first time, many college students incur far too much debt.
3. She, rushing to answer the phone, slipped on the rug and fell. Rushing to answer the phone, she slipped on the rug and fell.
4. Someone walking past the house noticed the smoke. Cannot move: restrictive participial phrase
5. I, having no background in the matter whatsoever, stayed out the debate. Having no background in the matter whatsoever, I stayed out of the debate.
6. Children just beginning to walk cannot be left alone for a minute. Cannot move: restrictive participial phrase
7. The man, stopping dead in his tracks, stared at us in amazement. Stopping dead in his tracks, the man stared at us in amazement.
8. A person involved in the dispute cannot offer an impartial opinion. Cannot move: restrictive participial phrase
9. We, presented with such an unusual opportunity, decided to act at once. Presented with such an unusual opportunity, we decided to act at once.
10. The police, acting on an anonymous tip, arrested the gang leader. Acting on an anonymous tip, the police arrested the gang leader.
Note: Confirmation answers will vary.
1. Gerund: The outcome proved that we were capable of doing the job. Confirmation: Winning the contract proved that we were capable of doing the job.
2. No gerund: X The outcome wished that we had more time.
3. Gerund: They need to encourage success. Confirmation: They need to encourage finishing their work on time.
4. Gerund: I am very worried about the outcome. Confirmation: I am very worried about having so much to do.
5. No gerund: X John offered to drive the problem to the airport.
6. Gerund: Can you explain the problem? Confirmation: Can you explain missing such an obvious opportunity?
7. Gerund: We fully support the effort. Confirmation: We fully support seeing the dentist on a regular basis.
8. Gerund: I argued against the idea. Confirmation: I argued against cutting the budget so much.
9. No gerund: X The kids ate success for breakfast this morning.
10. Gerund: The media dismissed the idea as unimportant. Confirmation: The media dismissed passing the reform act as unimportant.
1. required some real sacrifices.
2. You need to think about
3. I really enjoy
4. He insisted on
5. They are not happy about
6. is the key to job satisfaction.
7. I couldn’t stand
8. He felt a lot better after
9. is really good for
10. will avoid
1. Every CEO’s dream is beating performance expectations.
It substitution test: Every CEO’s dream is
every CEO’s dream = beating performance expectations
Past-tense sub test: X Every CEO’s dream beat performance expectations.
2. My English assignment is summarizing a chapter of the book.
It substitution test: My English assignment is
my English assignment = summarizing a chapter of the book
Past-tense sub test: X My English assignment summarized a chapter of the book.
3. A concern of every city in the Southwest is getting enough water.
It substitution test: A concern of every city in the Southwest is
a concern of every city in the Southwest = getting enough water
Past-tense sub test: X A concern of every city in the Southwest got enough water.
4. John is getting pretty good at playing tennis.
It substitution test: John is
X John = getting pretty good at playing tennis
Past-tense sub test: John got pretty good at playing tennis.
5. My problem is remembering everything I am supposed to do.
It substitution test: My problem is
my problem = remembering everything I am supposed to do
Past-tense sub test: X My problem remembered everything I am supposed to do.
6. Most American companies are providing adequate health insurance.
It substitution test: Most American companies are
X most American companies = providing adequate health insurance
Past-tense sub test: Most American companies provided adequate health insurance.
7. Their great concern is providing adequate health insurance.
It substitution test: Their great concern is
their great concern = providing adequate health insurance
Past-tense sub test: X Their great concern provided adequate health insurance.
8. A coach’s responsibility is getting the athletes in good condition.
It substitution test: A coach’s responsibility is
a coach’s responsibility = getting the athletes in good condition
Past-tense sub test: X A coach’s responsibility got the athletes in good condition.
9. A big part of an office manager’s job is ordering supplies.
It substitution test: A big part of an office manager’s job is
a big part of an office manager’s job = ordering supplies
Past-tense sub test: X A big part of an office manager’s job ordered supplies.
10. Our office manager is thinking about getting new computers.
It substitution test: Our office manager is
X our office manager = thinking about getting new computers
Past-tense sub test: Our office manager thought about getting new computers.
1. (The bank approves the loan) made it possible for us to go ahead.
Step 1: (The bank approving the loan) made it possible for us to go ahead.
Step 2: The bank’s approving the loan made it possible for us to go ahead.
2. Everyone resented (he unfairly criticized the school board).
Step 1: Everyone resented (he unfairly criticizing the school board).
Step 2: Everyone resented his unfairly criticizing the school board.
3. We were delayed by (the children needed to take an afternoon nap).
Step 1: We were delayed by (the children needing to take an afternoon nap).
Step 2: We were delayed by the children’s needing to take an afternoon nap.
4. (The defendant told a convincing story) persuaded the jury that he was innocent.
Step 1: (The defendant telling a convincing story) persuaded the jury that he was innocent.
Step 2: The defendant’s telling a convincing story persuaded the jury that he was innocent.
5. What made her so successful was (she was such a good listener).
Step 1: What made her so successful was (she being such a good listener).
Step 2: What made her so successful was her being such a good listener.
6. Try to ignore (they behaved so rudely).
Step 1: Try to ignore (they behaving so rudely).
Step 2: Try to ignore their behaving so rudely.
7. The odds against (he wins the election) were pretty big.
Step 1: The odds against (he winning the election) were pretty big.
Step 2: The odds against his winning the election were pretty big.
8. The campers barely survived (they got lost in the woods).
Step 1: The campers barely survived (they getting lost in the woods).
Step 2: The campers barely survived their getting lost in the woods.
9. (I became sick) nearly spoiled our vacation.
Step 1: (I becoming sick) nearly spoiled our vacation.
Step 2: My becoming sick nearly spoiled our vacation.
10. We all have to get used to (our children grow up and leave home).
Step 1: We all have to get used to (our children growing up and leaving home).
Step 2: We all have to get used to our children’s growing up and leaving home.
1. Getting it right the first time is the main goal. Generalization
2. Running twenty miles a week really helped Sam lose weight. Sam (Sam’s) is the unexpressed subject of the gerund
3. Complaining about the weather all the time is pointless. Generalization
4. Talking to Bob about his children’s bad behavior only makes him angry at us. Us (our) is the unexpressed subject of the gerund
5. Having to commute hours each way is really hard on a family. Generalization
6. Trying to please everybody got her into a lot of trouble. Her is the unexpressed subject of the gerund
7. Going back to school for a master’s degree is one of George’s options. George’s is the unexpressed subject of the gerund
8. Training one’s replacement is something that all good administrators should do. Generalization
9. Improving her GPA was Julie’s main reason for going to summer school. Julie’s is the unexpressed subject of the gerund
10. Publishing papers is a major part of being a university professor these days. Generalization
1. I deeply regretted going back on my promise to them.
2. The ad promoted families’ choosing a healthier diet.
3. Her family was pleased with Mary’s getting her degree.
4. I concentrated on keeping just the right tension on the kite string.
5. We approved of his ordering pizza for the kids.
6. I asked my advisor about going to business school next year.
7. We certainly appreciated getting such good service.
8. The kids sensed our beginning to get worried about the storm.
9. Everyone predicted our team’s winning the championship.
10. The canoe race totally depended on the river’s having enough water.
1. Our final option was (the contractor replaces the entire front porch).
Step 1: Our final option was (the contractor to replace the entire front porch).
Step 2: Our final option was for the contractor to replace the entire front porch.
2. We would prefer (the children attend the after-school program).
Step 1: We would prefer (the children to attend the after-school program).
Step 2: We would prefer
for the children to attend the after-school program.
3. (The company ignores state regulations) was a serious error.
Step 1: (The company to ignore state regulations) was a serious error.
Step 2: For the company to ignore state regulations was a serious error.
4. John would hate (my friends are disappointed).
Step 1: John would hate (my friends to be disappointed).
Step 2: John would hate for my friends to be disappointed.
5. Our greatest fear would be (the pipes in our house froze while we were away).
Step 1: Our greatest fear would be (the pipes in our house to freeze while we were away).
Step 2: Our greatest fear would be for the pipes in our house to freeze while we were away.
6. (They take charge like that) really helped us a lot.
Step 1: (They to take charge like that) really helped us a lot.
Step 2: For them to take charge like that really helped us a lot.
7. Most parents intend (their children inherit the parents’ estate).
Step 1: Most parents intend (their children to inherit the parents’ estate).
Step 2: Most parents intend for their children to inherit the parents’ estate.
8. The plan was (we flew directly back after the conference was over).
Step 1: The plan was (we to fly directly back after the conference was over).
Step 2: The plan was for us to fly directly back after the conference was over.
9. (They got so upset over what happened) made everyone quite uncomfortable.
Step 1: (They to get so upset over what happened) made everyone quite uncomfortable.
Step 2: For them to get so upset over what happened made everyone quite uncomfortable.
10. The farmers were all praying (the rain came in time to save the crops).
Step 1: The farmers were all praying (the rain to come in time to save the crops).
Step 2: The farmers were all praying for the rain to come in time to save the crops.
1. For us to accept the offer made perfect economic sense. It made perfect economic sense for us to accept the offer.
2. For them not to finish the job on time would be very costly. It would be very costly for them not to finish the job on time.
3. For us to get an independent assessment of the costs seemed only prudent. It seemed only prudent for us to get an independent assessment of the costs.
4. To have a very low voter turnout was Senator Blather’s only hope. It was Senator Blather’s only hope to have a very low voter turnout.
5. For the whole family to go skiing at a resort would cost an arm and a leg. It would cost an arm and a leg for the whole family to go skiing at a resort.
6. To keep the house clean with children and pets takes a lot of work. It takes a lot of work to keep the house clean with children and pets.
7. For him to say such a thing struck us as very strange. It struck us as very strange for him to say such a thing.
8. For our company to go so deeply into debt worried everyone. It worried everyone for our company to go so deeply into debt.
9. To contest the mayor’s decision in court would take a lot of time and effort. It would take a lot of time and effort to contest the mayor’s decision in court.
10. For us to lose the first two games would put us in an impossible position. It would put us in an impossible position for us to lose the first two games.
1. To give up easily suggests a lack of commitment. Generalization
2. She never forgets to thank people who have done her a favor. She is the unexpressed subject of to thank.
3. To pass the exam on the first try shows that Marion was really prepared. Marion is the unexpressed subject of to pass.
4. The trial continued to attract national attention for weeks. The trial is the unexpressed subject of to attract.
5. To have this much snow in the mountains means that we may have spring flooding. We is the unexpressed subject of to have.
6. Thanks, but some friends offered to drive us to the airport. Some friends is the unexpressed subject of to drive.
7. To constantly have to add oil means that we should take the car to the garage. We is the unexpressed subject of to have.
8. Somehow, John always seems to get his own way. John is the unexpressed subject of to get.
9. It is not easy to get old. The underlying sentence is To get old is not easy. Generalization
10. It really upset all of us to see the house left in such poor condition. The underlying sentence is To see the house left in such poor condition really upset all of us. All of us is the unexpressed subject of to see.
15 Noun clauses
Note: Confirmation answers will vary.
1. The test results confirmed the outcome. Confirmation: The tests results confirmed that we had a problem. The test results confirmed what we had all expected.
2. Everybody was surprised by the idea. Confirmation: Everybody was surprised by what the answer was.
3. Our friends told us the plan. Confirmation: Our friends told us that they would meet us for dinner. Our friends told us where we should go.
4. The proposal attracted No noun clause.
5. The funny thing was the idea. Confirmation: The funny thing was that we had been right all along. The funny thing was how many people actually showed up.
6. We were all very worried about the cost. Confirmation: We were all very worried about what people would say.
7. The angry crowd attacked No noun clause
8. The outcome struck all of us as odd. Confirmation: That nobody noticed the problem before struck all of us as odd. How everybody responded struck all of us as odd.
9. We need to talk about the problem. Confirmation: We need to talk about what happened last night.
10. No noun clause stepped briskly onto the stage.
1. John is always sure that he is right. Grammatical
2. I am not happy that things turned out the way they did. Grammatical
3. We are ready that it is time to go. Ungrammatical
4. The waiter was positive that I had ordered the seafood special. Grammatical
5. The coach was disappointed that the team had made so many mistakes. Grammatical
6. I am aware that we made a commitment to them. Grammatical
7. The senator was irritated that the reporter had asked such difficult questions. Grammatical
8. Frankly, he is still convinced that he did the right thing. Grammatical
9. The recommendation was vague that the project was going to be approved. Ungrammatical
10. He was really hurt that so few people turned up for his retirement party. Grammatical
1. Just pretend that you didn’t hear what they said.
2. We were worried that you didn’t get our phone message.
3. I guess that you were right after all.
4. I’m not sure that we can aff ord to do it.
5. We all realize that the economy is struggling.
6. His parents were grateful that he wasn’t seriously injured in the accident.
7. You should forget that I said anything about it.
8. We insist that you all stay for dinner.
9. Everyone is pleased that things turned out the way that they did in the end.
10. I’m sure that they would deny that they ever made a mistake.
1. That George was going to quit didn’t surprise anyone. It didn’t surprise anyone that George was going to quit.
2. That humans originated in Africa is now generally accepted. It is now generally accepted that humans originated in Africa.
3. That Alice and Frank broke up came as a big shock to all their friends. It came as a big shock to all their friends that Alice and Frank broke up.
4. That parents understand how to correctly install infant car seats is essential. It is essential that parents understand how to correctly install infant car seats.
5. That I did so well on the project really helped my final grade. It really helped my final grade that I did so well on the project.
6. That our costs were getting out of control became increasingly evident. It became increasingly evident that our costs were getting out of control.
7. That he takes such big chances is not OK. It is not OK that he takes such big chances.
8. That my driver’s license had expired completely escaped my attention. It completely escaped my attention that my driver’s license had expired.
9. That they would get upset about it is quite understandable. It is quite understandable that they would get upset about it.
10. That texting while you are driving is really dangerous is common knowledge. It is common knowledge that texting while you are driving is really dangerous.
1. Did the reporters ever find out (
who/whom the police arrested)?
2. We will help (whoever/
whomever asks for help).
3. She asked him (
who/whom he had seen at the reception).
4. I will play (whoever/
whomever wins the game this afternoon).
5. If I were you I wouldn’t care much about (
who/whom she dated in high school).
Whoever/whomever the bride picks) will cater the wedding reception.
7. You will have to be (
whoever/whomever the director casts you as).
8. I just realized (
who/whom that man was talking about).
Whoever/whomever they pick for the job) is going to have to do a lot of traveling.
10. They always reserve some seats for (whoever/
whomever comes into the session late).
1. (How should we pay for it) was the big question. Incorrect. (How we should pay for it)
2. They wondered (where could they find an ATM). Incorrect. (where they could find an ATM)
3. Do you know (why is it so hot in here)? Incorrect. (why it is so hot in here)
4. Just listen to (what are you saying)! Incorrect. (what you are saying)
5. The newspapers all reported (what Senator Blather said). Correct.
6. The judge told the jury (what could they consider as evidence). Incorrect. (what they could consider as evidence)
7. (How had they behaved) off ended everyone there. Incorrect. (How they had behaved)
8. (When was the data collected) could make a big difference. Incorrect. (When the data was collected)
9. I couldn’t imagine (whom was he talking about). Incorrect. (whom he was talking about)
10. Could you figure out (what was he saying)? Incorrect. (what he was saying)
1. Her father showed him how he could replace the window. Her father showed him how to replace the window.
2. I found out where I could get really good pizza. I found out where to get really good pizza.
3. Where we should go on vacation became a topic for heated debate. Where to go on vacation became a topic for heated debate.
4. They worried about how much they should charge per hour. They worried about how much to charge per hour.
5. The committee’s main concern was whom they should nominate. The committee’s main concern was whom to nominate.
6. The new guidelines spell out what you should do in an emergency. The new guidelines spell out what to do in an emergency.
7. It is hard to know what one should expect with a group of teenagers. It is hard to know what to expect with a group of teenagers.
8. There were divided opinions on what we should do. There were divided opinions on what to do.
9. You must choose whom you want to believe. You must choose whom to believe.
10. When we should schedule the conference depends completely on people’s schedules. When to schedule the conference depends completely on people’s schedules.