How to Prepare for Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension for the CAT (2014)

Part 2: Verbal Ability

Section 4: Paragraph Jumbles

Block 2: LODs and CAT Questions

Chapter 17. Level of Difficulty—II

1.

(A)

Aristotle begins his treatise on metaphysics with the assertion that all human beings have the desire to acquire knowledge.

 

(B)

As evidence, Aristotle cites the delight that we take in sense perception, and in particular, in vision.

 

(C)

By this, he means that we value knowledge for its own sake, entirely apart from its utility.

 

(D)

His teacher, Plato, expressed the delight in vision in a still more radical way in the Symposium by attributing it to a demonic force, Eros.

 

(E)

The sense that discriminates the largest number of intelligible forms.

   

(a) ABCDE

(b) ACBED

   

(c) ABCED

(d) ADBCE

   

(e) ADBEC

   

2.

(A)

There is so much disagreement about the correct sense of Holy Scripture that the claim that this sense is manifest is itself an interpretation, and so subject to rejection.

 

(B)

Prophets, preachers, and scholars alike, all attempt to derive the genuine will of God from the revealed text.

 

(C)

The commands of God, that is, the contents of divine revelation, are sufficiently ambiguous that they require interpretation.

 

(D)

But this distinction cannot be unambiguously preserved, for a very simple reason.

 

(E)

We seem to have arrived at a sharp distinction between philosophy and religion.

   

(a) ABCED

(b) CEDAB

   

(c) EDCAB

(d) CABED

   

(e) DABCE

   

3.

(A)

Everything that we experience as material reality, is born in an invisible realm beyond space and time, a realm revealed by science to consist of energy and information.

 

(B)

What would the facts be like if we had them? They would be as follows.

 

(C)

This invisible source of all that exists is not an empty void, but the womb of creation itself.

 

(D)

Something creates and organizes this energy.

 

(E)

It turns the chaos of quantum soup into stars, galaxies, rain forests, human beings, and our own thoughts, emotions, memories and desires.

   

(a) ACEDB

(b) BACED

   

(c) ADCEB

(d) BCDEA

   

(e) CABDE

   

4.

(A)

The experience of God feels like flying.

 

(B)

It feels as if I’m walking above the ground with such equibrium that nothing can sway me from my path.

 

(C)

It’s like being the eye of the storm.

 

(D)

I see without judgment or opinion.

 

(E)

It’s just as everything passes in and out of my awareness like clouds.

   

(a) ABEDC

(b) ABDCE

   

(c) ABCDE

(d) ADCEB

   

(e) EADCB

   

5.

(A)

This is far from true.

 

(B)

It is typical of modern life to believe that nature is set up to be random and chaotic.

 

(C)

As one spiritual teacher wisely put it, “The material world is infinite, but it is a boring infinity. The really interesting infinity lies beyond.”

 

(D)

Life looks meaningless when you have worn out old responses, old realities, and an old version of God.

 

(E)

To bring God back, we have to follow new, even strange responses wherever they lead us.

   

(a) DCBEA

(b) DCEBA

   

(c) DECBA

(d) BADEC

   

(e) EABDC

   

6.

(A)

The whole universe is as we are, because without the human mind, there would be only quantum soup, billions of random sensory impressions.

 

(B)

He is as real as they are, but just as elusive.

 

(C)

Yet thanks to the mind/brain, we recognize that encoded into the swirling cosmos, are the most valued things in existence: form, meaning, beauty, truth, love.

 

(D)

These are the realities the brain is reaching for when it reaches for God.

 

(E)

The most startling conclusion of our new model is that God is as we are.

   

(a) EBCDA

(b) ADCBE

   

(c) EACDB

(d) AEBCD

   

(e) DABCE

   

7.

(A)

From quarks to quasars, all will be revealed as the old melodramas used to promise.

 

(B)

Is there a place for God in this “everything,” or does the Creator get booted out of his own creation?

 

(C)

Some scientists believe we are closer than ever to a “Theory of Everything,” or TOE, as the physicists dub it. TOE will explain the beginning of the universe and the end of time, the first and last breaths of cosmic existence.

 

(D)

His fate may be important, but when it is wrapped up with ours, it becomes all-important.

 

(E)

The mystery of God wouldn’t exist if the world wasn’t also a mystery.

   

(a) CBADE

(b) CBDAE

   

(c) EDCAB

(d) ECABD

   

(e) DEABC

   

8.

(A)

Neurologists have long divided the brain into old and new. The new brain is an organ to be proud of.

 

(B)

When you have a reasoned thought, it is this area of gray matter, primarily the cerebral cortex that comes into play.

 

(C)

Shakespeare was referring to the new brain (and using it) when he had Hamlet utter, “What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties.”

 

(D)

But Hamlet was also wrapped up in a murder case that called for vengeance, and as he dug deeper into the sins of his family, he dug deeper into his own mind.

 

(E)

The old brain wanted its due; this is the part of us that claws for survival and is willing to kill, if need be to protect us.

   

(a) ACEDB

(b) ACDEB

   

(c) ABCDE

(d) ABEDC

   

(e) ADBEC

   

9.

(A)

However, each stage of God must give scope to the whole range of human abilities; even in the worst situations, a person aspires to do more than cope.

 

(B)

In stage one, the limit is set by physical circumstances.

 

(C)

If you are surrounded by threats, to survive is a high aspiration. This would be true in a shipwreck, a war, a famine, or an abusive family.

 

(D)

Every stage of God implies a life challenge, which can be expressed in terms of a higher aspiration.

 

(E)

God exists to inspire us, and we express this through the aspirations we set for ourselves. An aspiration is the limit of the possible.

   

(a) DEACB

(b) DEBCA

   

(c) EDCAB

(d) EDCBA

   

(e) CDEBA

   

10.

(A)

Such as the experiences involved in looking at the cat and the mat.

 

(B)

A statement is a posteriori (Latin, literally ‘from the latter’) just if it cannot be known to be true or false independently of experience.

 

(C)

‘The cat is on the mat’ is a posteriori because it cannot be known to be true or false independently of experience.

 

(D)

One can establish whether it is true or false only by having certain experiences.

   

(a) BDAC

(b) BCAD

   

(c) BACD

(d) BCDA

   

(e) CABD

   

11.

(A)

Philosophers often contrast objective reality and subjective appearances.

 

(B)

How things seem from different points of view and how things really are.

 

(C)

For example, one can contrast how the sand really is, independently of any subjective point of view, and the different ways it appears through a fish’s eyes and through human eyes.

 

(D)

In this context, the absolute is usually taken to mean the totality of objective reality, which transcends all subjective points of view upon it.

   

(a) ABCD

(b) ADBC

   

(c) BCDA

(d) BADC

   

(e) CABD

   

12.

(A)

Absolute advantage, in economics, is a concept of trade in which one country can produce a quantity of a product in a more efficient manner (that is, with fewer resources of labour, land and/or capital) than another country.

 

(B)

However, this statistics does not carry the implication that Japan should specialize in steel and the UK should not because Japan might be even better relative to the UK at other things.

 

(C)

For example, in 1981, Japan produced a ton of steel with only 9.4 man-hours at a cost of only $502, compared with 16.5 man hours and $622 in the U.K.

 

(D)

Not only that, but neither absolute nor comparative advantage are necessarily static for all time: Once, UK steel producers were more efficient than the Japanese.

 

(E)

The real guide to specialization and to maximizing the gains from trade is comparative advantage.

   

(a) EACBD

(b) ECBAD

   

(c) ACBED

(d) ACBDE

   

(e) BACDE

   

13.

(A)

It marks off the beginning of mathematics from what went before.

 

(B)

Ever since this discovery, abstraction has been a major theme in the development of mathematics, as those interested in the field have come up with ideas further and further divorced from their basis in the real world, and then sought ways to bring them back to tell us things about the real world which we might otherwise not have known.

 

(C)

The discoverer of abstraction was the person who first realized that numbers are independent of the objects being counted, that two oranges and two apples (for instance) share a property, ‘twoness’, which is independent of what kinds of fruit they are.

 

(D)

Abstraction, the action of divorcing properties of physical objects from the objects themselves, is a fundamental concept, perhaps the most fundamental concept, in mathematics.

   

(a) DACB

(b) DBCA

   

(c) CBAD

(d) DABC

   

(e) BACD

   

14.

(A)

The aim was to capitalize on the rising status of the artist as the exponent of a liberal art.

 

(B)

Other cities soon followed Florence’s example, a notable case being Rome, where the Academy of St Luke was founded in 1593 with Frederico Zuccaro as its president.

 

(C)

Towards the end of the 16th century, groups of European painters and sculptors, dissatisfied with the venality and artisanal aspects of the guild system, joined together into academies of art which sought to promote the intellectual and creative aspects of producing art over that of their craft-based predecessors.

 

(D)

In France, the Academic Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture was founded in 1648 around the ambitious and politically astute Charles Le Brun, who enlisted the royal support which was to make this academy the envy of Europe.

 

(E)

The first artists’ academy (as opposed to the gathering of dilettanti, antiquarians and amateurs also called academies), was established in 1563 in Florence by the artist and historiographer Giorgio Varansi, under the patronage of Cosimo de’ Medici and with Michelangelo at its head.

   

(a) CABED

(b) EABCD

   

(c) EADBC

(d) CAEBD

   

(e) ABCDE

   

15.

(A)

The accommodation theory, in linguistics, starts from the premise that speech accommodation takes place when people modify their speech so that it conforms more with the way their conversational partner speaks.

 

(B)

For example, the speeed at which people talk, the length of both pauses and utterances, the kind of vocabulary and syntax used, as well as intonation, voice pitch and pronunciation are all subject to the accommodation process.

 

(C)

A wide range of subtle adaptations have been observed, which tend to occur more or less unconsciously.

 

(D)

This kind of convergence is by no means an automatic feature of all conversations, and we can discern certain social contexts in which accommodation can be predicted.

   

(a) ACBD

(b) DABC

   

(c) BDAC

(d) ABCD

   

(e) CABD

   

16.

(A)

Managerial accountability, whether in the public or the private sector, similarly requires that managers be answerable for the tasks which they have contracted to perform, according to agreed standards of competence.

 

(B)

In parliamentary systems, ministers are held to account through oral and written questions—in some cases through ‘interpellation’, that is, through requiring them to give a detailed response to a question on policy or administration.

 

(C)

Regimes in which rulers cannot be held to account, either by representatives or by judges, are called arbitrary and authoritarian.

 

(D)

Political accountability is the hallmark of responsible and representative government.

 

(E)

Political accountability requires the actions of politicians, or public officials, whether they be administrative, ethical or financial, to be open to inspection, scrutiny and challenge.

   

(a) DEBCA

(b) EDBCA

   

(c) CDEBA

(d) DEBAC

   

(e) BACDE

   

17.

(A)

Their aim was to write about everyday phenomena, and to use words and images for their primary, stripped-down meanings, without metaphor, clogged syntax or other forms of ‘poeticizing’.

 

(B)

The acmeists were particularly opposed to the mysticism and erotic suggestiveness of symbolist writing, and to the experiments of Mayakovsky and the surrealists.

 

(C)

The idea of cleansing language, of using words for words’ sake alone, has been a recurring feature of poetry, not least in the 20th century (for example in the work of T.S. Eliot and William Carlos Williams) but the acmeists, in a way characteristic of artists in the 1910s, were the only ones to give it a name and a specific agenda.

 

(D)

Acmeism (from Greek ame, ‘point’) was a movement in Russian poetry of the 1920s led by the writers Niloai Gumilev and Sergei Gorodetsky, and followed by Anna Akmatova and Osip Mandelstam.

 

(E)

They published a magazine, Apollo, from, 1909-17, and were denounced by the authorities as decadent and ‘individualist’: socialism demanded realism of a rather different kind.

   

(a) BDAEC

(b) CDBAE

   

(c) CBDAE

(d) DABCE

   

(e) ABCDE

   

18.

(A)

Not all actions are bodily movements, and the causal theory of action also applies to mental actions such as imagining and calculating.

 

(B)

It is not enough for imagining a teddy bear that one has an image as of a teddy bear.

 

(C)

If a hallucinogenic drug causes me to have an image as of a teddy bear, then I have not imagined a teddy bear, since my having the image as of a teddy bear is something that has happened to me, rather than an action of mine.

 

(D)

A mental event is an action only if it is caused by an appropriate intention of the subject’s.

 

(E)

Having an image is an action of mine only if it is preceded by my having an appropriate intention. And if, as a matter of complete coincidence, I intended to imagine a toy just before a hallucinogenic drug caused me to have an image as of a teddy bear, then I have not imagined a teddy bear.

   

(a) ABCED

(b) DAEBC

   

(c) ABECD

(d) DABEC

   

(e) BADCE

   

19.

(A)

Fossil evidence suggests that the mammals underwent adaptive radiation to produce the range of mammal types extant today.

 

(B)

Adaptive radiation, in the life sciences, refers to the differentiation (or anagenesis) of one or a few species into many to fill a large number or related ecological niches by adaptation.

 

(C)

Thus the first bird species may have given rise to many more bird species by adaptive radiation.

 

(D)

Typically, a species adapts to colonize a new habitat and, this adaptation opening up a new range of niches, adapts again to fill the new niches which are presented.

   

(a) BADC

(b) BDCA

   

(c) CBAD

(d) CBDA

   

(e) ABCD

   

20.

(A)

It has clearly done much good by bringing many useful inventions, ideas and by-products of major research programmes to a wide number of people.

 

(B)

But to say that this is still all it does would be too superficial.

 

(C)

Advertising is arguably a main vehicle of social communication; and as such, it has become the subject of much critical comment and even concern.

 

(D)

Advertising was conceived essentially as a kind of social, consumer rhetoric: a way of publicly praising goods in order to encourage or persuade the public to use or buy them.

   

(a) CABD

(b) CDBA

   

(c) DCAB

(d) DABC

   

(e) BDCA

   

21.

(A)

The main application of aerodynamics is in aviation.

 

(B)

The concept of flight was established by Leonardo da Vinci, who made sketches of devices similar to the modern helicopter and hang-glider.

 

(C)

Aerodynamic analysis is also used to study the effect that wind will have on such artificial structures as bridges and tower block, on the flow of steam in turbines, or on the operation of wind-power generators.

 

(D)

Although Leonardo’s ideas were well ahead of their time, they were doomed to failure, as the principles of aerodynamics were unknown.

 

(E)

Aerodynamics (Greek, ‘study of the power of air’) is the study of the flow of air or gases in motion.

   

(a) BDEAC

(b) BEDCA

   

(c) EACBD

(d) EBDCA

   

(e) CABDE

   

22.

(A)

In literary criticism, the effective fallacy assumes that works can be read not as independent structures, but in terms of their emotional or other effects on their readers.

 

(B)

In other words, the preconceptions we bring to our reading of any literary work.

 

(C)

Our cultural, emotional and verbal baggage, as well as that of our society and of the author—are part of the ‘meaning’ of the text as we perceive it, and cannot be dissociated from our perception.

 

(D)

‘Non-affective’ reading, by contrast, excludes all such external associations and concentrates solely on what is in the actual text.

   

(a) ACDB

(b) ABCD

   

(c) ABDC

(d) ACBD

   

(e) CABD

   

23.

(A)

The concept of the affluent society, used to describe post-1945 democratic welfare capitalist societies, was pioneered by the Canadian economist, John Kenneth Galbraith.

 

(B)

He argued that a long-term unintended consequence of economic growth in Western democracies was the simultaneous development of ‘private affluence’ and ‘public squalor’.

 

(C)

While very efficient in encouraging the demand for private goods and services, including consumer-durables, liberal-democratic capitalist societies are prone to under-supply public goods, like education, public health, environmental protection and public transport.

 

(D)

Galbraith later embellished this argument: because modern liberal democracies contain satisfied majorities, which have the skills and resources to avoid poverty, a ‘culture of contentment’ has developed, hostile to active and progressively redistributive big government.

 

(E)

Whereas in the earliest electoral democratic systems, the poor comprised (potential) electoral majorities, affluent or contented societies are likely to be content with tax-cutting conservative administrations.

   

(a) ACDBE

(b) ABCDE

   

(c) ABDCE

(d) ACDBE

   

(e) ADCEB

   

24.

(A)

The main application of aleatory techniques is in the performing arts, and particularly in music.

 

(B)

Aleatory music is, in conception, similar to both Far Eastern art music and to jazz and rock, all of which involve improvisation, on an agreed basis, as a feature of the performance.

 

(C)

In art music, 20th century composers as significant as Pierre Boulez, Gyorgi Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Karlheinzz Stockhausen use aleatory techniques as an integral, and entirely accepted, component of their work.

 

(D)

In aleatory music the players are encouraged to choose the sequence of movements, sections or individual chords and notes, or to improvise on a pattern or idea suggested by the composer—for example, in Ligeti’s Aventures, on letters of the alphabet, and in Lutoslawski’s Preludes and Fugue, on a series of lines, squares and triangles.

 

(E)

Thus, the result differs from player to player and from performer to performer.

   

(a) BACDE

(b) CBADE

   

(c) ACDEB

(d) EBACD

   

(e) ABCDE

   

25.

(A)

In the development of numbers, algebraic numbers come in generality between the rational numbers and the real numbers. A rational number is one that can be expressed in the form p/q, where p and q are integers and q is non-zero.

 

(B)

Suppose that there was a rational number whose square was b. It can be written in its lowest terms as p/q (this means that p and q have no common factors). So (p/q)2 = p2/q2 = 2.

 

(C)

The Greeks discovered the alarming fact (to them) that not all numbers are rational, through a classic use of the technique of proof by contradiction.

 

(D)

So, cancelling by 2, we see that 2 ¥ r2 = q2, which means that 2 also divides q. So 2 divides both p and q, contradicting that p/q was in its lowest terms. So, the original assumption must be false.

 

(E)

Therefore, p2= 2 ¥ q2, so that 2 divides p2 and therefore p (this is because 2 is a prime number). So we write p as 2 ¥ r, and, rewriting the original equation, (2 ¥ r)= 4 ¥ r= 2 ¥ q2.

   

(a) CABDE

(b) CBEDA

   

(c) ABEDC

(d) ACBED

   

(e) DEBCA

   

26.

(A)

Religious allegory was especially popular in medieval Europe, when stories of love, descriptions of nature and tales of heroic adventure were all allegorized to have a deeper, Christian meaning.

 

(B)

Allegories may also be philosophical and political.

 

(C)

Allegory is a form of irony; one in which the added meanings are generally more significant than the events from which they are grafted.

 

(D)

Typical examples are versions of the Holy Grail and Parsifal legends, in which knights stand for the beleaguered Christian soul, dragons and wizards for the Devil and his minions, and attainment of the goal is overlaid with images of transfiguration and ascension into heaven.

   

(a) CADB

(b) CBAD

   

(c) DCBA

(d) CDAB

   

(e) ABCD

   

27.

(A)

Trance states can be defined according to the degree of interaction believed to occur between the individual, who is in an altered state, and the spirit realm.

 

(B)

Modern Psychology locates these changes as arising within the psyche, while other cultures explain them in terms of changes in external reality, such as access to a spirit realm or extrahuman power.

 

(C)

Altered states of Consciousness is an umbrella term for describing physical and mental states which are not considered part of ordinary experience.

 

(D)

In states of possession, the spirit is assumed to be in control of the person, who acts as the bodily vehicle by means of which the spirit can communicate.

 

(E)

They occur in many societies in connection with mystical practices, ecstatic and trance states.

   

(a) ABCDE

(b) ABDCE

   

(c) BECDA

(d) CEBAD

   

(e) EABCD

   

28.

(A)

As this fact becomes clearer, governments and individuals have begun to look at different propositions in order to save on energy costs.

 

(B)

With the environmental problems as well as the finite supplies of the four energy sources, more time and research is being spent on alternative sources of energy.

 

(C)

At this present time, the main sources of energy available to the Westernized culture are oil, gas, coal and nuclear power.

 

(D)

It has become apparent over the past thirty years that the total energy from a fuel source has to be maximized to its full potential, in order to save money and mineral resources.

   

(a) CADB

(b) CABD

   

(c) DBAC

(d) DACB

   

(e) ABCD

   

29.

(A)

The statement ‘all bachelors are male’ is analytically true because it is true solely in virtue of its meaning—‘bachelor’ means ‘unmarried adult male’. The statement ‘some spinsters are married’ is analytically false because it is false solely in virtue of its meaning —‘spinster’ means ‘unmarried adult female’.

 

(B)

A statement in analytical just if it is true or false solely in virtue of its meaning.

 

(C)

Whether this statement is true or false depends not only on what it means but also on facts about John on whether or not he is married and an adult.

 

(D)

A statement is synthetic just if it is not true or false solely in virtue of its meaning. The statement ‘John is a bachelor’ is synthetic because it is not true or false solely in virtue of its meaning.

   

(a) DBAC

(b) BADC

   

(c) BDCA

(d) DACB

   

(e) CABD

   

30.

(A)

It was felt that their elders had failed them, and that the values of society should be certainly questioned and probably swept away.

 

(B)

The group included Kingsley Amis, John Osborne, Alan Sillitoe, John Wain and others. Their works attacked the Establishment not merely in thought and utterance, but in a social way (by letting us hear the voice of what one critic disparagingly called ‘the bright working class’), and above all, by using techniques of popular culture (notably the routines of stand-up comedy) to subvert such hallowed Establishment forms as the ‘novel of ideas’ and the ‘well-made play’.

 

(C)

This is, perhaps, a common, even healthy, feeling among the young, but it was particularly vehement from the mid-1950s, and was one of the forces that led to the rise, at about the same time, of ‘teenage culture’.

 

(D)

In the period following World War II, there was a feeling among younger people in many Western countries that the entire fabric of society was rotten.

 

(E)

In the UK, it was given literary form by a group of writers nicknamed ‘the angry young men’.

   

(a) DACEB

(b) EBACD

   

(c) BDCAE

(d) DCAEB

   

(e) CABDE

   

31.

(A)

These are known as the ‘supreme feminine figure’, what Goethe called the ‘Eternal Feminine’.

 

(B)

The anima as the female element in the male unconscious is often symbolized as a hermaphrodite figure.

 

(C)

Myths that illustrate the male need to rescue the female in himself are those where the hero rescues the damsel in distress.

 

(D)

Mistress figures, who guide initiates through spiritual journeys are also symbols of the anima for example, Kwan-yn in Chinese Buddhism, Sophia in Christian Gnostic doctrine or the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, Pallas Athene.

   

(a) DBCA

(b) DBAC

   

(c) BCDA

(d) BADC

   

(e) ACBD

   

32.

(A)

In Europe, from the 15th century onwards, accounts from travelers about people encountered in distant territories were widely available.

 

(B)

During the Enlightenment, the idea of ‘primitive man existing in a simple communal society, became prevalent.

 

(C)

Remote and unfamiliar peoples have been a topic of interest since recorded times.

 

(D)

In 1761, the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau lauded the ‘noble savage’ who lived in a communal and dignified state—an ideal that was preferable, he claimed, to the economic iniquity and social deterioration of European societies.

   

(a) ABDC

(b) CABD

   

(c) BCDA

(d) BDCA

   

(e) ABCD

   

33.

(A)

A contemporary example of organized anti-clericalism is the movement in the US to prevent religious fundamentalists winning the right to practise religious activities in state schools.

 

(B)

In the 20th century, political cleavages between clericalists and anti-claricalists shaped electoral support for parties, especially in Italy and France.

 

(C)

Anti-clericalist movements range from having particularist objectives (for example, getting rid of Jesuits) to general opposition to all types of clerical power (for instance, atheist campaigns in USSR in the 1930s.)

 

(D)

Anti-clericalism is a liberal or socialist doctrine of opposition to the political authority, power and status of the clergy.

 

(E)

In Europe, the Catholic clergy were the special target of the currents of anti-clericalism which flourished in the post-Enlightenment era and influenced many European nationalist movements, including the French, Spanish Italian and Irish revolutionary nationalist movements of the mid 19thcentury.

   

(a) DBCEA

(b) DCABE

   

(c) BDCAE

(d) DEBCA

   

(e) EADBC

   

34.

(A)

Anxiety (Greek, ‘racking’), that is distress of mind, disquietude and uneasiness, is not generally regarded in psychology as an irrational fear—a suggestion that may come from such common phrases as ‘Anxiety was driving him out of his mind’.

 

(B)

Anxiety does not have a clear source, unlike a phobia, but can be traced to unconscious processes (in psychonalysis) and to faulty responses and thinking (cognitive therapy).

 

(C)

Psychoanalysis has focused on the unconscious sources of anxiety.

 

(D)

Originally, it saw anxiety as the outcome of repressed libido.

 

(E)

Freud also thought at one time that anxiety was the result of an unconscious memory of the birth trauma.

   

(a) CABED

(b) CADBE

   

(c) ABCDE

(d) CABDE

   

(e) DBCAE

   

35.

(A)

Apocalyptic writers in general, however, are more concerned with the sequence of dire events, the crumbling of civilization, which precedes that end.

 

(B)

The root thought that gave rise to apocalyptic literature was the Judaeo-Chiristian idea that human life, indeed the life of the universe, is not random, but an ordered progression from the Beginning through to the End.

 

(C)

Some apocalyptic writers, for example William Blake, were particularly concerned with the End, and developed images, ideas and language directly from Revelation, the last book of the New Testament, which details the final days of the world.

 

(D)

Once such broadening of the idea is allowed, a huge range of writers can be described as apocalyptic, from Swift to George Orwell, from Zola to Wyndham Lewis. Critics have suggested that the apocalyptic imagination is a particular characteristic of 20th century writing, both directly in sf (where writers such as J.G. Ballard, Harry Harrison and George Turner regularly depict the horrors of a future in which present-day problems—the green-house effect, over-population, too many cars—are multiplied in geometric progression towards oblivion), or in writers who have used sf ideas and techniques in a wider context, such as John Barth, Alasdair Gray, Thomas Pynchon and Kurt Vonnegut.

 

(E)

Systopian writing of this kind sees the human race as doomed (usually self-doomed). We are trapped like animals, laboratory specimens at the mercy of irresponsible powers; we are too prolific; we are plundering the planet.

   

(a) AECDB

(b) BCAED

   

(c) ECBDA

(d) BACDE

   

(e) CABDE

   

36.

(A)

This abstraction is then manipulated mathematically, possibly with other assumptions thrown in (for example, Newton assumed that the attraction between the planets varied according to the inverse of the square of the distance between them), to find a mathematical way of describing this data (in Newton’s case, that the planets move in elliptical orbits around the Sun), which can then be verified by further experimentation (which in this example, had already been done a century before by Kepler).

 

(B)

The whole of physics and much of many other sciences depends on this procedure.

 

(C)

Mathematics began with the abstraction of properties from the real world around us; it proves its usefulness when the results obtained from this abstraction are turned back again to the real world.

 

(D)

This is how science works; scientists abstract the properties they wish to study from experimental evidence (for example, the observations of planetary motion over many years were used to find the positions of the planets).

 

(E)

Applicability is the real strength of mathematics: its relationship to the scientific method is due the fact that it is so successful in explaining the real world.

   

(a) CABDE

(b) EDCAB

   

(c) ECDAB

(d) CAEBD

   

(e) DABCE

   

37.

(A)

Factions of the Ba’athist Party have held power in Iraq under Saddam Hussein, and in Syria, under President Assad. Their dictatorships have not led to pan-Arabist unity, but rather the converse.

 

(B)

The Arab league was formed in 1945 with the aspiration to create eventual unity, but it has remained committed only to the moderate goals of inter-governmental co-operation.

 

(C)

A short-lived United Arabic Republic (1958–61) of Syria and Egypt created temporary optimism that a broader pan-Arabic ideal could be achieved.

 

(D)

Pan-Arabism seeks a unified state embracing all Arabic speaking peoples.

 

(E)

Like the Pan-Africanist movement was divided between proponents of inter-governmental economic and political co-operation between sovereign Arab states (for example Lebanon), and advocates of the merger of existing Arab states into a single state (such as Syria).

   

(a) BACED

(b) BACDE

   

(c) DCEAB

(d) DEBCA

   

(e) EABDC

   

38.

(A)

He discovered that images occur which are not always part of our own history or personal experience.

 

(B)

He also discovered that these elements, which seemed to be inherited from somewhere else, had a tendency to organize themselves into predetermined patterns or symbols; these he called archetypes.

 

(C)

Freud’s analysis of dreams had come up with similar anomalies which he called ‘archaic past and biological development, a part of our mind that is close to animals.

 

(D)

Archetypes (Greek, ‘originals’) were discovered by Jung through the analysis of dreams.

 

(E)

Each of us, in this sense, has an extremely old psyche, a deposit of collective images and primitive motifs.

   

(a) CABDE

(b) DABCE

   

(c) ECABD

(d) DECAB

   

(e) ABCDE

   

39.

(A)

Art Deco design was an amalgam of the changes affecting fine art and design in the interwar years, for example the bold colours of Fauve and Cubist painting and the architecture of modernism.

 

(B)

Populist application of the new Modernism influenced design across the board from cinemas to radios and vacuum cleaners.

 

(C)

Art Deco (derived from the phrase ‘art as decoration’) was a design style universally popular from late 1920s onwards.

 

(D)

It also led to several important critics and designers criticizing Art Deco as a mere style without the intellectual rigor of hard-line Modern Movement thinking. In this context, the term Moderene was used to suggest the Art Deco style as a much less serious version of Modernism.

 

(E)

It was charactericized by geometric forms, distinctive colour combinations, modern materials like stainless steel and in furniture, smooth wraparound surfaces in luxurious veneers.

   

(a) CBEAD

(b) CEBDA

   

(c) ADBCE

(d) CEABD

   

(e) BADCE

   

40.

(A)

This kind of question is not really answerable in the present state of philosophy and psychology.

 

(B)

For example, it is not possible to answer the question ‘Do computers have knowledge of the data they process?’ unless you can define the term knowledge. (This question also has consequences in the legal field—can a computer be allowed as a witness in court if it does not really know what it is talking about?)

 

(C)

Thanks to our limited understanding of human thought, it is quite difficult to define what the goal of artificial intelligence actually is.

 

(D)

It is an area in which much research has been done since the end of the World War II, beginning with the theoretical work of Alan Turing (1912–54) in the 1940s.

 

(E)

Artificial Intelligence is the most controversial area of computing today, an area beloved of authors—the duplications of human thought patterns by computer.

   

(a) EDCBA

(b) ECDAB

   

(c) ECBDA

(d) CEDBA

   

(e) DABCE

   

41.

(A)

Essentially, they are communities which grow up around a religious figure.

 

(B)

The Upanishad tradition of sages going to the forest to mediate resulted in communities of disciples and devotees settling around their hut, following their teacher’s guidance.

 

(C)

Probably the most famous in modern times are Rabindranath Tagore’s community at Shantiniketan, West Bengal, where he conducted his educational and cultural experiments (and which is now recognized as a university, although originally, it was closer to deschooling, non-formal education and arts workshops), and Gandhi’s ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati near Ahmedabad, which was a springboard for his independence campaign.

 

(D)

Ashrams are quite different from Buddhist or western-Christian monasteries.

   

(a) DBAC

(b) ACDB

   

(c) BDAC

(d) DABC

   

(e) CABD

   

42.

(A)

Insofar as Marx’s and Engels’ writings can be decoded and clearly understood, the Asiatic mode of production refers to a system in which the vast majority of the population lives in villages, in which there is no private property, complex division of labour or significant external trade.

 

(B)

The Asiatic mode of production is both the most obscure and controversial of the ‘modes of production’ (economic systems) mentioned in Karl Marx’s writings.

 

(C)

The villages are exploited by a despot and his officials, to whom they pay a combination of rent and taxes.

 

(D)

They were arbitrary, despotic and stagnant, historical culs-de-sac, which could only be transformed by external intervention by more advanced societies.

 

(E)

The Urban population centred on the court aristocracy and the monarchy, are parasitic on the rural population. Marx described such Oriental societies, following in the tradition of British political economy, as incapable of development into more progressive social formations.

   

(a) BACED

(b) ABCDE

   

(c) BCEDA

(d) BCDEA

   

(e) CABDE

   

43.

(A)

Although, in many ancient societies, ‘natural’ astrology was the nearest thing to what we might nowadays think of as a ‘proper’ science, and its practitioners were among the most learned and intellectually sophisticated members of the community, two things fatally hampered its development.

 

(B)

First was the lack of instruments to make precise observations of the heavens, and of mathematical systems or devices which would allow any but (in our terms) the crudest calculations.

 

(C)

Second was the interdependence of astrologers with religion.

 

(D)

Because the astrologers dealt with heavenly bodies (which were thought to be under the control of the gods), and because they made predictions, they were thought to have supernatural contracts and abilities denied to less-learned people.

 

(E)

Even in societies as sophisticated as ancient China and ancient Babylon, magic and esoteric Jargon were essential tools of the astrologers, allying them with sibyls, soothsayers and other prophets rather than with surveyors, for instance, or merchants, the other main group skilled in the use of numbers.

   

(a) AEBDC

(b) ADEBC

   

(c) EABDC

(d) ABCDE

   

(e) DABCE

   

44.

(A)

‘The fool says in his heart, there is not God.’

 

(B)

The Old Testament verse accurately sums up the attitude to atheism found in the Bible.

 

(C)

Even in the Book of Job (4th century BCE), it is not the existence of God which is questioned, but only his justice, mercy and love.

 

(D)

But the question there is only whether one worships and obeys the true God or a false God.

 

(E)

When Job is finally vindicated, his hypocritical friends are said ‘not to know’ God, meaning that for all their protestations of faith, they understand nothing.

   

(a) ABCDE

(b) CEDAB

   

(c) ABDCE

(d) ADBCE

   

(e) BADCE

   

45.

(A)

As land plants grew larger and more elaborate, they provided another sink for carbon and another source of free oxygen.

 

(B)

The first green plants were the phytoplankton, which lived in the surface waters of the oceans.

 

(C)

Like other green plants, they liberated oxygen through photosynthesis but then reused it in respiration.

 

(D)

However, because they lived in the deep ocean they caused a small net addition to oxygen levels because some of the carbon compounds incorporated in their cells sank to the bottom of the oceans and were locked into sediments which do not decompose because of the cold, dark and oxygen-free conditions.

   

(a) BACD

(b) ABDC

   

(c) DABC

(d) BCDA

   

(e) CABD

   

46.

(A)

Chiristians believe that reconciliation between God and humankind took place through the sacrificial life and death of Jesus Christ.

 

(B)

Humankind being too far sunk in sin and misery, and too restricted by the limitations of the human conditions, to initiate reconciliation from the human side, the death of Christ was necessary to transform human awareness, to jolt humankind out of the consequence of sin, to vanquish death and to assuage God’s wrath.

 

(C)

Atonement (‘at-one-ment’), originally a legal term for the reconciliation of two parties, has been annexed—almost exclusively for theological use.

 

(D)

In Buddhism and Judaism, atonement is thought to be initiated by the divine party, acting out of compassion and love, and despite the alienation caused by human sin and weakness.

   

(a) CDAB

(b) ABDC

   

(c) ABCD

(d) CABD

   

(e) BDCA

   

47.

(A)

It is an economic system that is totally self-sufficient, producing all that is consumed and importing nothing from outside.

 

(B)

Autarky (Greek, ‘self-sufficiency’), in economics, is a Utopian aim.

 

(C)

Others have pursued autarky together with social isolation to maintain the mores and genetic purity of the native population or to maintain the leaders’ control.

 

(D)

However, because no country is able to produce the whole range of goods demanded, at competitive prices, in practice, autarky condemns its disciples to inefficiency and relative poverty.

 

(E)

Some countries’ leaders have attempted to achieve autarky in order to eliminate any reliance on foreign materials and better to defend the society in time of war.

   

(a) BAECD

(b) BECDA

   

(c) BADEC

(d) BADEC

   

(e) BDACE

   

48.

(A)

In politics, autonomy is a relative concept which refers to the degree of freedom from coercion or outside influence which a state, a region, a group or an individual has over its own actions.

 

(B)

However, in practice, the autonomy of sovereign states is limited by international organizations, like the United Nations, NATO, ASEAN, supranational organizations, like the EC, and multiple forms of economic, cultural and political interdependence between states.

 

(C)

The expression the ‘autonomy of the state’, when used by historians or political scientists may also refer to the ability of state officials to pursue state interests, rather than simply reflecting or reacting to the interests of dominant groups in society.

 

(D)

Theoretically, all states which are recognised in the world system as sovereign are thought to be autonomous from other states.

   

(a) DCAB

(b) ACDB

   

(c) CDBA

(d) CADB

   

(e) ABCD

   

49.

(A)

International balance of power theories focus on the mechanisms which are used to prevent war or aggression between and among sovereign states, the key idea being that wars are caused by a disruption of the existing balance of power.

 

(B)

Debate among historians and political theorists has centered on whether or not a single hegemony (or dominant power) is necessary to prevent war and whether (and how) deterrence is essential to the preservation of stability in international relations. The relations between the ‘great powers’ between 1815 and 1945 remain the subject of controversy for balance of power theorists.

 

(C)

Theories which describe conditions of equilibrium in political systems are called ‘balance of power’ theories.

 

(D)

Internal balance of power theories describe the political process through which certain parties and interest groups influence the allocation of resources or access to political power.

 

(E)

They can be divided into those which describe stability within internal (or domestic) political systems and those which refer to external or international systems.

   

(a) DCEAB

(b) CADEB

   

(c) CEADB

(d) CEDAB

   

(e) EADBC

   

50.

(A)

By the mid-20th century, ballet throughout the world had become an esoteric and extravagant minority interest, exclusive and self-obsessed.

 

(B)

It still has its purist corners, dazzling shrines to decadence—the Japanese court tradition and Bolshoi tradition come to mind.

 

(C)

But elsewhere, the influence of folk dance and popular dance from around the world, and even of athletics and gymnastics, has made ballet one of the most eclectic and dynamic of all performing arts.

 

(D)

But in the latter half of the century, with increased international travel and awareness of other cultures, ballet has been regenerated.

   

(a) ABCD

(b) ADBC

   

(c) ADCB

(d) ACBD

   

(e) CABD

 

51.

(A)

Batteries have come a long way since then and are now used in everything from a watch to powerful fuel cells.

 

(B)

Batteries consist of one or more electric cells which produce electric currents directly from chemical reactions.

 

(C)

The first battery was the Voltaic Pile, named after Alessandro Volta (1745–1827).

 

(D)

Volta discovered that, by using dissimilar metals immersed in water with a little acid added, an electric current was produced.

   

(a) BCDA

(b) ACDB

   

(c) BACD

(d) CDAB

   

(e) ABCD

   

52.

(A)

The rule shows how to handle ‘conditional probabilities’, ones which show the effect of one event on another.

 

(B)

Bayes’s rule is used to find the probability of an event experimentally; the experimenter starts off with a degree of belief in each of his or her hypotheses, and uses Bayes’s rule to modify these degrees of belief according to the results of experimentation (for example, an experiment could consist of asking a patient if he or she has back pains). The method is commonly used today by computers, providing ‘expert systems’ used in medicine, prospecting and fault diagnosis.

 

(C)

We make one event (that the patient claims to have back pains) a condition of the other (that he or she has back trouble). It is usual to write the conditional probability of event A, given that event B is known to have happened, as p(A B); Bayes’s rule tells us that p(A)=p(AB)xp(B)+p(A not B) x p(not B).

 

(D)

For example, the probability that a patient has back trouble is higher if it is known that he or she claims to have back pains.

 

(E)

Bayes’s rule, formulated by Thomas Bayes (1702–61), sparked off a radical new direction in statistics, the application in mathematics of probability theory.

   

(a) EBACD

(b) EABCD

   

(c) EACBD

(d) EADCB

   

(e) EDCBA

   

53.

(A)

When the future date arrives, the bear expects to buy in at a lower price to deliver the stock that had been sold under the future contract at a higher price.

 

(B)

A market in which prices are falling or are expected to fall is called by economists a bear market.

 

(C)

Likewise, the term bear can be applied to a person who expects stock prices to fall and sells stock that he or she does not have for delivery at a future date.

 

(D)

It is a designation commonly used in securities markets and commodity markets and is the opposite of a bull market.

   

(a) BACD

(b) BCAD

   

(c) BDCA

(d) ACBD

   

(e) ABCD

   

54.

(A)

To some extent, it arises naturally enough from the events of our time.

 

(B)

An age that has seen Fascist states trample down the liberties of a continent, and has heard them hail their leaders with a mindless and horrifying devotion, will understandably view with distrust the whole conception of leadership.

 

(C)

The very word is contaminated by the associations of a fuhrer or a Duce, and, seen in the light of our experiences, the great leader-figures of the past, Napoleon or Fredrick the Great for example, seem unworthy of the respect, still less of the admiration, with which they have sometimes been regarded.

 

(D)

The reasons for the rejection of the idea of leadership are complex.

   

(a) DABC

(b) CDBA

   

(c) CABD

(d) DBAC

   

(e) ACBD

   

55.

(A)

It is sometimes contented that modern war has become so highly technical in character that the role of the army, with its demands for leadership at all levels, has become far less important.

 

(B)

Let us take as an example, exercise of leadership in war, the most obvious field in which it is required—in deed, so obvious that the reactions of many people towards the whole subject are coloured by the picture of the leader as a military commander.

 

(C)

The very fact that many of the problems which arise in a technical world are necessarily very complex in character, sometimes divert attention from the fact that they require leadership to solve them.

 

(D)

But, though the fields in which leadership has to be exercised have changed, most of its essential qualities remain as necessary as ever.

   

(a) CDBA

(b) CADB

   

(c) ADCB

(d) CDAB

   

(e) DABC

   

56.

(A)

Leadership in any of the fields in which it is most obvious, in the armed forces, in politics, in commerce, has until quite recently been determined by birth.

 

(B)

The fact that the principle is still obviously followed to some degree in the very different social climate of today reminds us how strong it was, and how unquestioningly it was accepted.

 

(C)

It imposes on us rather a greater obligation to investigate the qualities of good leadership and its recognition by other means, if birth and wealth are no longer to be the criteria of choice.

 

(D)

But the rejection of an elite recruited by birth in the democratic and equalitarian temper of the modern, world does not imply that all leadership can be dispensed with.

   

(a) ABCD

(b) ABDC

   

(c) CDAB

(d) BADC

   

(e) CABD

   

57.

(A)

A belief in equality of opportunity of and in the necessity of recruiting leaders from every class imposes on society an obvious obligation to break down those obstacles as rapidly and as completely as possible.

 

(B)

Others are more peculiar to individual circumstance, and attempts to overcome them by society are less easy to envisage and less likely to succeed.

 

(C)

Some of them are removable by social change; bad housing, inferior education, the limitations on personal development imposed by poverty are all barriers to the emergence of leadership among some sections of the community.

 

(D)

In practice, there are admittedly very great difficulties in the way of realizing the ideal of equality of opportunity.

   

(a) DCBA

(b) DCAB

   

(c) BACD

(d) BADC

   

(e) DACB

   

58.

(A)

At present, many of those most prominent in our national life, particularly in trade unionism, business, and industry, are men who received little formal education.

 

(B)

Among men of the most obvious distinction and holding the most responsible positions, a number can be found who left school at eleven or twelve.

 

(C)

To cite these as examples of the fact that high intellectual capacity is unnecessary for leadership is to make an elementary confusion between ability and educational attainment, quite apart from the fact that many of them have by private study, more than repaired the deficiencies of their formal education.

 

(D)

But, much more important, such an attitude shows a failure to grasp the magnitude of the educational revolution of the past forty years.

 

(E)

With any educational change, there is inevitably a time-lag before its effects become clear in society, but it is nevertheless surprising that the full meaning of the 1902 Act is still only imperfectly realised.

   

(a) ABCDE

(b) ADCBE

   

(c) ACBDE

(d) EABDC

   

(e) CABDE

   

59.

(A)

I have to admit that knowing all the finer points of etiquette is not always easy.

 

(B)

For instance, it is just not civilized to hover over someone’s table in a busy coffee shop, eyeing her half finished tea until she finally lets you have her seat.

 

(C)

Loosely defined, the right way to do things is how I do them myself.

 

(D)

The well-bred thing to do is to stand quietly at a discreet distance until the table is vacated and then elbow out of your way anyone who tries to get there first.

 

(E)

As an adult, I have come to see that there is a right and wrong way to do everything.

   

(a) EDBCA

(b) ECDAB

   

(c) ECBDA

(d) CDEBA

   

(e) DABCE

   

60.

(A)

However, Indians were charged 10% extra premium.

 

(B)

Humiliating as it may seem today, it was much more so for self respecting Indians then.

 

(C)

Life insurance, known to India since Vedic times, arrived here from England in its modern form only in the year 1818, to insure Europeans and support their widows.

 

(D)

Under pressure of influential Indians, Insurance Companies that were established later started insuring Indians.

 

(E)

It all began like this…“The Company does not Insure Natives of India” Shocking?!? But this is exactly what our forefathers had to face in their own land in an era much before nationalisation of life insurance in India.

   

(a) EDCAB

(b) EDACB

   

(c) ECDAB

(d) CEDAB

   

(e) DEACB

   

61.

(A)

Did you ever wonder what your long policy number means, and how, among fifteen crore policyholders, your number is unique?

 

(B)

A series of roughly ten crore numbers are allotted to each of the 7 zonal offices of LIC, and further to lower offices.

 

(C)

So your number arises systematically from the series that your issuing branch gets.

 

(D)

Well, the 9-digit number makes a count of one hundred crores (short by one).

 

(E)

And, by the way, did you know that each time you breathe, LIC settles 3 claims. Are you counting?

   

(a) ABDCE

(b) ACBDE

   

(c) ADBCE

(d) DABCE

   

(e) BACED

   

62.

(A)

Everyone has insecurities.

 

(B)

When you show yourself in the world and display your talents, you naturally stir up all kinds of resentment, envy, and other manifestations of insecurity.

 

(C)

This is to be expected. You cannot spend your life worrying about the petty feelings of others.

 

(D)

With those above you, however, you must take a different approach.

 

(E)

When it comes to power, outshining the master is perhaps the worst mistake of all.

   

(a) EDABC

(b) ACBED

   

(c) ABCDE

(d) ABDEC

   

(e) AECBD

   

63.

(A)

They also become spoiled and tyrannical.

 

(B)

But hire a former enemy and he will be more loyal than a friend, because he has more to prove.

 

(C)

If you have no enemies, find a way to make them.

 

(D)

In fact, you have more to fear from friends than from enemies.

 

(E)

Be wary of friends—they will betray you more quickly, for they are easily aroused to envy.

   

(a) CDBEA

(b) CEDAB

   

(c) ECDAB

(d) EABDC

   

(e) BADCE

   

64.

(A)

The problem is that you often do not know your friends as you imagine.

 

(B)

It is natural to want to employ your friends when you find yourself in times of need.

 

(C)

The world is a harsh place, and your friends soften the harshness.

 

(D)

Why depend on a stranger when you have a friend at hand?

 

(E)

Besides, you know them.

   

(a) CBDEA

(b) BCEDA

   

(c) CBADE

(d) CDBEA

   

(e) EABCD

   

65.

(A)

Although it is generally best not to mix work with friendship, there are times when a friend can be used to greater effect than an enemy.

 

(B)

A man of power, for example, often has dirty work that has to be done.

 

(C)

But for the sake of appearances, it is generally preferable to have other people do it for him.

 

(D)

Friends often do this the best, since their affection for him makes them willing to take chances.

 

(E)

Also, if your plans go awry for some reason, you can use a friend as a convenient scapegoat.

   

(a) ABCDE

(b) DCEAB

   

(c) ADCEB

(d) ABDCE

   

(e) EBACD

   

66.

(A)

Do not give them the chance to sense what you are up to:

 

(B)

If at any point in the deception you practice, people have the slightest suspicion as to your intentions, all is lost.

 

(C)

Throw them off the scent by dragging red herrings across the path.

 

(D)

Use false sincerity; send ambiguous signals, set up misleading objects of desire.

 

(E)

Unable to distinguish the genuine from the false, they cannot pick out your real goal.

   

(a) EACDB

(b) ABCDE

   

(c) BCDEA

(d) BACDE

   

(e) CADBE

   

67.

(A)

How and why has the atmosphere changed so much? The earliest atmosphere probably consisted of gases like hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide (CO2)— gases which occur in the atmospheres of the other planets.

 

(B)

Less well known but much more interesting is the fact that the present-day composition is totally different from that of the primitive.

 

(C)

Hence, the atmosphere for most of the Earth’s history, consisted largely of CO2 with small amounts of nitrogen.

 

(D)

Most of these gases were lost and replaced by atmospheres of gases emitted by volcanoes.

 

(E)

The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of 79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and a small but growing trace of carbon dioxide.

   

(a) ABECD

(b) EBACD

   

(c) EADCB

(d) ADCBE

   

(e) DEABC

   

68.

(A)

That is the Homeric Question which has intrigued classical scholars down the centuries.

 

(B)

One genius who selected, refined, and embellished the material from the countless lays available in those far-off times and bound them together to produce the Iliad and the Odyssey in their present form.

 

(C)

Modern opinion is overwhelmingly in favour of the view that there was, indeed, one outstanding poet named Homer among the throng of minstrels in Greek-speaking world during the eighth or ninth century before Christ.

 

(D)

Were the early epic masterpieces, the Iliad and the Odyssey, composed by one hand or by many?

   

(a) CABD

(b) DCBA

   

(c) DABC

(d) BDAC

   

(e) ABCD

   

69.

(A)

But two special themes made certain appeal to an audience nurtured on memories of a magnificent past:

   

(1) The siege of Troy which was the supreme glory of their heroic ancestry, and (2) the wanderings overseas forced upon their forebears by the all-conquering Dorians.

 

(B)

But such a splendid theme could not be worthily expressed in short lays.

 

(C)

As the art of minstrelsy was passed down from one generation to the next, a repertoire of short lays about the heroic times was built up.

 

(D)

Every well-born Ionian was familiar with the history of the Trojan War and its sequel.

 

(E)

The grandeur of the subject called into being narrative verse which used the traditional saga as raw material but was composed in epic dimensions, magnifying the two favourite themes far beyond historical fact.

   

(a) CBEAD

(b) ADCBE

   

(c) CADBE

(d) BACDE

   

(e) EABCD

   

70.

(A)

The Athenians are revolutionary and their designs are characterised by swiftness alike in conception and execution; you have a genius for keeping what you have got, accompanied by a total want of invention and, when forced to act, you never go far enough.

 

(B)

They are adventurous beyond their power and daring beyond their judgment and in danger, they are sanguine; your way is to attempt less than your power justifies, to mistrust even what your judgement sanctions and to convince yourself that there will be no end to your danger.

 

(C)

They are prompt, you procrastinate; they are never at home, you are never from it; they hope by leaving it to extend their acquisitions, you fear any new enterprise will endanger what you possess.

 

(D)

They are swift to follow up a success and slow to recoil from a reverse; their bodies they spend ungrudgingly in their country’s cause; their intellect they jealously husband to be employed in her service.

   

(a) CADB

(b) ABCD

   

(c) BADC

(d) ABDC

   

(e) DABC

   

71.

(A)

We have no black looks or angry words for a neighbour if he enjoys himself in his own way, we abstain from the little act of churlishness which, though they leave no mark, yet cause annoyance to those who notes them.

 

(B)

But our laws secure equal justice for all their private disputes, and our public opinion welcomes and honours talent in every branch of achievement, not for any sectional reason, but on grounds of excellence alone.

 

(C)

And, as we give free play to all in our public life, so we carry the same spirit into our daily relation with one another.

 

(D)

Our constitution is named a democracy because it is in the hands not of the few but of the many.

   

(a) DBCA

(b) CDAB

   

(c) ADBC

(d) DACB

   

(e) CADB

   

72.

(A)

And their story is not graven only on stone over their native earth, but lives on far away, without visible symbol, woven into stuff of other men’s lives…

 

(B)

Fix your eyes on the greatness of Athens as you have it before you day by day, fall in love with her, and when you feel her greatness, remember that this greatness was won by men with courage, with knowledge of their duty, and with a sense of honour in action, who, if they failed in any ordeal, disdained to deprive the city of their service, but sacrificed their lives as the best offering on her behalf.

 

(C)

So they gave their bodies to the commonwealth and received, each so for his own memory, praise that will never die, and with it the grandest of all sepulchres, not that in which their mortal bones are laid, but a home in the minds of men where their glory remains fresh to stir to speech or action as the occasion comes by.

 

(D)

For the whole earth is the sepulchre of famous men.

   

(a) ADCB

(b) BCDA

   

(c) BDCA

(d) DCBA

   

(e) CBDA

   

73.

(A)

In early youth, the poet as well as an intellectual, Plato it is believed, was a great wrestler, and he also served as a soldier.

 

(B)

It is through that he adopted the name of Plato, because of his broad shoulders.

 

(C)

He was not only born a free man but an aristocrat, his father’s name being Ariston, a descendant of one of the legendary founder of Athens, while on his mother’s side, he was related to many wealthy and well-born Athenians.

 

(D)

Plato, the father of Western philosophy, used to say that he thanked the Gods for three things: one, that he was born a free man and not a slave; that he was born a Greek and not Barbarian; and three, that he lived in the days of Socrates.

   

(a) ACBD

(b) CADB

   

(c) DCBA

(d) ACBD

   

(e) BACD

   

74.

(A)

The whole of Plato’s philosophy is expressed in dialogues and many of early dialogues preserve an air of having risen from chance conversations in the streets.

 

(B)

He also attacked the Sophists, the new brand of philosophers who, in Athens, were examining everything and teaching the people no longer to respect the old ideas on which the city had been founded and whose brilliant speech and witty paradoxes attracted men to them—and yet Plato himself had all the qualities, and often used them, of these enemies of his.

 

(C)

Plato’s philosophy seems to arise directly out of daily life and this is one of its great charms.

 

(D)

For this father and fountain-head of philosophy, unequalled in the breadth of his ideas, is also unmatched for the persuasive beauty of his writing.

 

(E)

Plato is said to have burnt his poems after he met Socrates and he adopted a very severe view of poet in republic—but he could not help being a poet himself.

   

(a) ACDEB

(b) CADEB

   

(c) ABCDE

(d) CDABE

   

(e) DBCAE

   

75.

(A)

Socrates, who always stated that he was only wise because other men thought they knew certain thing for sure while he knew he did not know, went about asking very simple questions and using the language of metaphor of the market place.

 

(B)

It has the many sided attraction of thought at its fullest and most elegant, combined with an intense moral preoccupation, the preoccupation of getting somewhere, of not being satisfied with the most ingenious argument, the most appealing and attractive arrangement of ideas.

 

(C)

The work of Plato can be said to be the simple moral teaching Socrates understood, re-expressed by the most brilliant man of his age who preserved, while being the passionate disciple of Socrates, the quantities of mind he was born with, those of the clever fashionable world.

 

(D)

Socrates was the contrary of Plato—a man of the people, a sort of poor monk whose teaching, based on questioning and cross-questioning, tended to turn to ridicule the poetry, the eloquence and the metaphysics of which the young aristocratic Plato was a master.

   

(a) CDAB

(b) ADCB

   

(c) DACB

(d) BDCA

   

(e) BACD

   

76.

(A)

He was convinced that truth and goodness exist and are inseparable, and that virtue is one thing and is dependent upon knowledge.

 

(B)

On account of this unity of goodness, truth and beauty, Plato considered that the arts—music, literature, poetry, architecture, rhetoric, politics and the practical arts—must be the servant of moral philosophy and only have value in so far as they serve it.

 

(C)

In essence, the doctrine of Plato has many similarities with that of Christianity’s.

 

(D)

But it is a doctrine founded on an intellectual view of man and of the soul rather than one based on belief in God and Redeemer of mankind.

 

(E)

There is a false architecture, false music, literature, etc., which takes man away from the pursuit of the perfect and help him to remain ignorant and malformed, and there is the converse.

 

(F)

Plato’s foremost place as a philosopher lies in his conception of unity.

   

(a) FABECD

(b) CBEDAF

   

(c) FACEDB

(d) ABFCDE

   

(e) EFACBD

   

77.

(A)

In all his writing on philosophy, whether political or ethical, Aristotle reveals himself as a teleologist, this is attempting the interpretation of things under discussion in terms of purpose or end (Greek telos: end).

 

(B)

“Every art and every science,” it begins,” and in like manner every action and every moral choice, aims, it is thought at some good”.

 

(C)

What that good is depends of course on the things concerned: some activities are undertaken only for what they lead to or produce and bring about, while others are engaged in for their own sakes.

 

(D)

So far as man is concerned, this end must be the good of man.

 

(E)

But it is surely clear that there must be something that may be fairly described as the Chief Good, that is, the best thing of all.

 

(F)

This is clearly evidenced from the very first statement of his Nicomachean Ethics.

   

(a) ABEFDC

(b) BDCAFE

   

(c) AFBCED

(d) DCBEFA

   

(e) FAEDCB

   

78.

(A)

For some say it is one of those things which are palpable and apparent, as pleasure or wealth or honour; in fact, some one thing, some another; nay, often times the same man gives a different account of it, for when ill, he calls it health, when poor, wealth; and conscious of their own ignorance, men admire those who talk grandly and above their comprehension.

 

(B)

To use the more common form, “happiness (says Aristotle) is what both the multitude and the refined few call it, and ‘living well’ and ‘doing well’ they conceive to be the same with ‘being happy’; but about the nature of this happiness men dispute, and the multitude do not in their account of it agree with wise.”

 

(C)

Now, what is this very special Good?

 

(D)

There is pretty general agreement that is eudaimonia, a Greek word which is usually translated as Happiness, although a possibly better rendering would be Well-being or Welfare.

   

(a) DBAC

(b) CDBA

   

(c) BCDA

(d) ADBC

   

(e) ABCD

   

79.

(A)

After some pages descriptive of the liberal Man, who “will give and spend on proper objects, and in proper proportion, in great things and small alike, and all this with pleasure to himself”, we come to a portrait of the Magnificent Man, which is doubtless based on what Aristotle had observed of the great aristocratic, popularity seeking spenders of Athens.

 

(B)

“The expenses of the Magnificent Man are great fitting: such also are his works.”

 

(C)

The kind of expenditure which he will incur will be what are called honourable, “such as dedicatory offering to the gods, and furnishing their temples, and sacrifices, and in like manner everything that has reference to the deity, and all such public matters as are objects of honourable ambition, as when men think it is their duty to furnish a chorus for the stage splendidly, or fit out and maintain a three-decker for the navy, or give a great public feast...It is characteristic of the Magnificent Man to do magnificently whatever he is about.”

 

(D)

He will consider how a thing may be done most beautifully and fittingly, rather than for how much.

   

(a) ACBD

(b) CDBA

   

(c) BACD

(d) ABDC

   

(e) DABC

   

80.

(A)

Comparisons between Vergil and his great Greek prototype, Homer, are inevitable, although academic admirers of the Latin poet find them odious, arguing that Homer composed for an audience which knew only the epic on the grand scale and that his poetry was meant to be heard, not read.

 

(B)

Nevertheless it can hardly be disputed that poetic merits of the Aeneid are far below those of Iliad, lacking the unity of purpose and integrity of construction of the earlier work as well as its truth and simplicity.

 

(C)

It is also true that Homer’s society was relatively uncomplicated, with a nobility not unlike the barons of England’s feudal ages, whereas Vergil’s civilisation was complex and he wrote for scholarly and thoroughly educated readers.

 

(D)

Perhaps a model, however masterly, can never quite capture the spontaneous freshness of a glorious original.

   

(a) DCBA

(b) ACBD

   

(c) CABD

(d) ABCD

   

(e) BACD

   

81.

(A)

But later, when scholars had deciphered the cuneiform inscriptions of Babylon and Assyria, the historicity of a large part of the Old Testament was vindicated.

 

(B)

The story of Abraham, for instance, is now to be seen much more than a folk tale, for the discoveries in the ‘thirties of the Amorite Kingdom ruled by the smiling-faced Mari kings have unearthed cities such as Harun and Nathor mentioned in the Bablical narrative, but totally unknown till they were unearthed’.

 

(C)

By the end of the century, when the work of geologists and physicists had begun to enlarge man’s knowledge about the beginning of the physical world, the Bible as history, began to be considered largely as fable or folk-lore; by Christians it was thought divinely inspired but still basically mythical.

 

(D)

To the simple-minded then, as in past centuries, the story of the Old Testament appeared as exact, literal history.

 

(E)

When Queen Victoria came to the throne, it was generally believed that the world was created in 4004 BC.

 

(F)

In fifty years or so, when so much has been discovered by archaeology about the Middle East and Egypt, the claim of the whole Old Testament story to be a valuable historical record, has been more and more accepted.

   

(a) DCAEFB

(b) EDCAFB

   

(c) ACEFDB

(d) FCDABE

   

(e) CABDEF

   

82.

(A)

When the Meccans challenged Mohammed to perform a miracle as proof of his Divine mission, he appealed, boldly and confidently, to the book which was taking shape under his supervision.

 

(B)

It was indeed a miracle, the miracle of miracles, this book that had come down from heaven …

 

(C)

So wonderful a work (he maintained), written in such superlatively beautiful language and expressing the most profound and majestic of religious truths, could surely not have been written by mere man, most certainly not by such an unlettered man as he was himself.

 

(D)

The book in question was Koran, as we generally call it, although a more correct rendering is Quran, which is an Arabic word meaning reading, lecture, or recitation, or perhaps that which ought to be read.

   

(a) ACBD

(b) BACD

   

(c) ABCD

(d) CDBA

   

(e) DCAB

   

83.

(A)

Fortunately, the lack of details available about the life of Shakespeare does not apply to Dante, who is revealed to us as the hero of one of the strangest and most beautiful love stories in the world.

 

(B)

If a limit may be set to the period of medieval literature, Dante’s Divine Comedy may be said to have brought it to an end in a glorious climax.

 

(C)

Of all the great figures, who embellish the pageant of literature, Dante shares an equal place with Shakespeare.

 

(D)

Here all the greatest and best in thought and work that flowered in the millenium between the fall of Roman Empire and the close of the thirteenth century, is given a new vitality and endowed with poetic passion.

   

(a) ACDB

(b) DBAC

   

(c) BDCA

(d) CDBA

   

(e) BACD

   

84.

(A)

There were numerous religious shrines at home and abroad that attracted the pilgrims hosts, but in England, by far the most popular was Canterbury, where in the great cathedral stood the magnificent tomb of Thomas Beckett—St. Thomas of Canterbury—hard by the spot where in 1170 he had been brutally slain by four of King Henry’s knights.

 

(B)

On an April morning, many centuries ago, a band of pilgrims set out from the Tabard inn in Southwark to go to Canterbury.

 

(C)

We should not suppose that the fact that they were pilgrims means that they were specially devout.

 

(D)

Pilgrimages in the Middle Ages—and the year in question is somewhere in the thirteen-eighties—were a most welcome break in the monotonous round of daily existence, an occasion for seeing the sight and meeting fresh people and exchanging gossip and tales of high life, and of low.

   

(a) DBAC

(b) ACDB

   

(c) BADC

(d) BCDA

   

(e) CADB

   

85.

(A)

It was invented by More, and is a reminder of the fact that it was one of the most famous figures of revivals of Learning that was inspired by the rediscovery of the ancient classical civilisation of Greece and Rome after the long night of middle ages.

 

(B)

Of all the cities that men have built in the cloudlands, the most famous is the one described in a small book written by the English scholar-statesman, Sir Tomas More, in the beginning of the sixteenth century.

 

(C)

It is called Utopia, and so famous it is that ever since, all similar imaginary commonwealths have been referred to as Utopias.

 

(D)

It comes from the Greek words, ou meaning not, and topas, a place, and so means literally, nowhere.

 

(E)

The word is a made-up one.

   

(a) BCEDA

(b) CDBCA

   

(c) ADCBE

(d) EDCAB

   

(e) ABCDE

   

86.

(A)

What an audacious declaration it is, this of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains!”.

 

(B)

No matter that the critics in every generation have insisted that the first part of the declaration is untrue, since men come into the world carrying a heavy burden of heredity; and that as for the second part, there are quite a lot of places in the world nowadays where chains have long ceased to form part of the political machinery.

 

(C)

No matter: it has a splendid, fine-sounding ring about it, and our political philosophy would be ever so much duller without it.

 

(D)

When he first spat it out, it shocked and shattered the complacency of the eighteenth century, and it has been an inspiration and encouragement to the young and hopeful ever since.

   

(a) ADCB

(b) CBAD

   

(c) BADC

(d) ADBC

   

(e) CDBA

   

87.

(A)

From them he obtained a mass of information on business matters that came in exceedingly useful in writing his book.

 

(B)

He may well have felt that his career was fixed, but then in 1764, he was invited to accompany the young Duke of Buccleugh on the customary “grand tour” of the continent.

 

(C)

In the middle of the eighteenth century, Glasgow was still a small provincial city, but by 1760 it had supplanted Bristol as the principal tobacco port, and its “tobacco lords” were fine men of business.

 

(D)

Adam Smith cultivated their acquaintance, and felt highly honoured when he was invited to join their weekly dining-club.

   

(a) DBCA

(b) CDAB

   

(c) DACB

(d) BCDA

   

(e) ABCD

   

88.

(A)

Now a few words on the third of the main themes of the Wealth of Nations, the one which is of greatest practical interest and importance—what may be described as his policy or programme of action.

 

(B)

Under the influence of Mercantilist ideas, Adam Smith declared, “nations have been taught that their interest consisted in beggaring all their neighbours… Commerce which ought naturally to be, among nations as among individuals, a bond of union and friendship, has become the most fertile source of discord and animosity.”

 

(C)

It will be found for the most part in his fourth book, where we have a lengthy, detailed, and highly critical examination of the “Commercial or Mercantile System” that was the accepted ideology of the principle governments of his time.

 

(D)

The Mercantilists held that wealth consists primarily of money, and mercantilist governments strove to foster home industries and encourage the export of as large an amount of goods as possible, and to import as little possible, when the difference would have to be made up in cash or bullion.

   

(a) CDAB

(b) ACDB

   

(c) BADC

(d) BACD

   

(e) CADB

   

89.

(A)

Mention should be made, too, of the many pithy sayings that ought to find a place in every dictionary of quotations.

 

(B)

For example, “the delightful art” of gardening, “the desire for food is limited by the narrow capacity of the human stomach”, “a man is of all sorts of luggage the most difficult to be transported”, and “When you have got a little money, it is often easy to get more: the great difficulty is to get that little”.

 

(C)

All these things are of secondary importance, however.

 

(D)

The really important thing about Adam Smith is that it was he who mapped out the ground and prepared the way for Economics to become what it is today, one of the most interesting, stimulating and vitally important of the science that are the instruments of human progress.

   

(a) ABCD

(b) DABC

   

(c) CDBA

(d) BCDA

   

(e) CABD

   

90.

(A)

Here, perhaps even more importantly than with any other science, the scientist has created a barrier of terms by which to express thoughts and ideas about matter affecting us all—the origins of knowledge and wisdom—but which effectively cuts off the ordinary man from the thinker, the man who by terming himself philosopher, clearly looks upon himself, as the word implies, as the fount of wisdom.

 

(B)

Unfortunately, as with most sciences, the would-be interpreter of philosophy finds himself becoming involved in almost insoluble complications of expression if he does not use some of the jargon, the special terms by which philosophers convey, in a kind of shorthand, their own particular thoughts to their professional colleagues.

 

(C)

If a really outstanding example of non-communication were ever to be sought, scarcely a better one could be cited than that of philosophy.

 

(D)

The preceding paragraph, simple though it is in philosophical expression, is nevertheless sufficient to show the non-philosophic student that, like all sciences, philosophy has acquired its own particular jargon which only the initiated can understand with ease.

   

(a) DBAC

(b) ACDB

   

(c) CABD

(d) DCAB

   

(e) BACD

   

91.

(A)

All our intuitions have a dual nature; objects appear to be outside ourselves and externally co-existent in space; and they also seem to exist within our own minds, either simultaneously or in succession, and so, in time.

 

(B)

The reason why all our intuitions are bound up with these two forms lies in the manner in which our faculty of imagination receives the impression of objects.

 

(C)

Space and time, then, are pure intuitions, which are present a priori in advance of any real sensation, inherent in the faculty of imagination in our soul, and are thus only necessary ideas a priori, underlying all intuitions.

 

(D)

Thus, space and time are the two forms to which all our intuitions are bound, and as they are ideas directly related to objects, they are themselves intuitions.

   

(a) BDAC

(b) ADBC

   

(c) BACD

(d) CADB

   

(e) DABC

   

92.

(A)

The important place that it occupies in Marx’s system is shown by the hundreds of pages that he devotes in Capital to its elucidation and illustration.

 

(B)

But nowhere do we find any indication that Marx had ever been inside a cotton-mill or down a coal-mine, that he had ever visited pottery or ironworks or railway shed; and all the detail with which his pages are filled was what he could collect from seat No.7 in row G in the British Museum reading-room.

 

(C)

Most of his supporting material is drawn from English practice, for the very good reason that it was in England that the capitalized system had mainly originated and had reached its most advanced development.

 

(D)

This theory of surplus value is Marx’s special contribution to economic ideology, and it is no wonder that it made a strong appeal to the workers, especially those engaged in factory production in the industrialised countries of Europe and America.

   

(a) DCAB

(b) CADB

   

(c) BCDA

(d) DACB

   

(e) ABCD

   

93.

(A)

Before the modern system of capitalist enterprise could come into existence, there had to be what Marx calls the stage of “primary accumulation”, which he defines as “the historical process whereby the producer was divorced from the means of production.”

 

(B)

These were “the idyllic methods of primary accumulation”, which cleared the ground for capitalist agriculture and provided urban industry with the requisite number of “masterless proletarians”.

 

(C)

This was effected through the spoliation of the property of the Church at the Reformation, the subsequent alienation of the State domains, the transformation of feudal property and the property of the Scottish clans, by a system of ruthless terrorism, into modern private property.

 

(D)

Hard upon their heels came the commercial wars between the great European powers, fought over the whole surface of the globe, of which a recent sequel had been the opium wars against China.

 

(E)

Then followed the discoveries of gold and silver in America, the extirpation or enslavement and entombment of the native, the beginning of the conquest of the East Indies, the transformation of Africa into a source of raw material of the slave trade—these were the incidents that characterised the “rosy dawn of the period of capitalist production”.

   

(a) ACEBD

(b) DABCE

   

(c) ACBED

(d) CAEDB

   

(e) EADCB

   

94.

(A)

He had been led to this discovery by applying to dreams, a new method of psychological investigation which had proved of great value in the solution of phobias, obsessions, delusions and so on—namely, psycho-analysis.

 

(B)

Serious-minded people were apt to smile at all this, but one day he was astonished to find that the view of dream which most nearly approached the truth was not the medical one—that dreams are caused entirely by sensory and somatic stimuli—but the popular one.

 

(C)

The methods of interpretation consist in transferring the content of a dream as it is remembered, either by replacing it piecemeal in accordance with a fixed key, or by replacing the dream as a whole by a certain series of symbols.

 

(D)

Having thus set out his problem, and referred to the more recent pronouncements on the nature of dreams by scientists and medical men, Freud points out that popular opinion has taken little heed of scientific judgments in this field, and persists in the belief that dreams have meaning which relates to the prediction of the future and which can be discovered by some process of interpretation of a content which is often confused and puzzling.

 

(E)

An investigation into the significance of dream inquiries, first, into the psychical significance of dreaming, into the relation of dreams to the mental processes and into any biological function dreams may have; while, second, it tries to discover whether dreams can be interpreted, whether the content of individual dreams has a “meaning” such as can be found in other psychical structures.

   

(a) EDCBA

(b) ABEDC

   

(c) DEBCA

(d) DECBA

   

(e) ABCDE

   

95.

(A)

The impression which acts as the dream-instigator may be such an important one that we feel no surprise at being concerned with it in the day-time.

 

(B)

If we unravel dream-displacement by analysis, we obtain what appears to be completely trustworthy information about dream-instigators and the connection of dreams with waking life.

 

(C)

By analysis, we find that every dream without exception, goes back to an impression received during the last few days.

 

(D)

As a rule, however, if a connection is to be found between a dream-content and an impression received the previous day, it is usually so trivial that we can recall it only with difficulty, and dream content seems concerned with trivialities.

   

(a) DBAC

(b) ACDB

   

(c) BCAD

(d) DCAB

   

(e) ABCD

   

96.

(A)

Joe had had trouble falling asleep, and once asleep, he went from one dream to another.

 

(B)

The phone rang.

 

(C)

He was showing a house to a young couple.

 

(D)

He looked at it but could not find it.

   

(a) ADCB

(b) ACBD

   

(c) BDCA

(d) CBAD

   

(e) ADBC

   

97.

(A)

I dressed and fixed breakfast in the small kitchen.

 

(B)

Afterward, I stepped out on the narrow deck to breathe the mountain air.

 

(C)

The answers would come gradually, I told myself.

 

(D)

The next morning, I awakened early and lay quietly, trying to orient myself.

 

(E)

Last night, there had been much that was strange and perplexing.

   

(a) DECAB

(b) ADECB

   

(c) CABDE

(d) ADCEB

   

(e) BADCE

   

98.

(A)

Later that night, as I sat up in bed trying to read the Book of the Hopi, my thoughts were melancholy and not the pages.

 

(B)

Mountain silence seemed to press all around the small guesthouse, threatening me.

 

(C)

I was about to put the book aside and attempt to fall asleep when a light tapping sounded on the outside door.

 

(D)

In my present state of mind, the sound was unnerving.

 

(E)

Nevertheless, I drew on my robe and went into the little hallway.

   

(a) DBCAE

(b) ADBCE

   

(c) ABCDE

(d) CAEBD

   

(e) EDCBA

   

99.

(A)

“Who’s there?” I called.

 

(B)

I sighed and turned the latch, not at all sure that I could cope with Marilla just then.

 

(C)

“It’s me–Marilla. Open the door, Lindsay.”

 

(D)

She stood on the flagstones outside, dressed in pajamas and one of her father’s sweaters, and holding both hands behind her back.

 

(E)

She smiled at me angelically.

   

(a) ACBDE

(b) BACED

   

(c) DBCEA

(d) CABDE

   

(e) ECABD

   

100.

(A)

I decided to ask her a direct question.

 

(B)

“You’ve already told me that Sybil came to talk to you about the dinner on the day she disappeared. Was there anything else?”

 

(C)

For a moment, I thought Orva wouldn’t answer.

 

(D)

Then she seemed to make a decision.

   

(a) ACDB

(b) BADC

   

(c) CADB

(d) ABCD

   

(e) DABC

   

101.

(A)

A Roman chariot decorated with the figure of Columbia on the front.

 

(B)

On Sunday afternoons John Doud, wearing goggles and a long white coat, took the family for outings in his Stanley Steamer, one in a series of cars that he owned.

 

(C)

Sometimes they would go to City Park, where the Doud girls would wander through the Zoological Gardens or listen to band concerts.

 

(D)

Other times, they went to Elitch Gardens, one of the oldest amusement parks in the country, where Mamie had a favorite seat on the merry-go-round —

   

(a) DCAB

(b) BCDA

   

(c) CBDA

(d) CDAB

   

(e) ABCD

   

◊ Answer Key

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. (c)

5. (d)

6. (c)

7. (d)

8. (c)

9. (b)

10. (d)

11. (a)

12. (c)

13. (a)

14. (d)

15. (a)

16. (b)

17. (d)

18. (a)

19. (b)

20. (d)

21. (c)

22. (b)

23. (b)

24. (c)

25. (d)

26. (a)

27. (d)

28. (d)

29. (b)

30. (a)

31. (c)

32. (b)

33. (d)

34. (c)

35. (b)

36. (c)

37. (d)

38. (b)

39. (d)

40. (a)

41. (d)

42. (a)

43. (d)

44. (c)

45. (d)

46. (a)

47. (d)

48. (b)

49. (d)

50. (b)

51. (a)

52. (d)

53. (c)

54. (a)

55. (d)

56. (b)

57. (b)

58. (a)

59. (c)

60. (c)

61. (c)

62. (c)

63. (d)

64. (b)

65. (a)

66. (d)

67. (b)

68. (c)

69. (c)

70. (b)

71. (a)

72. (b)

73. (c)

74. (a)

75. (c)

76. (a)

77. (c)

78. (b)

79. (d)

80. (b)

81. (b)

82. (a)

83. (c)

84. (d)

85. (a)

86. (d)

87. (b)

88. (b)

89. (a)

90. (d)

91. (b)

92. (d)

93. (c)

94. (a)

95. (c)

96. (b)

97. (a)

98. (c)

99. (a)

100. (d)

101. (b)