How to Prepare for Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension for the CAT (2014)

Part 2: Verbal Ability

Section 2: Vocabulary-based Questions

Chapter 9. Analogies

INTRODUCTION AND BASIC STRATEGY

The analogy question type is one of the common types of questions that appears in all exams of this nature. Normally, there would be around 5 questions on this in the CAT (although there have been years when analogies were missing from the CAT paper altogether.)

In this question type you are asked to identify and assess the logical relationship between a given pair of words (in the question). You then must choose a pair of words from the options given that exhibit the same logical relationship as the original pair in the question. Thus it can be said that the analogy question tests not only your vocabulary skills, but also your ability to identify the relationship between words. You are given four pairs of words from which to choose. Let’s start off by looking at an extremely simple example.

WOP.TIF ARTIST : PAINTING ::

A)driver : car

B)composer : symphony

C)surgeon : operation

D)novel : author

15486.jpg What are we asked to do? To tackle analogy questions, first read the initial pair of words, substituting words for the colons. The first colon (:) is translated “is to” and the two colons (::) are translated “as”. So for this example, we read the question as “artist is to painting as…” Next, we need to define the relationship between this pair of words. What is the relationship between an artist and a painting? An artist creates a painting. So, the relationship between the words is that the second word of the pair is created by the first. Because analogy problems require us to look for a pair of words that have the same relationship that the initial two words had, we are looking for a pair in which the second word of the pair is the creation of the first. Once you have determined the relationship between the given pair of words and stated it in your mind in sentence form (an artist creates a painting OR a painting is created by an artist), read through the answer choices substituting the possible pairs into the same sentence you have created to describe the initial pair. Let’s work through the answer choices. Is a car created by a driver? No, this does not make sense. The relationship for this pair is a driver drives a car. Is a symphony created by a composer? Yes, this makes sense, but let’s still look at the remaining choices to be sure. Is an operation created by a surgeon? No, a surgeon performs an operation, but is not the creator of an operation. Is an author created by a novel? No, but the reverse is true, i.e., a novel is created by an author. However, you need to be careful here as this is not the correct answer since it does not fit into the original sentence we created.

Hence, the correct answer is (B). Just as an artist creates a painting, a composer, creates a symphony.

Let’s look at another example:

WOP.TIF PUPPY : DOG ::

A)sheep : flock

B)mare : goose

C)kitten : cat

D)child : adult

15498.jpg Again, read the initial pair of words, substituting words for the colons. So for this example, we read the question as “Puppy is to dog as…” Next, we need to define the relationship between this pair of words. What is the relationship between a puppy and a dog? A puppy is a young dog. So, the relationship between the words is that the first word of the pair is the name for the young of the second word. Because we are looking for a pair of words that have the same relationship as the initial pair, we are looking for a pair in which the first word of the pair is the name for the young of the second word. Once you have determined the relationship, between the given pair of words and stated it in your mind in a sentence form (a puppy is a young dog), read through the answer choices substituting the possible pairs into the same sentence you have created to describe the initial pair. Let’s work through the answer choices. Is a sheep a young flock? No, this does not make sense. The relationship for this pair is that a group of sheep is called a flock. Is a mare a young goose? No, these are different animals. Is a kitten a young cat? Yes, this makes sense, but let’s still look at the remaining choice to be sure. Is a child a young adult? Now this one may seem a little tricky, because a child will eventually age to become an adult, but we are not looking for the relationship of young to old, we are instead looking for the relationship of young of some kind of animal to that animal. If instead, the answer choice was child: human, then this relationship would be similar to that of kitten: cat, since child is the young of humans, and we would need to consider this choice further. In this case, however, the pair of words that exhibits the most similar logical relationship is choice C, giving us the completed analogy, puppy is to dog as kitten is to cat.

Note: It is extremely important to substitute the pairs of words into your sentence in the same order in which they are given. For example, if the answer choice was cat: kitten, we would substitute this into our original sentence as: a cat is a young kitten, and this would not make sense. Maintaining the same order for the two words in a pair when substituting into your sentence for checking an option’s relationship is a very critical point. You need to remember this when solving analogies.

Critical Points

There are seven critical points that the reader should keep in mind while solving analogy questions.

1)The study of analogy falls into nice neat patterns. Hence, it is one of the most learnable areas of the test. Once you gain familiarity with these patterns and learn to identify the traps, you will be able to increasingly develop your ability to solve analogy questions.

2)Always make it a point to create a short sentence that expresses the relationship between the two words of the question. This should be done before looking at the answer choices.

3)While defining the logical relationship between the component parts of a question, remember that analogies involve an exactness and precision to their solving.

In order to avoid errors you need to specify as exact a relationship as possible between the words in the question. The logical relationship between the given pair of words is sometimes obvious, but at other times, it may be more obscure, requiring you to be able to discern subtleties of meaning. The best sentence will explain the logical relationship explicitly and precisely. The more precise your sentence, the easier it will be to select the correct option that has the most similar logical relationship. On the other hand, if your sentence is too general, it is possible that more than one of the options would fit into that sentence.

In such a case, go back to the original pair of words again and make your sentence more specific. Let’s look at an example.

WOP.TIF CARPENTER : HAMMER

A)painter : paint

B)pilot : airplane

C)philosopher : books

D)plumber : wrench

15509.jpg We are trying to create a sentence that describes a relationship between the words carpenter and hammer. Let’s say, we use the sentence, “A carpenter uses a hammer.” Now let’s look at the answer choices. Does a painter use paint? Yes. Does a pilot use an airplane? Well, a pilot flies an airplane, so maybe this could be thought of as a type of use. Does a philosopher use books? Well, a philosopher might read books, so this might be a use. Does a plumber use a wrench? Yes. You see that by using an imprecise sentence to describe our original pair of words, we have not been very successful in eliminating incorrect word pairs. If we go back to the original word pair, we can make our sentence more precise as, “A carpenter uses a hammer as a tool.” Now if we work through the answer choices, substituting each word pair into our new sentence, we see that the only pair that can be substituted is choice D, a plumber uses a wrench as a tool. Thus, our analogy becomes carpenter is to hammer as plumber is to wrench.

This is especially important in case more than one answer choice fits in the logical relationship you may have defined. In such cases, you need to become more specific in your logical relationship defining sentence.

Let us look at an example:

WOP.TIF RACKET : TENNIS

A)ball : football

B)glove : cricket

C)board : chess

D)bat : Cricket

15521.jpg If you define the logical relationship here as: A racket is used to play tennis, it will not eliminate any of the four answer choices. However, if you say that a racket is used to strike a ball in the game of tennis, then D becomes the obvious answer, since a bat is used to strike a ball in the game of cricket.

4)For analogies involving verbs, use the infinitive form of the verb to define the logical relationship. The structure you use in such analogies would be:

To ________ is to _______.

For example, sprint: run → To sprint is to run quickly.

Or skim: read → to skim is to read fast.

5)Often, you might need to reverse the order of the words while stating the logical relationship. Be extra cautious about options that might have the same relationship as the original pair of words—but in the opposite order.

6)In all problems of analogies, the parts of speech are consistent between the question and the correct answer. Hence, if the given pair is a noun and an adjective, the answer pair will also be a noun and an adjective in that order.

7)Often, questions are formed in such a manner, that they contain an option that might remind you of the original pair, but might have a totally different relationship. For instance:

WOP.TIF DEMOCRACY : MONARCHY

A)anarchy : government

B)Laptop : Desktop

15534.jpg The second word in the option A (government) reminds one of the capitalized pair. However, what you need to be mindful of is that Democracy and Monarchy are different forms of government and hence, the relationship is not maintained in this option. However, option B here is correct since the logical relationship is maintained (laptop and desktop are both types of computers.)

Such distracting options can be termed as eye washers, since they have a tendency to confuse the student.

However, as a thumb rule, remember that normally, eye washers will almost never be the correct option (especially in tough problems).

The Cream of the Piece

Summary of general strategy for solving analogy problems

1.Read the initial pair of words, substituting words for the colons. The first colon (:) is translated as “is to” and the two colons (::) are translated as “as”.

2.Define the logical relationship between the pair of words in the form of a sentence.

3.Go through the options, substituting the possible pairs into the sentence you created to describe the initial pair in the question.

4.In case the answer is unclear after looking at the options, and you are confused between two or more options, since more than one option fits into the sentence you have created, make your sentence describing the logical relationship between the initial pair of words more precise and work through the options again.

STRATEGIES FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM WHEN THE MEANING OF THE WORDS ARE NOT KNOWN1

This does not mean the end of the problem. There are a few strategies elucidated below, which you could try to use in case you are unsure of the meanings of some of the words in the problem. The broad strategies are:

Strategy 1: Put the Unknown Word/s into a Context

In normal circumstances, we always come across words in some context. Hence, most of the times, we fill in the meaning of the word on the basis of the overall context and the context of the specific sentence in which the word is used. Due to this, many a time, we are unable to understand standalone words (even though we might be able to understand the same word in case it comes in some context.) Hence, in case you are not able to understand the word in isolation, it might not be a bad idea to try to put it into a natural sentence to try to guess the meaning.

This will be clear from the following examples:

WOP.TIF1.Whet

15559.jpg This word will be better understood in the context of ‘whetting one’s appetite’.

2.Gumption

This will be better understood in the context of ‘grit and gumption’.

3.Gormandize

This will be better understood in the context of ‘gormandizing one’s food’.

4.Eerie

This will be better understood in the context of ‘an eerie feeling’.

5.Gruesome

This will be better understood in the context of ‘a gruesome murder’.

6.Obeisance

This will be better understood in the context of ‘Paying obeisance’.

7.Gory

This will be better understood in the context of ‘a gory battle’.

8.Prudent

This will be better understood in the context of ‘a prudent decision’.

9.Agog

This will be better understood in the context of ‘agog with expectations’.

10.Retrograde

This will be better understood in the context of ‘a retrograde step’.

11.Hackneyed

This will be better understood in the context of ‘a hackneyed plot or a hackneyed path’.

12.Kick Start

This will be better understood in the context of ‘Kick starting an event’.

13.Choc-a-Bloc

This will be better understood in the context of ‘choc-a-bloc with vehicles’.

14.Hunky dory

This will be better understood in the context of ‘a hunky dory situation’.

 

As you can clearly see in the above examples, words that you might have read in some context somewhere in your normal reading tasks and which you fail to recollect in isolation can be understood more clearly if you are able to recollect even vaguely, some of the contexts in which you have come across the word. This is a very important strategy to be used in the case of familiar words whose meaning you might not remember exactly.

Strategy 2: Change the Word into a More Common Form

Some words are by nature, more used in one form and hence, more familiar in that form. However, its appearance in another form results in the creation of confusion in the mind of the student solving the question. In such cases, it is often a good idea to try to change the form in which the word appears into a more common and used form. This has an effect of reducing the difficulty level of the word since we have converted it from an uncommon word to a common word. This might help us in deducing the meaning of the uncommon word. Let us look at a few uncommon words.

WOP.TIF1.Tyranny

15567.jpg This can be understood through the more common word Tyrant.

2.Perturbation

This can be understood through the more common word Perturbed.

3.Tempestuous

This can be understood through the more common word Tempest or even through the very common Temper.

4.Voluminous

This can be understood through the very common word Volume.

5.Abstemious

This can be understood through the more common word abstain.

6.Virulent

This can be understood through the more common word Virus.

7.Ornate

This can be understood through the more common word Ornament.

8.Bejeweled

This can be understood through the very common words Jewel or Jewelry.

9.Applicatory

This can be understood through the very common word apply.

Strategy 3: Use the Roots (both Prefixes and Suffixes within the Word.)

A lot of times, the meaning of a word can be guessed through the roots in the form of prefixes and suffixes. Common roots and their meanings are given in detail in the section of vocabulary in this book. You are advised to look up these roots and consign them to your memory.

Strategy 4: Test Words for Positive and Negative Connotations

Many a time, words having negative or positive connotations can be identified. This will help in understanding the meaning of the word better. This strategy is an extension of the third strategy of looking for roots of the words — since negative or positive connotations in a word normally emerge out of prefixes and/or suffixes that are attached to a word.

Hence, for example, you would normally (but not always) associate negative connotations with words having the following prefixes:

(a) Mal (e.g., malevolence, meaning bad intent or malice, maladroit: meaning clumsy, malicious: meaning spiteful, malediction: meaning a curse, malapropism: meaning the comical misuse of a word, malaise: meaning a feeling of uneasiness or illness, malady: meaning illness, malign: meaning to defame etc.)

(b) De (e.g., Delimitation: meaning removal of limits, devastate: meaning to lay waste, demerit: meaning a flaw, depletion: meaning exhaustion, decry: meaning to castigate, despot: meaning tyrant, deprivation: meaning scarcity, demean: meaning to degrade, demoralize: meaning to dishearten, denigrate: meaning to defame, denounce: meaning to condemn, derogatory: meaning degrading, deplore: meaning to condemn, depravity: meaning immorality, depredation: meaning plunder or preying on, deracinate: meaning to uproot, derelict: meaning negligent, etc.)

(c) Dis (e.g., disarray: meaning disorder, disdain: meaning contempt, disfigure: meaning mar or ruin, disheveled: meaning disordered or untidy, disparage: meaning to belittle, dismal: meaning gloomy, etc.)

(d) Anti (e.g., antediluvian: meaning ancient or obsolete, antiquity: meaning ancient times, antithesis: meaning the opposite point of view, antibody: meaning proteins which destroy bacteria, anticlimax: meaning a disappointing conclusion to a series of events, antipathy: meaning dislike or hostility, antipyretic: meaning a drug that reduces fever, etc.)

(e) A (e.g., achromatic: meaning the removal of colour, atypical: meaning not typical, etc.)

(f) Re (e.g., repudiate: meaning to disavow, repugnant: meaning distasteful, reprove: meaning to rebuke or to scold sternly, restive: meaning nervous or uneasy, reproach: meaning to blame, repress: meaning to suppress, reprobate: meaning a miscreant, etc.)

Other negative prefixes and suffixes include dys, hypo, less, un, non, etc.2 Similarly, you should associate positive connotations with words containing the following prefixes:

(a) Bene (e.g., Benevolent: meaning kind, benediction: meaning blessing, benefactor: meaning a patron, etc.)

(b) Sym (e.g., Symbiotic: meaning mutually beneficial, symmetrical: meaning harmonious, etc.)

(c) Omni (e.g., omnipotent: meaning having unlimited power, omniscient: meaning all knowing, omnipresent: meaning present everywhere, omnivorous: meaning eating all kinds of food, etc.)3

Strategy 5: Be Alert to Secondary (Often rarer) Meanings of the Original Word

Many a times, a word in the problem might have more than one meaning. In some cases, the problem might be framed on the basis of a rare meaning of the word than the more commonly understood and used meaning. In case, you are not being able to get a hold on the question by interpreting the words in the problem in their most common form, it might pay off to think of the more uncommon meaning of the word/s. Sometimes, this might give us the solution.

The following examples will make the above point clear:

The word Champion might be used in the context of ‘Championing a cause’, which is not as common as its normal usage.

The word twilight might be used in the context of ‘twilight of one’s career’ where it means the fag end of one’s career. This usage of the word is not as common as its normal usage.

The word Air might be used in the context of ‘airing one’s feelings’ where it means to discuss publicly, which is not as common as its normal usage.

The word Engage might be used in the context of ‘engaging an employee’ where it means to hire someone as an employee, which is not as common as its normal usage of engagement or being busy.

The word Franchise might be used in the context of ‘exercising one’s franchise’ where it means to vote. This meaning of the word is not as common as its normal usage.

The word Admission might be used in the context of ‘admission of one’s guilt’ where it means to own up to one’s guilt, which is different and less common than its normal usage of admission meaning entry.

COMMON RELATIONSHIPS

One of the advantages of questions on analogies is that the logical relationships between words are all clear-cut, common sense relationships that can be easily deduced (given, of course, that you know the definitions of the words contained in the question.) We now go ahead and look at some of the typical and common logical relationships that appear often in the analogy section of the CAT and other multiple choice tests. Detailed examples are given for the important types of relationships, while others are mentioned in brief.

Type 1: Synonyms

Synonyms, as you are already aware, are words that have same or similar meanings. When you recognise the capitalised pair as a pair of synonyms, you will then look for a pair of words that also have the same or similar meanings. For example, polite: courteous are synonyms and so are engagement: betrothal.

WOP.TIF EXTEMPORANEOUS : IMPROMPTU

A)reputable : elusive

B)antiquated : modern

C)depressed : ecstatic

D)morose : saturnine

15572.jpg Extemporaneous and impromptu are synonyms. Option A does not have any obvious relationship between its two words, while options B and C are both in the form of antonyms. Option D has to be the answer since morose describes someone who is gloomy or melancholy and saturnine is synonymous with morose.

Type 2: Antonyms

Antonyms as we have already seen earlier in the chapter dedicated to the same, are words that have opposite meanings. In the context of an analogy question, if the two words in the initial pair are antonyms, you are looking for an option that contains a pair of words that are opposite in meaning to each other. Consider the following example:

WOP.TIF ZEALOUS : INDIFFERENT

A)diligent : hard working

B)perplexing : explicable

C)incorrigible : instantaneous

D)mysterious : exclusive

15578.jpg A zealous person is one who cares very strongly about something, while someone who is indifferent does not care about things. Option B contains an antonym since something that is perplexing is difficult to explain or inexplicable, while explicable describes something that can be explained. Thus, these two words are antonyms. The words in option A are synonyms while those in options C and D are irrelevant.

Type 3: Degree of Intensity

In this type of problem, the question contains a pair of words that are similar in meaning (similar to synonyms), however the two words vary in their intensity as one is more intense than the other. For example, in the pair jog: sprint, both words describe running, but a jog is a very slow run, while a sprint is a full-speed, extremely fast run. A similar relationship exists between sip and gulp, eat and hog, good and fantastic, etc.

WOP.TIF ENTHUSIASTIC : FANATICAL

A)frugal : miserly

B)faithful : kind

C)admonish : warn

D)virtuous : wholesome

15599.jpg Fanatical is an extreme form of being enthusiastic while miserly describes a person who is extremely frugal. Options C and D are synonyms; while the relationship between the words in option B is unclear.

Type 4: Part to Whole

In this type of analogy, the first word is part of the second word (or vice versa). For example, in the word pair star: constellation, a group of stars makes up a constellation. Similarly, a toe is a part of a foot.

Consider the following example:

WOP.TIF PARAGRAPH : ESSAY

A)scene : play

B)cast : actor

C)symphony : orchestra

D)dictator : oppressed

15586.jpg An essay (whole) is composed of a series of paragraphs(part). Likewise, a series of scenes (part) makes up a dramatic play (whole). Option B is close but the relationship is in the reverse direction. The relationship between cast and actor is one of part to whole, but a cast is composed of actors (this is whole : part). The other word pairs in options choices C and D are not related by the part to whole structure.

Type 5: Actor to Action

The relationship used in this kind of problem is that of a person or object with the action they commonly perform. In most cases, this includes professions, and the jobs that people in those professions perform. For example, in the word pair teacher : educate, a teacher’s job is to educate, while in the word pair tailor : sew, the tailor’s job is to sew. Remember when working analogies of this type that you are looking for the word pair in which the action most explicitly describes the major activity of the actor. This point will be amply illustrated through the example below:

WOP.TIF ARBITRATOR : JUDGE

A)mechanic : repair

B)direction : orient

C)lawyer : legislate

D)musician : orchestra

15591.jpg An arbitrator judges or decides when there is a dispute while a mechanic works to repair things that are broken. If we consider option C, although you could envision circumstances in which a lawyer might work to legislate, but this would not be the primary action of a lawyer.

Type 6: Cause and Effect

In this type of problems, one of the words describes a condition or action (which is a cause), while the other word describes a response to that action or condition (which is the effect). For instance, the following word pairs describe cause and effect relationships (bacteria: infection, accident: injury, cold: fever, etc.) Remember to be careful of the direction of the relationship in such word pairs. Thus, if the original pair of words has the cause first and the effect later, the correct answer will also follow the same order. Consider the following example:

WOP.TIF TREMBLE : FEAR

A)shiver : cold

B)stifle : sneeze

C)itch : scratch

D)irritate : nettle

15608.jpg While a tremble is a response to fear, a shiver is a response to cold. Option C is also a cause and effect but in the reverse order.

Type 7: Member and Class

In this type of problem on analogy, one of the words in the pair is an element of a class that the other word in the pair describes. For example, frog : amphibian means that frog is a kind of amphibian. An appropriate matching pair might be tuna : fish, since tuna is a kind of fish. (tragedy : drama and cow : mammal are other examples of the same.)

WOP.TIF BALLET : DANCE

A)book : novel

B)theater : play

C)sonnet : poem

D)artist : sculptor

15631.jpg Ballet is one form of dance while sonnet is a kind of poem.

Type 8: Definition

In this type of problem, one of the words in the pair can be used to define the other word. For instance, someone who is frivolous is silly, someone who is careless is casual. Consider, the following example:

WOP.TIF PHILANTHROPIST : ALTRUISM

A)nationalist : orthodoxy

B)ascetic : self-denial

C)writer : publication

D)general : soldier

15614.jpg A philanthropist practices altruism while an ascetic is one who practices self-denial. The other options do not fit into this structure and hence the answer is B.

Type 9: Function

In this type of analogy, the relationship between the two words is a functional one. For example, in the word pair gloves : hands, the gloves serve to protect the hands. Similarly in the word pair feet: walk, the two words are connected to each other through the relationship of function.

WOP.TIF TRAINING : SKILL

A)neurological : brain

B)auspicious : event

C)speech : lesson

D)mnemonic : memory

15625.jpg Training can be used to improve skill just as a mnemonic is something that can be used to improve memory. 

Type 10: Symbol and Representation

In this type of problem structure, one of the words in the pair is the representation of the concept or thing denoted by the other. Common symbols include punctuation marks. For example, comma : pause :: period : stop. Other examples are objects that now represent actions or events, such as a white flag indicating surrender or hawk indicating warlike or a dove representing peace.

WOP.TIF LAUREL WREATH : VICTORY ::

A)honor : pride

B)olive branch : peace

C)parentheses : continuous

D)light : darkness

15636.jpg An olive branch is a symbol of peace while a laurel wreath is a symbol of victory.

Type 11: Defining Characteristic

WOP.TIF Stable : Horse :: Fire Station : Fire Engine

15645.jpgThe defining characteristic of a stable is a horse while that of a fire station is a fire engine.

Type 12: Manner

WOP.TIF Strut : Walk :: Yodel : Sing.

15655.jpg Strut is a type or manner of walking just as yodel is a type of singing.

Type 13: Articles Made by a Worker

WOP.TIF Artist : Painting :: Carpenter : Table.

15661.jpg Just as an artist creates a painting, a carpenter makes a table.

Type 14: The Worker and his Tools

WOP.TIF Artist : Paintbrush :: Programmer : Computer.

15667.jpg An artist uses a paintbrush while a programmer uses a computer.

Type 15: The Worker and his Task

WOP.TIF Teacher : Teaches :: Driver : Drives.

15676.jpg A teacher teaches while a driver drives.

Type 16: The Worker and the Work Place

WOP.TIF Teller : Bank :: Sergeant : Post.

15683.jpg A teller works in the bank while a sergeant works on his post.

Type 17: The Tool and the Object

WOP.TIF Scissors : Paper :: Hammer : Nail.

15690.jpg Scissors are used on paper just as a hammer is used on a nail.

Type 18: The Tool and the Action

WOP.TIF Scissors : Cut :: Screwdriver : Screw.

15700.jpg Scissors cut while a screwdriver screws.

Type 19: Actions and their Significance

WOP.TIF Smile : Pleasure :: Frown : Displeasure.

15706.jpg A smile conveys pleasure while a frown conveys displeasure.

Type 20: Sequence of Time

WOP.TIF Beginning : End :: Opening : Closing

Type 21: Gender

WOP.TIF Duke : Duchess :: Prince : Princess

Type 22: Age

WOP.TIF Calf : Cow :: Tadpole : Frog.

15711.jpg The calf is the young of the cow, while the tadpole is the young of a frog.

Practice Exercises

Exercise 1

1.

SATURATED : WET ::

 

(a) acrid : acidic

 

(b) distant : faraway

 

(c) damp : drenched

 

(d) arid : dry

2.

CACOPHONOUS : HARMONIOUS ::

 

(a) bellicose : pacific

 

(b) beauty : peace

 

(c) tempestuous : stormy

 

(d) considerate : sympathetic

3.

KANGAROO : JOEY ::

 

(a) lion : pride

 

(b) goose : gosling

 

(c) bevy : beauties

 

(d) foal : horse

4.

CAPRICIOUS : FIXED ::

 

(a) laughter : joy

 

(b) agitated : uneasy

 

(c) fickle : decisive

 

(d) biased : judgmental

5.

UNHAPPY : MISERABLE ::

 

(a) vocal : quiet

 

(b) mournful : oblivious

 

(c) passionate : appreciative

 

(d) content : euphoric

6.

EAST : ORIENTAL ::

 

(a) west : occidental

 

(b) global : universal

 

(c) forest : jungle

 

(d) west : east

7.

YEAST : LEAVENING ::

 

(a) antibiotic : microorganisms

 

(b) water : valve

 

(c) illness : cure

 

(d) fertilizer : growth

8.

BOTANY : PLANTS ::

 

(a) geology : earth

 

(b) stars: astronomy

 

(c) teacher : class

 

(d) disease : etiology

9.

SNAKE : REPTILE ::

 

(a) snake : cobra

 

(b) bird : mammal

 

(c) wasp : insect

 

(d) lion : amphibian

10.

ILLITERATE : EDUCATION ::

 

(a) naive : experience

 

(b) well-mannered : rude

 

(c) miserly : money

 

(d) pristine : elegance

11.

EAT : GORGE ::

 

(a) drink : guzzle

 

(b) saunter : walk

 

(c) expel : admit

 

(d) advanced : primitive

12.

LONELINESS : PRIVACY ::

 

(a) passion : apathy

 

(b) composure : equanimity

 

(c) destiny : fateful

 

(d) illusory : unpredictable

13.

FAKE : GENUINENESS ::

 

(a) flawless : perfection

 

(b) nebulous : definition

 

(c) deceitful : intent

 

(d) amoral : wicked

14.

OPAQUE : LIGHT ::

 

(a) absorbent : liquid

 

(b) desert : sand

 

(c) autoclave : germ-free

 

(d) hermetic : air

15.

RUDE : BOORISH ::

 

(a) deadly : pernicious

 

(b) suspicious : pernicious

 

(c) patronise : support

 

(d) daring : daredevilry

16.

MOSAIC : TILE ::

 

(a) fabric : tapestry

 

(b) portrait : paint

 

(c) document : author

 

(d) coverlet : cloth

17.

GLASS : SHARD ::

 

(a) wood : splinter

 

(b) rock : stone

 

(c) soil : earth

 

(d) wood : tree

18.

SCALE : TONE ::

 

(a) dark : light

 

(b) wave : amplitude

 

(c) spectrum : colour

 

(d) rainbow : shower

19.

SKIN : DERMATOLOGIST ::

 

(a) physician : medicine

 

(b) conductor : orchestra

 

(c) bone : osteopath

 

(d) ventriloquist : throat

20.

SAUNTER : STROLL ::

 

(a) perambulate : walk

 

(b) gyrate : twist

 

(c) amble : path

 

(d) baby carriage : walk

21.

NIGHTLY : DAILY ::

 

(a) nocturnal : diurnal

 

(b) black : white

 

(c) sunset : sunrise

 

(d) opalescent : iridescent

22.

PHYSICIAN : SURGEON ::

 

(a) nurse : doctor

 

(b) optometrist : ophthalmologist

 

(c) urologist : gynecologist

 

(d) optician : obstetrician

23.

BULL : BUYS ::

 

(a) Wolf : Defrauds

 

(b) Lion : Brokers

 

(c) Tiger : Speculates

 

(d) Bear : Sells

24.

CACOPHONY : EUPHONY ::

 

(a) belligerent : soothing

 

(b) loveliness : peace

 

(c) tempestuous : Atlantic

 

(d) horrific : sympathetic

25.

FEATHER : BIRD ::

 

(a) snake : scale

 

(b) bark : tree

 

(c) human: epidermis

 

(d) hump : camel

26.

REBELLIOUS : CONFORMIST ::

 

(a) accepting : taking

 

(b) courteous : rude

 

(c) acquiescent : rebel

 

(d) darkness : lamp

27.

AUTHOR : MANUSCRIPT ::

 

(a) architect : blueprint

 

(d) engineer : bridge

 

(c) optician : spectacles

 

(d) doctor : stethoscope

28.

PENCIL : GRAPHITE ::

 

(a) pen : refill

 

(b) house : bricks

 

(c) car : steel

 

(d) dress : wool

29.

FICKLE : STABLE ::

 

(a) laughter : barn

 

(b) equine : horse

 

(c) impulsive : considered

 

(d) fundamental : elemental

30.

FEEBLE : POTENT ::

 

(a) borrow : give

 

(b) file : classify

 

(c) stroke : feel

 

(d) fertile : barren

31.

MANIPULATE : CONTROL ::

 

(a) exacerbate : cure

 

(b) inanimate : dead

 

(c) distinguish : change

 

(d) articulate : speak 

32.

SOUND : DECIBEL ::

 

(a) earthquake : tremors

 

(b) noise : intensity

 

(c) light : radiance

 

(d) length : meters

33.

WORD : DICTIONARY ::

 

(a) roe : fish

 

(b) cell : body

 

(c) teeth : mouth

 

(d) hair : scalp

34.

VERTIGO : HEIGHT ::

 

(a) xenophobia : fear

 

(b) triskaidekaphobia : spiders

 

(c) agoraphobia : space

 

(d) claustrophobia : darkness

35.

PUPIL : EYE ::

 

(a) elbow : wrist

 

(b) teeth : mouth

 

(c) arm : leg

 

(d) fist : hand

36.

MATRIARCHAL : WOMEN ::

 

(a) patriarchal : men

 

(b) virago : female

 

(c) oligarchy : dictator

 

(d) patriotic : country

37.

ASCETIC : LUXURY ::

 

(a) teacher : classroom

 

(b) capitalist : communist

 

(c) misogynist : women

 

(d) musician : composition

38.

SLANDER : REPUTATION ::

 

(a) deceit : hope

 

(b) indiscretion : secrecy

 

(c) hypocrite : praise

 

(d) vandalism : property

39.

CHRISTMAS : CHRISTIANITY ::

 

(a) Holi : Jews

 

(b) Sabbath : Hindus

 

(c) Eid : Parsis

 

(d) Diwali: Hindus

40.

SUAVE : BLUNT ::

 

(a) refined : cultured

 

(b) pure : adulterated

 

(c) severe : intense

 

(d) eligible : qualify

41.

UNRIDDLE : MYSTERY ::

 

(a) deactivate : bomb

 

(b) fish : anemone

 

(c) strike : harder

 

(d) crack : glass

42.

ARTIST : CANVAS ::

 

(a) driver : car

 

(b) pedestrian : road

 

(c) composer : symphony

 

(d) surgeon : operation

43.

STABLE : HORSE ::

 

(a) hotel : guest

 

(b) sty : pig

 

(c) teacher : school

 

(d) kennel : cat

44.

ROCK : MARBLE ::

 

(a) ebony : ivory

 

(b) woods : mahogany

 

(c) scissors : glue

 

(d) tusk : elephant

45.

MAMMAL : COW ::

 

(a) woods : tree

 

(b) school : fish

 

(c) reptile : snake

 

(d) wings : bird

46.

CHANGE : IMMUTABLE ::

 

(a) constancy : unsteady

 

(b) mobile : movement

 

(c) implicit : notions

 

(d) impossible : plausible

47.

LIBERTINE : IMMORALITY ::

 

(a) altruist : selflessness

 

(b) miser : selfishness

 

(c) victim : depravation

 

(d) policeman : law

48.

AUTHORISATION : WARRANT ::

 

(a) warrant : arrest

 

(b) subpoena : summons

 

(c) permission : license

 

(d) indignation : protest

49.

SCABBARD : SWORD ::

 

(a) gamble : cards

 

(b) cup : beverage

 

(c) wish : intuition

 

(d) foot : shoe

50.

UNCLE : AVUNCULAR ::

 

(a) mother : maternity

 

(b) father : patricide

 

(c) brother : fraternal

 

(d) sister : sorority

Exercise 2

1.

NECROMANCER : WITCHCRAFT ::

 

(a) puritan : excellence

 

(b) gourmand : starvation

 

(c) swindler : knavery

 

(d) lawyer : graft

2.

EXTRACT : TOOTH ::

 

(a) cut : nail

 

(b) uproot : stump

 

(c) pull out : pin

 

(d) cut : wood

3.

HUG : AFFECTION ::

 

(a) dour : humous

 

(b) nod : assent

 

(c) virus : influenza

 

(d) feet : walk

4.

ISLAND : ARCHIPELAGO ::

 

(a) shoulder : arm

 

(b) stomach : intestine

 

(c) shoe : laces

 

(d) toe : foot

5.

 CODICIL : WILL ::

 

(a) book : chapter

 

(b) outhouse : premises

 

(c) annexure : book

 

(d) limb : extremity

6.

GETS ON : BUS ::

 

(a) hopes : fear

 

(b) enters : account book

 

(c) disembarks : airplane

 

(d) boards : rowboat

7.

MUMBLE : INDISTINCT ::

 

(a) scribble : illegible

 

(b) screech : gentle

 

(c) swagger : timid

 

(d) sneeze : deliberate

8.

FOOTBALL : SPORT ::

 

(a) rhythm : poetry

 

(b) verse : literature

 

(c) dancing : ballet

 

(d) research : biology

9.

SAILOR : LIGHTHOUSE ::

 

(a) snake : hiss

 

(b) air raid : siren

 

(c) car horn : driver

 

(d) sleeper : smoke alarm

10.

SIMMER : BOIL ::

 

(a) glide : drift

 

(b) gambol : play

 

(c) drizzle : downpour

 

(d) stagnate : flow

11.

MITIGATE : PUNISHMENT ::

 

(a) change : order

 

(b) place : placement

 

(c) monotonous : change

 

(d) alleviate : pain

12.

SAPLING : TREE ::

 

(a) puppy : dog

 

(b) canine : feline

 

(c) cat : lion

 

(d) poodle : terrier

13.

TYRE : RUBBER ::

 

(a) oasis : desert

 

(b) house : roof

 

(c) paper : wood

 

(d) pebble : boulder

14.

ANGLER : BAIT ::

 

(a) mouse : mousetrap

 

(b) hunter : decoy

 

(c) language : code

 

(d) treasure : map

15.

BACTERIUM : COLONY ::

 

(a) microbe : disease

 

(b) whale : school

 

(c) shoal : fish

 

(d) virus : immunization

16.

CHILDISH : MATURITY ::

 

(a) pungent : poignancy

 

(b) profuse : extravagance

 

(c) obscure : clarity

 

(d) poised : serenity

17.

TINY : HUGE ::

 

(a) chaotic : confuse

 

(b) sad : gloomy

 

(c) great : grand

 

(d) weak : strong

18.

OPTIMISTIC : HOPE ::

 

(a) indecisive : idea

 

(b) impulsive : whim

 

(c) parsimonious : poverty

 

(d) garrulous : talk

19.

WARDROBE : CLOTHES ::

 

(a) newspaper : headlines

 

(b) record : label

 

(c) album : stamps

 

(d) almanac : dates

20.

DELUGE : WATER ::

 

(a) igloo : ice

 

(b) landslide : earth

 

(c) sleet : hail

 

(d) dew : rain

21.

COBBLER : BOOT ::

 

(a) potter : kiln

 

(b) banker : deposit

 

(c) carpenter : cabinet

 

(d) musician : clarinet

22.

SEETHE : ANGER ::

 

(a) chortle : distress

 

(b) fidget : uneasiness

 

(c) snarl : confusion

 

(d) waddle : embarrassment

23.

MERCILESS : SYMPATHY ::

 

(a) needless : intelligence

 

(b) belligerent : detachment

 

(c) pathetic : pity

 

(d) frank : reticence

24.

DISAGREEMENT : HARMONY ::

 

(a) predictability : routine

 

(b) predicament : dilemma

 

(c) advantage : agreement

 

(d) impartiality : prejudice

25.

KEY : IGNITION ::

 

(a) helmet : motorcycle

 

(b) switch : light

 

(c) boot : saddle

 

(d) pad : helicopter

26.

BUCKET : WATER ::

 

(a) milk : quart

 

(b) eggs : dozen

 

(c) shaker : salt

 

(d) river : ocean

27.

HUMANS : SOCIETY ::

 

(a) kinsfolk : family

 

(b) spectators : game

 

(c) animals : jungle

 

(d) rivals : team

28.

CATERPILLAR : LEAVES ::

 

(a) moth : wool

 

(b) silkworm : silk

 

(c) oyster : shell

 

(d) anthracite : coal

29.

TALLY : VOTES ::

 

(a) census : population

 

(b) taxation : revenue

 

(c) government : laws

 

(d) team : athletes

30.

LULL : STORM ::

 

(a) marriage : divorce

 

(b) battery : missiles

 

(c) recess : business

 

(d) bonfire : kindling

31.

GRAPE : RAISIN ::

 

(a) corn : flake

 

(b) flesh : bone

 

(c) cane : sugar

 

(d) jaggery : cane

32.

LIBRARY : BOOKS ::

 

(a) hotel : children

 

(b) zoo : animals

 

(c) office : sales

 

(d) park : car

33.

SMELL : NOSE ::

 

(a) calligraphy : eye

 

(b) piquancy : taste

 

(c) noise : ear

 

(d) tracheotomy : throat

34.

SLANDER : DISPARAGEMENT ::

 

(a) sorrow : death

 

(b) commendation : praise

 

(c) paean : anger

 

(d) reproof : confirmation

35.

OUTPACE : SPEED ::

 

(a) outwit : cunning

 

(b) outline : thought

 

(c) outrage : wrath

 

(d) outreach : charity

36.

SEE : LOOK ::

 

(a) feel : touch

 

(b) giggle : laugh

 

(c) sprint : lift

 

(d) drive : do

37.

IMPERIL : DANGER ::

 

(a) emulate : model

 

(b) entangle : conflict

 

(c) chafe : restriction

 

(d) embarrass : pride

38.

MOTEL : LODGING ::

 

(a) godown : storage

 

(b) closet : linen

 

(c) hangar : plane

 

(d) desk : typing

39.

BRACELET : WRIST ::

 

(a) frame : picture

 

(b) bat : glove

 

(c) hat : head

 

(d) foot : shoes

40.

WOODEN : RIGID ::

 

(a) fractious : whole

 

(b) mild : strident

 

(c) illegal : inconsiderate

 

(d) obstinate : stubborn

41.

SATIN : SOFT ::

 

(a) polyester : expensive

 

(b) iron : hard

 

(c) soft : cotton

 

(d) wood : colored

42.

CENTURY : YEARS ::

 

(a) rupees : paise

 

(b) yard : inches

 

(c) week : days

 

(d) centimeter : millimeters

43.

AXLE : STEER ::

 

(a) tire : ride

 

(b) awl : puncture

 

(c) plane : soar

 

(d) knife : slice

44.

INFERTILE : DESERT ::

 

(a) delicious : fruit

 

(b) diligent : worker

 

(c) verdant : jungle

 

(d) hot : weather

45.

FOOT : SORE ::

 

(a) tree : cut

 

(b) skin : wrinkle

 

(c) toe : crushed

 

(d) hand : gnarled

46.

TOP : SPINS ::

 

(a) earth : rotates

 

(b) car: accelerates

 

(c) moon : glows

 

(d) toy : plays

47.

MILK : SPOIL ::

 

(a) metal : bend

 

(b) water : filter

 

(c) flower : wilt

 

(d) fish : swim

48.

MUNIFICENT : GENEROSITY ::

 

(a) vivacious : happiness

 

(b) domineering : timidity

 

(c) indisputable : doubt

 

(d) fortunate : haplessness

49.

SHIP : DISEMBARK ::

 

(a) train : board

 

(b) fail : arrest

 

(c) discharge : job

 

(d) horse : dismount

50.

RETREATING : ADVANCING ::

 

(a) oblique : indirect

 

(b) red : crimson

 

(c) dorsal : ventral

 

(d) snowy : windy

Exercise 3

1.

TEACHER : INSTRUCTION ::

 

(a) police : law

 

(b) army : soldier

 

(c) nurse : medicine

 

(d) sentinel : protection

2.

USHER : THEATER ::

 

(a) anchor : show

 

(b) driver : truck

 

(c) conductor : train

 

(d) fiancee : girl

3.

EXERCISE : STRENGTH ::

 

(a) business : resource

 

(b) practice : skill

 

(c) defeat : gain

 

(d) games : contest

4.

PIPE : WATER ::

 

(a) sofa : furniture

 

(b) fan : air

 

(c) door : look

 

(d) chimney : smoke

5.

DAMAGE : DEMOLISH ::

 

(a) construct : make

 

(b) yap : howl

 

(c) alleged : punished

 

(d) action : plan

6.

STAMMER : TALK ::

 

(a) anxious : analyze

 

(b) stagger : walk

 

(c) trip : fall

 

(d) walk : run

7.

FRET : RELAX ::

 

(a) sad : avoid

 

(b) sob : cry

 

(c) resist : surrender

 

(d) giggle : laugh

8.

JOEY : KANGAROO ::

 

(a) fern : plant

 

(b) grain : wheat

 

(c) kitten : cat

 

(d) seed : fruit

9.

SKATE : RINK ::

 

(a) park : bench

 

(b) play : stadium

 

(c) paint : picture

 

(d) build : column

10.

LORD : SERF ::

 

(a) police : officer

 

(b) slave : misery

 

(c) capital : punishment

 

(d) ruler : subject

11.

WHEEL : SPOKE ::

 

(a) tea : sugar

 

(b) pen : cap

 

(c) ladder : rung

 

(d) lever : balance

12.

GAGGLE : GEESE ::

 

(a) tail : dog

 

(b) goat : bleat

 

(c) lion : roar

 

(d) bevy : bees

13.

SCALES : FISH ::

 

(a) paws : tiger

 

(b) wings : butterfly

 

(c) feathers : bird

 

(d) tail : monkey

14.

SHOVEL : TOOL ::

 

(a) cargo : hold

 

(b) brake : automobile

 

(c) car : means of transportation

 

(d) squadron : plane

15.

GODOWN : GOODS ::

 

(a) penitentiary : guards

 

(b) arsenal : weapons

 

(c) courthouse : laws

 

(d) bank : mortgages

16.

MUTINEER : REBELLION ::

 

(a) sluggard : haste

 

(b) hypocrite : condemnation

 

(c) renegade : accusation

 

(d) terrorist : terror

17.

DEFERENTIAL : OBSEQUIOUS ::

 

(a) strong : sturdy

 

(b) loyal : optimistic

 

(c) reckless : daring

 

(d) astute : perceptive

18.

TRIANGLE : PRISM ::

 

(a) circle : cylinder

 

(b) square : rhomboid

 

(c) sphere : earth

 

(d) polygon : diamond

19.

HAND : ARM ::

 

(a) nose : head

 

(b) foot : toe

 

(c) eye : lid

 

(d) wrist : finger

20.

PARROT : CROW ::

 

(a) eagle : ant

 

(b) goldfish : trout

 

(c) goat : butterfly

 

(d) sheep : mouse

21.

TROUGH : ANIMALS ::

 

(a) carton : eggs

 

(b) den : bears

 

(c) manger : cattle

 

(d) flock : sheep

22.

SUGAR : SWEETEN ::

 

(a) cinnamon : prepare

 

(b) pepper : season

 

(c) celery : plant

 

(d) accent : cook

23.

MURMUR : SHRIEK ::

 

(a) merge : break

 

(b) run : hover

 

(c) crack : smash

 

(d) play : work

24.

BALDNESS : HAIR ::

 

(a) curly : wig

 

(b) aridity : rain

 

(c) cooked : egg

 

(d) skin : rough

25.

RUFFLE : EQUANIMITY ::

 

(a) flounce : turmoil

 

(b) flourish : prosperity

 

(c) provoke : discussion

 

(d) disturb : balance

26.

UNVEILING : STATUE ::

 

(a) premiere : movie

 

(b) rookie : football

 

(c) debutante : teenager

 

(d) ruler : subject

27.

DECREPITUDE : RENOVATION ::

 

(a) doctor : consultation

 

(b) estrangement : reconciliation

 

(c) credulity : fury

 

(d) reproof : confirmation

28.

BRAGGART : MODEST ::

 

(a) dilettante : amateurish

 

(b) visionary : practical

 

(c) insurgent : revolutionary

 

(d) expert : refined

29.

DOGGEREL : POET ::

 

(a) symphony : composer

 

(b) easel : painter

 

(c) caption : cartoonist

 

(d) potboiler : novelist

30.

BONE : LIGAMENT ::

 

(a) knee : joint

 

(b) nails : finger

 

(c) fat : tissues

 

(d) muscle : sinew

31.

GYMNAST : AGILE ::

 

(a) craftsman : dexterous

 

(b) actress : beautiful

 

(c) athlete : tall

 

(d) clown : fat

32.

RECIPE : CHEF ::

 

(a) jury : trial

 

(b) novel : novelist

 

(c) soloist : music

 

(d) pattern : dressmaker

33.

SOUND : HOMONYM ::

 

(a) ideas : acronym

 

(b) fake : pseudonym

 

(c) meaning : synonym

 

(d) confusion : antonym

34.

WHALE : FISH ::

 

(a) hound : dog

 

(b) bat : bird

 

(c) alligator : crocodile

 

(d) fly : worm

35.

DANCER : SPECTATORS ::

 

(a) king : country

 

(b) yardstick : dimension

 

(c) barometer : weather

 

(d) singer : audience

36.

GLOVES : HANDS ::

 

(a) tyre : wheel

 

(b) hood : vehicle

 

(c) nail : screw

 

(d) socks : legs

37.

PROTEIN : MEAT ::

 

(a) cream : calories

 

(b) salt : salty

 

(c) starch : potatoes

 

(d) diet : cyclamates

38.

PRAISE : EXTOL ::

 

(a) hurry : run

 

(b) stuff : cram

 

(c) insure : rely

 

(d) dislike : loathe

39.

GLASS : WATER

 

(a) ship : fuel

 

(b) car : petrol

 

(c) plate : food

 

(d) cup : sugar

40.

SMELL : OLFACTORY ::

 

(a) touch : tactile

 

(b) feel : sense

 

(c) misnomer : word

 

(d) pleasant : jovial

41.

SUAVE : SOPHISTICATED ::

 

(a) attitude : conduct

 

(b) adage : language

 

(c) calmness : placidity

 

(d) ally : foe

42.

VIXEN : FOX ::

 

(a) mare : horse

 

(b) kitten : cat

 

(c) mouse : rat

 

(d) puma : cheetah

43.

SLUGGISH : INERT ::

 

(a) axis : pivot

 

(b) fission : fusion

 

(c) bad : evil

 

(d) affect : effect

44.

BOVINE : HERBIVOROUS ::

 

(a) ovine : omnivorous

 

(b) simian : monkey

 

(c) leonine : carnivorous

 

(d) masculine : portentous

45.

BUZZ : HUM ::

 

(a) whisper : noise

 

(b) echo : sound

 

(c) crack : whip

 

(d) chime: ring

46.

DEER : VENISON ::

 

(a) pig : hog

 

(b) sheep : mutton

 

(c) pig : pork

 

(d) steer : steak

47.

SYNAGOGUE : RELIGION ::

 

(a) court : law

 

(b) hospital : illness

 

(c) asylum : lunacy

 

(d) prison : crime

48.

INSIPID : PIQUANT ::

 

(a) tasty : bland

 

(b) relish : spice

 

(c) sweet : dessert

 

(d) flat : spicy

49.

TIPSY : DRUNKEN ::

 

(a) intelligent : dumb

 

(b) generous : cheerful

 

(c) sensible : lively

 

(d) pleased : thrilled

50.

SPASM : PAIN ::

 

(a) touch : delicate

 

(b) flash : light

 

(c) hurt : agony

 

(d) love : hate

Exercise 4

From the choices given below, select the pair of words which exhibits the same relationship between each other as the given capitalised pair of words:

1.

WRITING : PLAGIARISM ::

 

(a) confidence : deception

 

(b) money : misappropriation

 

(c) gold : theft

 

(d) germ : disease

2.

LORRY : TRUCK ::

 

(a) torch : light

 

(b) motor : car

 

(c) coal : coke

 

(d) petrol : gasoline

3.

WAITER : TIP ::

 

(a) professor : tenure

 

(b) pharmacist : prescription

 

(c) bank teller : interest

 

(d) sales person : commission

4.

WHELP : DOG ::

 

(a) child : teenager

 

(b) herd : ship

 

(c) pup : seal

 

(d) student : teacher

5.

CONDENSATION : REFRIGERATE ::

 

(a) evaporation : heat

 

(b) consumption : cook

 

(c) oration : listen

 

(d) exhaustion : buy

6.

EYE : SOCKET ::

 

(a) heart : aorta

 

(b) chest : ribs

 

(c) bone : joint

 

(d) tooth : gum

7.

MAN : HANDCUFF ::

 

(a) cat : mousetrap

 

(b) dog : kennel

 

(c) monkey : trick

 

(d) cow : tether

8.

ILLNESS : HEALTH ::

 

(a) minotaur : nose

 

(b) sequela : heart

 

(c) halitosis : breath

 

(d) aphasia : memory

9.

DRABBLE : DIRTY ::

 

(a) goof : wise

 

(b) cuesta : valley

 

(c) dirigible : direct

 

(d) furphy : freebooter

10.

ONSET: EXPIRATION ::

 

(a) desires : aspirations

 

(b) drama : scene

 

(c) proposal : final

 

(d) tempo : time

11.

SHOWER : INUNDATION ::

 

(a) inception : perception

 

(b) history : portent

 

(c) imagine : sight

 

(d) criticism : vilification

12.

BEWILDERMENT : CONFUSION ::

 

(a) bursa : sack

 

(b) bewitched : alliteration

 

(c) fantod : nervousness

 

(d) coracle : lodestar

13.

JINGOISM : WAR ::

 

(a) antagonism : support

 

(b) puritanism : austerity

 

(c) arianism : doctrine

 

(d) schism : unity

14.

AGNOSTIC : ATHEIST ::

 

(a) philanderer : misogynist

 

(b) agglomerate : accumulate

 

(c) philanthropic : patronizing

 

(d) agrophobia : agnosia

15.

RIDICULE : LAMPOON ::

 

(a) knell : death

 

(b) canard : rumour

 

(c) jibe : remark

 

(d) derision : fact

16.

JOG : FATIGUE ::

 

(a) sing : voice

 

(b) fast : hunger

 

(c) tight : choke

 

(d) camp : fire

17.

LUMEN : LIGHT ::

 

(a) weight : mineral

 

(b) decibel : sound

 

(c) gallon : water

 

(d) band : signal

18.

TAKE : STEAL ::

 

(a) leave : abscond

 

(b) interest : astound

 

(c) build : renovate

 

(d) evacuate : flee

19.

LAMPOON : SATIRIZE ::

 

(a) ode : criticize

 

(b) tirade : entertain

 

(c) panegyric : eulogize

 

(d) ballad : stigmatize

20.

JESTER : CLOWNING ::

 

(a) coquette : flirtation

 

(b) neophyte : mentoring

 

(c) termagant : encomium

 

(d) precocious : innocuous

21.

PREAMBLE : STATUTE ::

 

(a) prologue : novel

 

(b) movement : sympathy

 

(c) sketch : drawing

 

(d) index : book

22.

FARMER : FIELD ::

 

(a) ring : finger

 

(b) cricket : pitch

 

(c) wrestler : arena

 

(d) workshop : carpenter

23.

MURAL : PAINTING ::

 

(a) symphony : music

 

(b) editorial : journal

 

(c) preface : book

 

(d) ode : prose

24.

HAMMER : IRONSMITH ::

 

(a) car : driver

 

(b) seeds : farmer

 

(c) axe : woodcutter

 

(d) medicine : doctor

25.

BEAUTIFUL : UGLY ::

 

(a) morose : dull

 

(b) priest : gangster

 

(c) good : bad

 

(d) criminal : padre

26.

CHILD : FIRE ::

 

(a) child : work

 

(b) misogynist : women

 

(c) child : homework

 

(d) vegetarian : meat

27.

HOST : GRACIOUS ::

 

(a) car : flies

 

(b) cheat : cunning

 

(c) doctor : handy

 

(d) blade : barber

28.

PRUDE : MODESTY ::

 

(a) enemy : friendly

 

(b) blunt : politician

 

(c) pedant : erudition

 

(d) diplomat : tactless

29.

PERFOR : ENTERTAIN ::

 

(a) virus : prevent

 

(b) heuristic : teach

 

(c) pedant : construct

 

(d) parable : obfuscate

30.

HYPHEN : JOIN ::

 

(a) dash : shorten

 

(b) colon : introduce

 

(c) comma : possess

 

(d) semicolon : transfer

31.

EXTORTION : INTIMIDATING ::

 

(a) in extremis : early

 

(b) non sequitur : vital

 

(c) redundant : useless

 

(d) caveat emptor : trivial

32.

TREE : MAPLE ::

 

(a) barter : guid pro guo

 

(b) medicine : profession

 

(c) building : construction

 

(d) vehicle : passenger car

33.

CHIMERA : AUTHENTICITY ::

 

(a) melodrama : subtlety

 

(b) parody : wit

 

(c) brief : abstract

 

(d) war : strategy

34.

AIR CRAFT: JET ::

 

(a) climate : rain

 

(b) instrument : calibration

 

(c) atmosphere : stratosphere

 

(d) nimbus : cloud

35.

NITTY : GRITTY ::

 

(a) nuts : bolts

 

(b) naked : clothed

 

(c) hard : soft

 

(d) bare : feet

36.

FROSTING : CAKE ::

 

(a) lace: gown

 

(b) tie : shoe

 

(c) zipper : coat

 

(d) paint : enamel

37.

SQUANDER : MONEY ::

 

(a) shirk : task

 

(b) dally : time

 

(c) achieve : victory

 

(d) trespass : land

38.

ADMONISHMENT : CASTIGATION ::

 

(a) anxiety : fear

 

(b) perjury : corruption

 

(c) provocation : instigation

 

(d) peccadillo : sin

39.

DEFORESTATION : TREES ::

 

(a) inoculation : vaccine

 

(b) defamation : enemies

 

(c) amnesty : deserters

 

(d) sterilization : microorganism

40.

INTERPRET : EXAMINE ::

 

(a) foresee : predict

 

(b) plan : scheme

 

(c) interest : inveigle

 

(d) evaluate : suggest

41.

TERMINATION : CLOTURE ::

 

(a) hospitalization : sickness

 

(b) majority : concession

 

(c) amendment : constitution

 

(d) quorum : filibuster

42.

RESISTANCE : ADVERSARY ::

 

(a) dilettantism : connoisseur

 

(b) dogmatism : scholar

 

(c) espionage : felon

 

(d) humility : supplicant

43.

FURNITURE : CHAIR ::

 

(a) landscape : tree

 

(b) apple : pear

 

(c) animal : cat

 

(d) club : player

44.

PRATTLE : SUCCINCT ::

 

(a) tirade : critical

 

(b) circumlocution : patient

 

(c) bombast : pompous

 

(d) prose : economical

45.

PRODIGAL : SPEND ::

 

(a) treacherous : trust

 

(b) querulous : complain

 

(c) laconic : talk

 

(d) humble : fawn

46.

BILE : LIVER ::

 

(a) insulin : pancreas

 

(b) oxygen : heart

 

(c) honey : bee

 

(d) menthol : eucalyptus

47.

HINT : SUGGESTION ::

 

(a) shade : spectrum

 

(b) trace : existence

 

(c) nuance : distinction

 

(d) remnant : preservation

48.

ANAESTHETIC : INSENSIBILITY ::

 

(a) astringent : insensibility

 

(b) coagulant : euphoria

 

(c) stimulant : drowsiness

 

(d) analgesic : pain

For the following question, mark as your answer the option that represents a relationship with the third word that is opposite to the first pair of words:

49.

PHILISTINE : UNCULTURED :: PRECOCIOUS :

 

(a) clever

 

(b) mature

 

(c) doltish

 

(d) intelligent

For the following question, mark your answer as the option that represents a relationship not similar to the one exhibited by the given capitalized question pair of word.

50.

LUGUBRIOUS : LACHRYMOSE :: SALUTARY:

 

(a) remedial

 

(b) consistent

 

(c) wholesome

 

(d) curative

Answer Key

Exercise 1

1. (d)

2. (a)

3. (b)

4. (c)

5. (d)

6. (a)

7. (d)

8. (a)

9. (c)

10. (a)

11. (a)

12. (b)

13. (b)

14. (d)

15. (a)

16. (d)

17. (a)

18. (c)

19. (c)

20. (a)

21. (a)

22. (b)

23. (d)

24. (a)

25. (b)

26. (c)

27. (a)

28. (a)

29. (c)

30. (d)

31. (d)

32. (d)

33. (b)

34. (c)

35. (b)

36. (a)

37. (c)

38. (d)

39. (d)

40. (b)

41. (a)

42. (c)

43. (b)

44. (b)

45. (c)

46. (a)

47. (a)

48. (c)

49. (b)

50. (c)

Exercise 2

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (c)

6. (d)

7. (a)

8. (b)

9. (d)

10. (c)

11. (d)

12. (a)

13. (c)

14. (b)

15. (b)

16. (c)

17. (d)

18. (b)

19. (c)

20. (b)

21. (c)

22. (b)

23. (d)

24. (d)

25. (b)

26. (c)

27. (c)

28. (a)

29. (a)

30. (c)

31. (c)

32. (b)

33. (c)

34. (b)

35. (a)

36. (a)

37. (b)

38. (a)

39. (c)

40. (d)

41. (b)

42. (a)

43. (d)

44. (c)

45. (b)

46. (a)

47. (c)

48. (a)

49. (d)

50. (c)

Exercise 3

1. (d)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (b)

6. (b)

7. (c)

8. (c)

9. (b)

10. (d)

11. (c)

12. (d)

13. (c)

14. (c)

15. (b)

16. (d)

17. (c)

18. (a)

19. (a)

20. (b)

21. (c)

22. (b)

23. (c)

24. (b)

25. (d)

26. (a)

27. (b)

28. (b)

29. (d)

30. (d)

31. (a)

32. (d)

33. (c)

34. (b)

35. (d)

36. (d)

37. (c)

38. (d)

39. (c)

40. (a)

41. (d)

42. (a)

43. (c)

44. (c)

45. (d)

46. (c)

47. (a)

48. (a)

49. (d)

50. (c)

Exercise 4

1. (b)

2. (d)

3. (d)

4. (b)

5. (a)

6. (d)

7. (d)

8. (c)

9. (c)

10. (c)

11. (d)

12. (c)

13. (b)

14. (a)

15. (b)

16. (b)

17. (b)

18. (a)

19. (c)

20. (a)

21. (a)

22. (c)

23. (a)

24. (c)

25. (c)

26. (b)

27. (b)

28. (b)

29. (b)

30. (b)

31. (c)

32. (d)

33. (a)

34. (c)

35. (a)

36. (a)

37. (b)

38. (d)

39. (d)

40. (c)

41. (a)

42. (d)

43. (c)

44. (c)

45. (b)

46. (a)

47. (c)

48. (a)

49. (c)

50. (b)

Explanatory Note

Exercise 1

1.The relationship between arid and dry is one of degree of intensity. Aridity is an intense form of dryness, and saturated is an intense form of wetness. The correct choice is (d).

2.The relationship here is one of antonyms. Cacophonous and harmonious are opposites of each other, which is also the relationship between bellicose which means war-like, and pacific which means peace-loving.

3.The correct answer is (b). The relationship here is one of parent to offspring—a kangaroo’s baby is a joey. While option (d) also contains two words that have the parent–offspring relationship, the words are reversed. A foal is the offspring of a horse rather than the other way around (as in the original pair).

4.Something or someone who is fickle is not decisive, which is the relationship between something that is capricious and fixed.

5.This problem is based on degree of intensity. Someone who is miserable is extremely unhappy while someone who is euphoric is extremely content.

6.This is an analogy based on definition since oriental describes the east, just as occidental describes the west.

7.Fertilizer is used to stimulate growth, just as yeast is used for stimulating leavening (rising).

8.Botany is the study of plants, just as geology is the study of the earth. In option B and D, the same relationship holds but in the reverse order. Etiology is the study of disease and astronomy is the study of stars.

9.The relationship here is of member and class. A wasp is a kind of insect, as a snake is a kind of reptile.

10.This is a definitional type of analogy. Someone who is illiterate lacks an education, while someone who is naïve lacks experience.

11.This is a degree of intensity analogy. To guzzle is to drink a lot, rapidly. Likewise, to gorge is to eat intensely.

12.Just as loneliness and privacy are synonyms, describing the state of being alone or separate from others, composure and equanimity are synonyms describing a calm or peaceful state of mind.

13.Something that is fake is lacking in genuineness. Similarly, something that is nebulous is hazy or vague, lacking in definition.

14.Something that is opaque blocks light completely. Likewise, something that is hermetic is completely sealed against the escape or entry of air. (d) is the answer.

15.Deadly and pernicious are synonyms as are rude and boorish.

16.A coverlet is made up of many pieces of cloth, just as mosaic is made up of many pieces of tile.

17.A splinter is a sharp piece of wood, while a shard is a sharp piece of glass.

18.This problem contains a part to whole analogy. A musical scale is a series of tones in a particular arrangement; similarly a spectrum is made up of a series of colours in a particular order.

19.The relationship here is person to tool (specialist to body part treated); the correct choice is (c) since a dermatologist treats the skin and an osteopath treats the bones.

20.The relationship between the two words here is that of intensity. A saunter is a leisurely stroll and a perambulate is a leisurely walk. Thus, the correct choice is (a).

21.The relationship here is that of opposite portions of the day. Nocturnal means nightly; diurnal means daily. Thus, (a) is the answer.

22.While the physician can diagnose and treat a patient with drugs, the surgeon treats a patient through an operation. The same relationship works in the case of an optometrist and an ophthalmologist.

23.The relationship here is one of action. A bull is a person who buys on the stock market, while a bear is one who sells on the stock market.

24.This is a problem based on antonyms. Just as cacophony (sound) is the opposite of euphony (pleasant sound), so also belligerent is the opposite of soothing.

25.This is a part to whole problem. The bird is covered by its feathers completely, just as a tree is covered completely by its bark. Neither (a) nor (c) can be correct since the order is reverse.

26.A conformist is one who is not rebellious, while a rebel is one who is not acquiescent.

27.The relationship is that just as an author creates a manuscript, an architect creates a blueprint.

28.The relationship here is one of tool to the product that makes it work. Thus, the answer is (a). A house does not work with bricks, and a car does not work with steel in order to run.

29.The answer is (c). The relationship here is one of opposites. Although the word pair fundamental : elemental is also opposite, it does not also show the idea of something that changes and something that is fixed.

30.Another question based on opposites. Feeble and potent are opposites, just as fertile and barren are opposites of each other.

31.The answer is (d). The relationship here is one of degree.

32.Sound is measured in decibels just as length is measured in meters.

33.The relationship here is one of part to whole.

34.The answer is (c). The relationship here is that of ‘Fear of’. So, Vertigo is the fear of heights while agoraphobia is the fear of spaces. The other options are using inaccurate definitions.

35.Just as the pupil is a part of the eye, so also the teeth are part of the mouth.

36.The obvious answer is (a).

37.An ascetic is defined as one who denounces luxury just as a misogynist is one who denounces women. Option (b) is incorrect since it is too broad. A capitalist might not like a communist, but that is in no way a defining characteristic.

38.Vandalism is the desecration of property just as slander is the desecration of a reputation.

39.Based on opposites. Option (b) expresses a relationship of opposites just as the capitalized pair.

40.The answer is (a). One unriddles a mystery in the same way that one deactivates a bomb.

41.An artist creates a canvas just as a composer creates a symphony.

42.The relationship here can be described as: Horses stay in a stable, just as pigs stay in a sty.

Exercise 2

1.A necromancer is one who practices witchcraft, while a swindler practices knavery.

2.Just as you extract a tooth, you uproot a stump.

4.Islands are parts of an archipelago, just as a toe is a part of a foot. (A part to whole analogy)

5.A codicil is an addition to a will, just like an annexure is an addition to a book.

6.We get on a bus, just as we board a rowboat.

7.A mumble is indistinct, while a scribble is illegible.

8.Football is a type of sport, just as verse is a type of literature.

9.A sailor is warned by a light house, just as a person who is sleeping is warned by a smoke alarm.

10.This is a degree of intensity analogy. Simmer is a milder form of boiling just as a drizzle is a milder form of a downpour.

11.Just as we mitigate (lessen) punishment, we alleviate (lessen) pain.

12.A sapling is a baby tree, just as a puppy is a baby dog.

13.A tyre is made from rubber, while paper is made out of wood. In other words, rubber is a raw material for tyre as wood is a raw material for paper.

14.An angler uses a bait to attract fish, as a hunter uses a decoy.

15.A colony of bacterium, as a school of whales.

16.Opposites. Both the capitalized pair and option (c) represent opposite meanings.

17.Opposites. Both the capitalized pair and option (d) represent opposite meanings.

18.An optimistic person operates on hope, while an impulsive person operates on his will.

19.An album is a book designed to keep a collection of stamps just as a wardrobe is a locker designed to keep a collection of clothes.

20.A deluge is a sudden great or overwhelming rush of water just as a landslide is a sudden great or overwhelming rush of earth.

21.A carpenter constructs a cabinet just as a cobbler constructs a boot.

22.To fidget is to show uneasiness (mental or physical uneasiness). To seethe is to show anger.

23.Someone frank and candid lacks reticence just as someone merciless lacks sympathy.

24.Disagreement is characterized by a lack of harmony. Similarly, impartiality is characterized by a lack of prejudice.

25.A key turns on an ignition. A switch turns on a light.

26.A bucket holds water and water can be poured from a bucket. A shaker holds salt and salt can be poured from a shaker.

27.Humans live in a society as animals live in a jungle.

28.A caterpillar feeds on leaves, while a moth feeds on wool.

29.A tally is a recorded account of votes. A census is a recorded account of population.

30.A lull is a temporary halt in storm. A recess is a temporary halt in business.

31.Raisins are made from grapes, just as sugar is made out of cane.

32.Just as a library is a place for books, a zoo is a place for animals.

33.Noise is heard through the ear just as one smells through the nose.

34.A commendation is an expression of praise. A slander is an expression of disparagement.

35.To outpace someone is to surpass that person in speed, to outwit someone is to surpass that person in cunning.

36.When you look at something, you see it. Similarly, when you touch something, you feel it.

37.To imperil someone is to involve him in danger. To entangle someone is to involve him in conflict.

38.The purpose of a godown is storage of goods. The purpose of a motel is lodging people.

Answer (b) is incorrect. It is a trap; although linen is stored in a closet, you cannot say that “the purpose of a closet is linen”.

Answer (c) is also incorrect. It is also a trap; although a hangar is where you store a plane, you can’t say, “the purpose of a hangar is a plane”.

39.A bracelet is worn on the wrist just as a hat is worn on the head.

40.Wooden is used as a synonym of rigid here. Similarly, obstinate is the synonym of stubborn.

41.The feel of satin is soft, while the feel of iron is hard.

42.One-hundred paise make a rupee, just as a hundred years make a century.

43.An axle is used to steer a vehicle, just as a knife is used to slice things.

44.A desert is infertile, just as a jungle is verdant (green).

45.Sores represent damage to feet, just as wrinkles represent damage to skin.

46.Just as a top spins, the earth rotates.

47.Milk gets destroyed when it gets spoilt and a flower gets destroyed when it wilts.

48.Munificence represents generosity, just as vivaciousness represents happiness.

49.To get off a ship one disembarks. To get off a horse, one dismounts from it.

50.Retreating and advancing are opposite actions. Similarly, dorsal and ventral are adjectives which refer to the back and front of an animal’s body. All other choices are synonyms in nature.

Exercise 3

1.A teacher gives instruction and a sentinel gives protection.

2.An usher shows people to their seats in a theater. A conductor shows people to their seats on a train.

3.Practice builds skill just as exercise builds strength.

4.This is a functional analogy. A chimney is used to conduct smoke, just as a pipe is used to conduct water.

5.This is a degree of intensity based analogy. Damage is a less intense degree of destruction than demolish. Similarly, yapping is much less intense than howling.

6.To stammer impedes talking, to stagger impedes walking.

7.The analogy is based on the relationship of opposites. Just as fret is the opposite of relax, resist is the opposite of surrender.

8.A joey is a young kangaroo, just as a kitten is a young cat.

9.A rink is a place to skate, just as a stadium is a place to play. Alternately, we skate in a rink, just as we play in a stadium.

10.A serf is bound to the bidding of his or her lord just as a subject is bound to the bidding of his or her ruler.

11.There are several spokes in a wheel just as there are several rungs in a ladder.

12.A gaggle is a group of geese. A bevy is a group of bees.

13.Scales cover the body of fish, just as feathers cover the body of birds. (a), (b), (d)—don’t make sense when the relation is applied. Each is a filler.

14.A car is a kind of means of transportation just as a shovel is a kind of tool.

15.One stores goods in a godown just as one stores weapons in an arsenal.

16.A terrorist is someone who spreads terror just as a mutineer is someone who spreads a mutiny.

17.Reckless is the negative extreme of daring just as obsequious is the negative extreme of being deferential.

18.Just as a prism is a solid figure which is triangular, a cylinder is a solid figure that is circular.

19.The nose is a part of the head just as the hand is a part of the arm.

20.A goldfish and a trout are two different sorts of fish just as a parrot and a sparrow are two different sorts of birds.

21.A manger is a feeding bin for cattle just as a trough is a feeding bin for animals.

22.Sugar is added to food to sweeten it, while pepper is added to food to season it.

23.The relationship here is one of degree of intensity. To smash something is to do much greater damage than merely to crack it, just as shrieking has a much greater intensity than murmuring.

24.Baldness is the lack of hair, just as aridity is the lack of rain.

25.Equanimity is ruffled (when it is affected negatively) just as balance is disturbed.

26.A statue is unveiled just as a movie is premiered.

27.Renovation removes decrepitude, just as reconciliation removes estrangement.

28.A braggart (boaster) is not modest just as a visionary (dreamer) is not practical.

29.A potboiler is a trivial or inferior literary work produced by a novelist just as a doggerel is a trivial verse produced by a poet.

30.Ligaments connect bones just as sinews connect muscles.

31.It is necessary for a craftsman to be dexterous just as it is essential for a gymnast to be agile.

32.Just as a chef uses a recipe to make a particular meal, a dressmaker uses a pattern to enable the making of an article of clothing.

33.Meaning determines whether two words are synonyms. Sound determines whether two words are homonyms.

34.A bat is a mammal that is mistakenly thought to be a bird. A whale is a mammal that is mistakenly thought to be a fish.

35.A dancer performs to spectators just as a singer performs to an audience.

36.Gloves are worn in the hands, just as socks are worn on the legs.

37.Meat contains protein just as potatoes contain starch.

38.An analogy based on degree of intensity. Both praise and extol mean the same thing, however extol means praise very greatly. Similar is the case with dislike and loathe, since loathe is to dislike intensely.

40.Olfactory relates to the sense of smell, as tactile relates to the sense of smell.

41.Suave and sophisticated are opposites of each other, just as ally and foe are opposites.

42.The vixen is the female of a fox, just as the mare is the female of the horse.

43.Sluggish and inert are synonyms of each other. So are bad and evil.

44.Something that is bovine (cow like) is herbivorous, just as something that is leonine (lion like) is carnivorous.

45.Buzz and hum are synonyms, just as chime and ring.

46.Venison is deer meat, while pork is pig meat.

47.A synagogue is a place of religion, just as a court is a place of law.

48.Relation of opposites.

49.A degree of intensity based analogy. Tipsy means slightly drunk, as pleased means slightly thrilled.

50.A cause and effect based analogy. Just as a spasm causes pain, hurt causes agony.

1The strategies explained here will also apply in the questions of antonyms, synonyms, odd man out as well as other vocabulary based questions.

2For more negative prefixes and suffixes, the student is advised to go to the relevant part of the vocabulary section.

3For more positive prefixes and suffixes, the student is advised to go to the relevant part of the vocabulary section.