Practice Makes Perfect: Spanish Pronouns and Prepositions, Premium 3rd Edition (2016)
Part I. PRONOUNS
Chapter 1. Subject pronouns
Pronouns replace nouns that are understood either because of previous use or from context. In English, there are seven subject pronouns (also called personal pronouns): “I,” “you,” “he,” “she,” “it,” “we,” and “they.” In Spanish, there are twelve. The difference is due to two pronouns that take gender (nosotros and vosotros) and four pronouns in Spanish for the single English pronoun “you.”
Note that the pronouns for Spanish “you” differ from those for English “you” in some significant ways:
1. The pronouns usted and ustedes are often abbreviated in text. Ud. or Vd. is used for usted; Uds. or Vds. is used for ustedes.
2. The informal plural vosotros form is used primarily in Peninsular Spanish (Spain), while throughout Latin America, ustedes is used in both formal and informal situations.
The subject pronoun replaces the noun that names the subject (the actor) in a sentence, and the conjugated verb must agree in number with that subject. The Spanish regular verb endings are given below. Use this chart of verb endings together with the preceding chart of subject pronouns to help you do the first exercise.
Complete each of the following clauses with the correct subject pronoun. All of the verbs used below are regular -ar, -er, or -ir verbs.
1. _____________ hablo
2. _____________ comemos
3. _____________ viven
4. _____________ canta
5. _____________ abrís
6. _____________ vendemos
7. _____________ escribe
8. _____________ describen
9. _____________ practicáis
10. _____________ estudias
11. _____________ ama
12. _____________ sufro
13. _____________ bebes
14. _____________ tomáis
15. _____________ lee
16. _____________ creo
17. _____________ llegas
18. _____________ comprendemos
19. _____________ trabajan
20. _____________ miras
The use of subject pronouns in Spanish—when and how they are used—differs from English usage, even when the referent is clearly the same.
1. It is often not necessary to state or write the subject pronoun in Spanish, because the conjugated form of the verb indicates the subject (for example, the verb ending -o signifies the subject pronoun yo). In English, however, we must include the subject pronoun with the verb. In Spanish, it is only necessary to include the subject pronoun for one of the following reasons.
a. Clarity. Including the subject pronoun in the third person allows you to differentiate between él and ella or ellos/ellas and ustedes.
However, once the third-person subject has been established, there is no need to use additional subject pronouns (though it is not incorrect to use them).
b. Emphasis. To emphasize the difference between two subjects, even though they are both understood, include the subject pronoun.
2. There is no Spanish word for the subject pronoun “it.” When “it” (or its plural “they”) is the subject of a sentence or phrase, “it” (or “they”) is understood.
Complete each phrase with either the correct subject pronoun or the correct verb ending, according to the information given. Each of the verbs below is a frequently used irregular verb.
1. _____________ tengo
2. _____________ tienes
3. él quier_______
4. nosotros est_______
5. vosotros sal_______
6. _____________ quieren
7. yo pued_________
8. ella vien_________
9. _______________ somos
10. tú sal_______
11. usted jueg________
12. ______________ pongo
13. ustedes pon_________
14. ellos dic________
15. _____________ estáis
16. _____________ oyes
17. ellas pued________
18. nosotros ve________
19. ______________ oímos
20. ______________ veis
Complete each sentence with the appropriate subject pronoun, as indicated by the sentence’s context or verb form.
1. Mi nombre es Miguel. _____________ vivo en Minneapolis.
2. Carmen es médica y _____________ trabaja en una clínica en el centro de la ciudad.
3. _____________ tocamos el piano.
4. Luisa y Carlota son autores. _____________ escriben libros sobre la historia de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
5. Eres muy interesante. ¿Dónde trabajas _____________?
6. Tú y tu hermanito son preciosos. ¿Dónde asistís _____________ a la escuela?
7. Hola, Señor Presidente. ¿Cómo está _____________?
8. LaBron James y Kevin Durant son atletas famosos. _____________ juegan al baloncesto.