How to Prepare for Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension for the CAT (2014)

Part 2: Verbal Ability

Section 5: Sentence Correction

Chapter 20. Sentence Correction

INTRODUCTION

Questions based on standard written English grammar are very common in the CAT, XAT and most other management entrance examinations. These questions are designed to test your ability to identify written English that is grammatically correct. They also test your ability to understand the essential message being given—and find out the most concise and grammatically correct way of conveying the same.

An analysis of previous papers of various institutes yields that there have been four patterns under which these questions can be segregated. These are:

SENTENCE CORRECTION: QUESTION PATTERN

Question Type 1

Each question will begin with sentences, parts of which have been underlined. You are then presented with 4 different options presenting alternative ways of stating the underlined portion of the text. The first answer choice will repeat the text without any changes (meaning that the sentence is clear in meaning, concise as well as grammatically correct as it is written originally).

The other choices will re-write the text. Wrong options are created by any one or more of the following methods:

(1)Introduction of grammatical mistakes. These are explained in greater detail in the later part of this chapter.

(2)By introducing an incorrect sentence structure.

(3)Introducing changes in the message to the reader by changing the intended meaning of the sentence.

(4)Introducing verbosity in the sentence—i.e., writing the same thing in more number of words.

This, however, does not mean that the shortest and most concise answer choice is always the correct answer—but it does mean that if there are no errors (grammatical, sentence structural or in message conveyance) in the option which is the shortest, it is the answer more often than not. Hence, before succumbing to the temptation of marking the shortest option as the correct answer choice, you need to read it carefully in order to make sure that the sentence has no error.

Question Type 2

This question type is very similar to Type 1. The only difference between the two is that in this type, the entire sentence has to be tested for its grammar and accuracy.

There is no underlined part of the sentence. Incorrect answer choices are formed on the basis of the same errors as discussed above.

In the context of the above two question types, it is important to note the following:

Do not Waste Time on a Close Reading of Option A. Option A always simply repeats the wording of the original sentence/ underlined part of the sentence. Hence, reading it closely again right at the start might entail a waste of time.

However, you should remember that before you mark the correct answer choice, if Option A figures in your shortlist, you should read it closely. This you need to do since you will need to make a comparison between all the options on your shortlist for their correctness of grammar, sentence structure and the lack of verbosity.

On the other hand, if the original sentence looks incorrect straightaway, you will not need to read Option A at all.

Look Out for Multiple Errors in the Sentence: A sentence might contain more than one error. Hence, while reading the original sentence, do not be led into the fallacy that if you have found one error in the sentence, all you will need to do is eliminate it in order to get the correct answer. This is a common error that students make, i.e., they find one error and then quickly choose the answer that corrects that error. They fail to consider whether there are other errors in the sentence that an alternative answer choice might also address.

The correct answer must correct all the errors contained in the original sentence.

Question Type 3

This question type consists of 4 sentences, out of which you have to identify the correct sentence/s.

Question Type 4

In this question type, you are given 4 sentences, out of which you are supposed to identify the incorrect sentence/s.

Question Type 5

This question type consists of correct/incorrect usage of words/phrases. It consists of a capitalised word or phrase which is used in four different ways. You have to find out the incorrect usage of the word in the four sentences.

STANDARD SOLVING PROCESS

Elimination

Employ the process of elimination. Eliminate any answer choices that are obviously grammatically incorrect. Besides, you can also eliminate any choices that alter the intended meaning of the sentence.

Your first objective should be to come down to a short list of sentences which is as small as possible.

If you are still unsure about how to answer a question even after narrowing your choices down to two, you will fare better by selecting the more concise of the remaining answer choices.

Small/Minute Differences When in doubt, look for small/minute differences among the different answer choices. After you create a short list of options that are not easily eliminated, you will need to examine each of the remaining options closely. Very often, the difference between two of the answer choices will be in a single word/ phrase usage. Use your ‘feel’ for standard usage of these words in the English language.

Spelling Errors Do not worry about spelling or capitalisation errors. Questions do not test you for these 2 types of errors.

Trust Your Ears If you become stuck, ‘say’ the choices in your head and then select the sentence that sounds best to your ears. This method will be particularly useful if you have a natural feel for the language. If you are used to English, you will have internalised many more grammar rules than you can explicitly identify.

Look for standard errors listed below while reading the question and its options.

GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN SENTENCE CORRECTION QUESTIONS

Essentially, there are six basic kinds of errors in the grammar of a sentence.

Error Type 1: Subject-Verb Agreement Errors

The lack of agreement between the subject and verb is one of the main errors introduced in questions of sentence correction. The basic underlying principle is that—“Verbs should always agree with their subjects”.

As per the basic sentence structuring, every sentence has to have a Subject, a Verb and an Object—wherein the subject (noun) does an act (verb) with the object (another noun). The principle clearly is that the conjugation (form of the verb used) of the verb should be in line with the subject to which it is attached. Thus, you need to check whether the form of the verb used agrees with the number and the person of the subject noun.

As is obvious, number refers to whether the noun is singular or plural and Person refers to whether the noun is in the first person (I/we), second person (You) or third person (he, she, it, one, they).

While looking out for this error, you are advised to be careful of—

(a)The conjugation of irregular verbs; and

(b)The disguising of the subject by creating a complex sentence structure having multiple messages between the subject and the verb.

The subject and the verb are put far apart from each other, making it more difficult to recognise. In such cases, you will need to correctly identify the subject with which the verb needs to agree.

WOP.TIF The depletion of natural resources, in addition to the rapid increase in their utilisation, have/has encouraged many countries to develop new sources of energy.

20446.jpg In the above sentence, the verb ‘to have’ has a singular subject. Hence, it will take the second person singular form ‘has’.

Error Type 2: Errors of Modifiers

Modifiers are words/group of words/ phrases in one part of the sentence, which modify (add to the meaning of) another part of the sentence. In correct written English, the modifier has to be kept as close as possible to the word or clause it modifies. Placing the modifiers at the wrong position in a sentence often has the effect of changing the meaning of the sentence. This happens because the modifier modifies the word/clause closest to it.

The following examples will make it clear:

WOP.TIF Bruised and battered, Ravi gave his car to the mechanic.

Bruised and battered, the car was given to the mechanic by Ravi.

20458.jpg Notice in the example above, the chances in the use of words bruised and battered.

While solving sentence correction questions, you should try to identify the modifiers used in the sentence and decide which clause it modifies. Then ensure that in the correct answer, the modifier is attached to the correct clause. In order to do this, you will need to make sure that you have understood the intended meaning of the writer.

Error Type 3: Errors in the Usage of Pronouns

Pronouns are defined as any of a small set of words in a language that are used as substitutes for nouns or noun phrases. Their references are named or understood in the context of their usage. The basic principle that needs to be adhered to is that-

“The pronouns used in a sentence should agree with their antecedents.”

Besides, in correct written English, there should be no ambiguity about which noun the pronoun is replacing. You will need to consider both these factors while evaluating the pronouns used within a sentence. Consider the following example: 

WOP.TIF Amit told Ameer that he should take his car to the party.

20452.jpg In the above sentence, it is not clear as to whose car is being referred to. Hence, the sentence will not qualify as standard written English.

Pay special attention to problems involving it-they, he-his, me-mine, they-their, etc.

Error Type 4: Errors in the Tense of Verbs

The sentence should reflect the correct order in which the sequence of events occurs. For this purpose, it is crucial that the verbs used are in the correct tense—be it past, present or future and be it in the normal form, the continuous form or the perfect form. It would be wise of you to review the rules for all these and be especially aware of the various tense forms of irregular verbs.

Pay special attention to the appropriateness of the use of the continuous form, because errors based on incorrect use of the continuous form are very common in sentence correction questions (especially questions of type 1 & type 2).

Remember that: The ‘ing’ form of a verb is used

(a)Either to emphasise the continuing nature of an action OR

(b)To emphasise that two actions are happening simultaneous to each other.

Consider the following example:

WOP.TIF If the experiment works, it will represent/will be representing a giant leap forward for human sciences.

20463.jpg In the above sentence, even though will be representing is grammatically correct, it is not appropriate in relation to will represent as it is unnecessary and verbose.

Error Type 5: Errors of Parallel Form

One of the common methods of presenting an idea having multiple facets is by writing sentences in the parallel form. For example:

WOP.TIF In India today, an investor might invest his money in stocks, in real estate or in debt based mutual funds.

20472.jpg The last part of the above sentence is in a parallel form, since multiple ideas of the same level and category (investment options in this case) are presented within one part of the sentence.

You need to look out for parallel form problems in:

(a)List of actions/items or series of items/actions.

(b)Expressions using the structures—Both X and Y, Either X or Y or Z, Any of X, Y and Z, etc.

(c)Expressions involving comparisons between two or more things—Prefer X to Y, Y is preferred to X.

Spotting errors in such sentences is easy, since you have to just ensure that the individual parts have to be written in the same form.

Error Type 6: Errors in the Use of Singular Words, Idioms and Phrases

Idioms are defined as expressions in the usage of English (or for that matter any other language), that is peculiar to itself either grammatically (e.g. No, it wasn’t me) or in having a meaning that cannot be derived from the conjoined meanings of its elements (as Monday week for conveying the meaning that we are referring to ‘the Monday a week after next Monday’).

The only way to prepare for the errors in idioms is through improved exposure to the English language. In this context, if you are a natural at the language, you should just trust your ear. Trying to reason out on points of grammatical correctness of the idiom used will take you nowhere.

Consider the following sentences for understanding idiomatic usage:

WOP.TIF1.The French grand Prix is considered as/to be one of the most arduous races.

The correct idiom is ‘to be’

2.The issue covers such questions like/as who should cover the losses borne out of the project.

The correct idiom is ‘as’.

Apart from those mentioned above, you need to be aware of the following errors.

(a)Proper use of adverbs (they modify verbs);

(b)Proper use of the semicolon; and

(c)Relative use of words like

(i)‘Among’ versus ‘between’,

(ii)‘Fewer’ versus ‘less’,

(iii)‘Who’ versus ‘whom’ and

(iv)‘Me’ versus ‘I’ versus ‘Mine’, etc.

Practice Exercises

Type 1

Direction for Questions 1 to 50: In each of the following sentences, four options are given. You are required to identify the best way of writing the sentence in the context of the correct usage of standard written English. While doing so, you have to ensure that the message being conveyed remains the same in all the cases.

1.If he was to decide to go to college, one would recommend that he plan to go to IIM, Ahmedabad.

(a)If he was to decide to go to college, one would recommend that he plan to go to IIM, Ahmedabad.

(b)If he were to decide to go to college, one would recommend that he plan to go to IIM, Ahmedabad.

(c)Had he decided to go to college, one would recommend that plan to go to IIM, Ahmedabad.

(d)In the event that he decides to go to college, one would recommend that plan to go to IIM, Ahmedabad.

(e)Had he decide to go to college, one would recommend that he go to IIM, Ahmedabad.

2.Except for you and I, everyone brought a present for the little birthday boy.

(a)Except for him and I, everyone brought a present for the little birthday boy.

(b)With the exception of you and I, everyone brought a present for the little birthday boy.

(c)Except for you and I, everyone had brought a present for the little birthday boy.

(d)Except for you and me, everyone brought a present for the little birthday boy.

(e)Excepting you and I, all brought present for the little boy.

3.When one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century, you find a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.

(a)When one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century, you find a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.

(b)When you read the Hindi literature of the twentieth century, one finds a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.

(c)When one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century, he finds a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.

(d)If one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century, you find a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.

(e)When one reads the Hindi Literature of the twentieth century, one finds a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.

4.Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not and possibly never will be able to pick up the bat again.

(a)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not and possibly never will be able to pick up the bat again.

(b)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not and possibly will never be able to pick up the bat again.

(c)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not been and possibly never would be able to pick up the bat again.

(d)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not been able to and possibly never will be able to pick up the bat again.

(e)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not and if possible be never able to pick up the bat again.

5.Had he realised how close he was to failing, he would not have gone to the party.

(a)Had he realised how close he was to failing, he would not have gone to the party.

(b)If he would have realised how close he was to failing, he would not have gone to the party.

(c)Had he had realised how close he was to failing, he would not have gone to the party.

(d)When he realized how close he was to failing, he did not go to the party.

(e)If he would realise how close he was to failing, he should not have gone to the party.

6.The Indian cricket team’s winning it’s first game of the 2007 World Cup excited the fans of the team.

(a)The Indian cricket team’s winning it’s first game of the 2007 World Cup excited the fans of the team.

(b)The Indian cricket team having won its first game of the 2007 World Cup, excited the fans of the team.

(c)The Indian cricket team’s having won its first game of the 2007 World Cup excited the fans of the team.

(d)The Indian cricket team’s winning its first game of the 2007 World Cup excited the fans of the team.

(e)The Indian cricket team’s had won its first game of the 2007 World Cup excited the fans of the team.

7.Poor product quality angers Mr. Garbole, who wonders if it is part of a strategy by marketers.

(a)Poor product quality angers Mr. Garbole, who wonders if it is part of a strategy by marketers.

(b)Poor product quality angers Mr. Garbole, who wonders if marketers are part of the strategy.

(c)Poor product quality angers Mr. Garbole, that wonders if it is part of a strategy by marketers.

(d)Poor product quality angers Mr.Garbole, who wonders if they are part of a strategy by marketers.

(e)Poor product quality angers Mr. Garbole, who wonders if it are part of a strategy.

8.Ambikesh noticed the cat’s soft hair, sharp paws, and keen sense of hearing.

(a)Ambikesh noticed the cat’s soft hair, sharp paws, and keen sense of hearing.

(b)Ambikesh noticed the cat’s soft hair, sharp paws, and that his sense of hearing was keen.

(c)Ambikesh noticed the cat’s soft hair, that he had sharp paws, and a very keen sense of hearing.

(d)Ambikesh noticed the cat’s soft hair, keen sense of hearing and also that it had sharp paws.

(e)Ambikesh as noticed the cat’s soft hair, sharp paws and keen sense of hearing.

9.Having bowed our heads, the priest in the temple led us in prayer.

(a)Having bowed our heads, the priest in the temple led us in prayer.

(b)After we bowed our heads, the priest in the temple led us in prayer.

(c)After we bowed our heads, the priest in the temple led us in prayer.

(d)After we had bowed our heads, the priest in the temple led us in prayer.

(e)After having bowed our head, the priest in the temple led us in prayer.

10.My grandmother seldom ever wants to try and face the facts.

(a)My grandmother seldom ever wants to try and face the facts.

(b)My grandmother seldom if ever wants to try and face the facts.

(c)My grandmother seldom ever wants to try to face the facts.

(d)My grandmother seldom wants to try to face the facts.

(e)My grandmother seldom want to try face the facts.

11.Anyone interested in flying planes can learn much if you have access to a flight simulation machine.

(a)Anyone interested in flying planes can learn much if you have access to a flight simulation machine.

(b)Anyone interested in flying planes can learn much if he has access to a flight simulation machine.

(c)Anyone interested in flying planes can learn much if access is available to a flight simulation machine.

(d)Anyone interested in flying planes can learn much from access to a flight simulation machine.

(e)Anyone interests in flying planes can learn much if they had access to a flight simulation machine.

12.No officer had ought to be put into a situation where he has to choose between his love for his family and the responsibilities accompanying his duty.

(a)No officer had ought to be put into a situation where he has to choose between his love for his family and the responsibilities accompanying his duty.

(b)No officer had ought to be put into a situation in which he has to choose between his love for his family and the responsibilities accompanying his duty.

(c)No officer should be put into a situation where he has to choose between his love for his family and the responsibilities accompanying his duty.

(d)No officer ought to be put into a situation in which he has to choose between his love for his family and the responsibilities accompanying his duty.

(e)No officer would be put in a situation where he have to choose between his love for family and the responsibilities accompanying his duty.

13.Being a realist, the detective could not accept the statement of the accused that UFOs had caused the disturbance.

(a)Being a realist, the detective could not accept the statement of the accused that UFOs had caused the disturbance.

(b)Since he was a realist, the detective could not accept the statement of the accused that UFOs had caused the disturbance.

(c)Being that he was a realist, the detective could not accept the statement of the accused that UFOs had caused the disturbance.

(d)Realist that he was, the detective could not accept the statement of the accused that UFOs had caused the disturbance.

(e)Being a realist that he was, the detective could not accept the statement of the accused that UFOs had caused the disturbance.

14.The reason I came late to office today is because my car broke down.

(a)The reason I came late to office today is because my car broke down.

(b)Why I came late to office today is because my car broke down.

(c)The reason I was late to office today is because my car broke down.

(d)The reason I came late to office today is that my car broke down.

(e)The reason I came late to office is since my car broke down.

15.The shopkeeper hadn’t hardly any of those kind of goods.

(a)The shopkeeper hadn’t hardly any of those kind of goods.

(b)The shopkeeper hadn’t hardly any of those kinds of goods.

(c)The shopkeeper had hardly any of those kind of goods.

(d)The shopkeeper had hardly any of those kinds of goods.

(e)The shopkeeper had not hardly any of those kinds of goods.

16.If we cooperate together by dividing up the booty, we shall be able to work together smoothly in the future.

(a)If we cooperate together by dividing up the booty, we shall be able to work together smoothly in the future.

(b)If we cooperate by dividing up the booty, we shall be able to work together smoothly in the future.

(c)If we cooperate by dividing up the booty together, we shall be able to work together smoothly in the future.

(d)If we cooperate with each other by dividing the booty, we shall be able to work together smoothly in the future.

(e)If we cooperate with one other by dividing up the booty, we will be able to work smoothly together in future.

17.The entire cast and crew of the film, enjoyed splashing in the pool, bathing in the ocean, and, particularly, to sun bathe on the shore.

(a)The entire cast and crew of the film, enjoyed splashing in the pool, bathing in the ocean, and, particularly, to sun bathe on the shore.

(b)The entire cast and crew of the film, enjoyed splashing in the pool, to have a bath in the ocean, and, particularly to sun bathe on the shore.

(c)The entire cast and crew of the film, enjoyed swimming in the pool to bathe in the ocean, and, particularly sun bathing on the shore.

(d)The entire cast and crew of the film, enjoyed swimming in the pool, bathing in the ocean, and, particularly, sun bathing on the shore.

(e)The entire cast and crew of the film, enjoyed splashing in the pool, bathing in the ocean, particularly to sun bathing on the shore.

18.Crossing the street, a bus almost crushed us to death.

(a)Crossing the street, a bus almost crushed us to death.

(b)A bus almost crushed us, crossing the street.

(c)As we crossed the street, a bus almost crushed us.

(d)A bus, crossing the street, almost crushed us.

(e)While we crossed a street, a bus almost crushed us.

19.The moral of the entire story is how money doesn’t make you happy.

(a)The moral of the entire story is how money doesn’t make you happy.

(b)The moral of the entire story is that money doesn’t make you happy.

(c)In this novel, its moral of the story is how money doesn’t make you happy.

(d)That money does not make you happy, is the entire moral of the story.

(e)The moral of the story is that as to how money doesn’t make you happy.

20.Entertainment being recognised as an important factor in improving mental and physical health and thereby reducing human misery and poverty.

(a)Entertainment being recognised as an important factor in improving mental and physical health and thereby reducing human misery and poverty.

(b)Recognising entertainment as an important factor in improving mental and physical health and thereby reducing human misery and poverty.

(c)Recognition of it being an important factor in improving mental and physical health entertainment reduces human misery and poverty.

(d)Entertainment is recognised as an important factor in improving mental and physical health and thereby reducing human misery and poverty.

(e)Entertainment while being recognised as an important factor in improving mental and physical health and thereby reducing human misery and poverty.

21.When one travels by Air Lahara, you often find that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.

(a)When one travels by Air Lahara, you often find that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.

(b)When you travel by Air Lahara, one often finds that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.

(c)As you travel by Air Lahara, you often find that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.

(d)If you travel by Air Lahara, you often find that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.

(e)Whenever you are travelling by Air Lahara, you find the prices are high and the journey experience is extremely poor.

22.Ever since the sting operation, there has been much opposition from they who maintain that it was an unauthorised act.

(a)Ever since the sting operation, there has been much opposition from they who maintain that it was an unauthorised act.

(b)Ever since the sting operation, there has been much opposition from they who maintain that it had been an unauthorised act.

(c)Ever since the sting operation, there has been much opposition from those who maintain that it was an unauthorised act.

(d)Ever since the sting operation, there has been much opposition from those maintaining that it was an unauthorised act.

(e)Ever since the sting operation, there has been much of an opposition from them who maintain that it was an unauthorised act.

23.Having stole the money, the class teacher searched the student’s pocket.

(a)Having stole the money, the class teacher searched the student’s pocket.

(b)Having stolen the money, the student’s pockets were searched by the class teacher.

(c)Having stolen the money, the class teacher searched the student’s pockets.

(d)Having stole the money, the class teacher was searched by the student.

(e)While stealing the money, the class teacher had searched the student’s pockets.

24.The child is neither encouraged to be critical or to examine all the aspects of his opinion.

(a)The child is neither encouraged to be critical or to examine all the aspects of his opinion.

(b)The child is neither encouraged to be critical nor to examine all the aspects of his opinion.

(c)The child is either encouraged to be critical or to examine all the evidence for his opinion.

(d)None of these

(e)The child is either encouraged to be critical not to examine all the aspects of his opinion.

25.Although I calculate that my girlfriend will be here any minute, I cannot wait much longer for her to arrive.

(a)Although I calculate that my girlfriend will be here any minute, I cannot wait much longer for her to arrive.

(b)Although I reckon that my girlfriend will be here any minute, I cannot wait much longer for her to arrive.

(c)Because I calculate that my girlfriend will be here any minute, I cannot wait much longer for her to arrive.

(d)Although I think that my girlfriend will be here any minute, I cannot wait much longer for her to arrive.

(e)Because I think that my girlfriend will be here any minute, I cannot wait any longer for her to arrive.

26.The process by which the community influences the actions of its members is known as social control.

(a)The process by which the community influences the actions of its members is known as social control.

(b)The process by which the community influence the actions of its members is known as social control.

(c)The process by which the community goes about influencing the actions of its members is known as social control.

(d)The process by which the community influences the actions of its members is known as social control.

(e)The process by which the community influences the actions of its members could be known by social control.

27.To be sure, there would be scarcely no time left over for other things if school children would have been expected to have considered all sides of every matter on which they had opinions.

(a)There would be scarcely no time left over for other things if working people would have been expected to have considered all sides of every matter on which they had opinions.

(b)To be sure, there would be scarcely any time left for other things if working people should be expected to have considered all sides of every matter on which they had opinions. 

(c)To be sure, there would be scarcely any time left over for other things if school children were expected to consider all sides of every matter on which they had opinions.

(d)To be sure, there would be scarcely no time left over for other things if school children will be expected to have been considering all sides of every matter on which they had opinions.

(e)Sure enough, scarcely there would be any time left for other things if school children were expected to consider all sides of the matters on which they had opinions.

28.Depending on skillful suggestion, argument is seldom used in advertising.

(a)Depending on skillful suggestion, argument is seldom used in advertising.

(b)Argument is seldom used by advertisers, who depend on skillful suggestion instead.

(c)Skillfull suggestion is depended on by advertisers instead of argumentation.

(d)Suggestion, which is skillful, is used in place of argumentation by advertisers.

(e)Suggesting skillfully is what advertisers do apart from argumentation.

29.When this war is over, no kingdom will either be isolated in war or peace.

(a)When this war is over, no kingdom will either be isolated in war or peace.

(b)When this war is over, no kingdom will be either isolated in war or peace.

(c)When this war is over, no kingdom will either be isolated in war or be isolated in peace.

(d)When this war is over, no kingdom will be isolated either in war or peace.

(e)When this war is over, no kingdom will be isolated either in war nor peace.

30.The twelve-hour work day not only has been reduced to one of ten hours but also, in some lines of work, to below eight hours.

(a)The twelve-hour work day not only has been reduced to one of ten hours but also, in some lines of work, to below eight hours.

(b)Not only has the twelve-hour work day been reduced to one of ten hours but also, in some lines of work, to below eight hours.

(c)The twelve-hour work day has not only been reduced to one of ten hours but also, in some lines of work, to below eight hours.

(d)The twelve-hour work day has been reduced not only to one of ten hours but also, in some lines of work, to below eight hours.

(e)The twelve-hour working day has not only been reduced to ten hours but also, in some cases, to less than eight hours.

31.If some Indians look at where they are going, it can be seen that our goal is money.

(a)If some Indians look at where they are going, it can be seen that our goal is money.

(b)If some Indians look back to where they are going, it can be seen that our goal is money.

(c)If some Indians look at where they are going, it can be seen that their goal is money.

(d)If some Indians look at where they are going, they can see that their goal is money.

(e)If they Indians look at where they are going, they can see that their goal is money.

32.Sherry, a little girl with little talent for cooking, enjoys preparing Fried Rice.

(a)Sherry, a little girl with little talent for cooking, enjoys preparing Fried Rice.

(b)Sherry, is a little girl who has little talent for cooking but she enjoys preparing Fried Rice.

(c)Sherry, a little girl who has little cooking talent, enjoys preparing Fried Rice.

(d)Sherry, a girl with little talent for cooking, enjoys preparing Fried Rice.

(e)Sherry, a little girl, having little talent of cooking, still enjoys preparing Fried Rice.

33.Of all the persons I have ever met, Arjit is the most remarkable person.

(a)Of all the persons I have ever met, Arjit is the most remarkable person.

(b)Arjit is the most remarkable person of all the persons I have ever met.

(c)Of all the persons I have ever met, Arjit is the most remarkable person.

(d)Of all the persons I have ever met, Arjit is the most remarkable.

(e)Arjit being the most remarkable person of all I have met.

34.Unless they reverse present policies immediately, the world may suffer irreversible damage from the unregulated use of Bio weapons.

(a)Unless they reverse present policies immediately, the world may suffer irreversible damage from the unregulated use of Bio weapons.

(b)Unless present policies are reversed immediately, the world may suffer irreversible damage from the unregulated use of Bio weapons.

(c)Unless present policies are reversed, the world may suffer irreversible damage by the unregulated use of Bio weapons.

(d)Unless present policies are reversed, the world may suffer irreversible damage through the unregulated use of Bio weapons.

(e)Unless reversal of the present policies happen, the world should suffer irreversible damage from the unregulated use of Bio-weapons.

35.The panel interviewed several candidates who they thought had the experience and qualifications the position at IIM Bangalore required.

(a)The panel interviewed several candidates who they thought had the experience and qualifications the position at IIM Bangalore required.

(b)The panel interviewed several candidates whom they thought had the experience and qualifications the position at IIM Bangalore required.

(c)The panel interviewed several candidates from whom they thought had the experience and qualifications the position at IIM Bangalore required.

(d)The panel interviewed several candidates which he thought had the experience and qualifications the position at IIM Bangalore required.

(e)The panel interviews several candidates who they thought has the experience and qualifications the position at IIM Bangalore required.

36.The trend toward a decrease in the working hours is already evident in the longer weekend given to employees in many multinational organisations.

(a)The trend toward a decrease in the working hours is already evident in the longer weekend given to employees in many multinational organisations.

(b)The trend toward a decrease in the working hours is all ready evident in the longer weekend given to employees in many multinational organisations.

(c)The trend toward a decrease in the working hours is allready evident in the longer weekend given to employees in many multinational organisations.

(d)The trend toward a decrease in the working hours is all in already evident in the longer weekend given to employees in many multinational organisations.

(e)The trend toward a decrease in working hours is already evidently in the longer weekend given to employers in many multinational organisations.

37.Using it wisely, leisure promotes health, long life, efficiency, and happiness.

(a)Using it wisely, leisure promotes health, long life, efficiency, and happiness.

(b)If used wisely, leisure promotes health, long life, efficiency, and happiness.

(c)Having used it wisely, leisure promotes health, long life, efficiency, and happiness.

(d)If it is used wisely, leisure promotes health, long life, efficiency, and happiness.

(e)If, when using wisely, leisure promotes health, long life, efficiency, and happiness.

38.We want the trainer to be him who has the best rapport knowledge about the subject and the most superior communication skills.

(a)We want the trainer to be him who has the best rapport knowledge about the subject and the most superior communication skills.

(b)We want the trainer to be he who has the best rapport knowledge about the subject and the most superior communication skills.

(c)We want him to be the trainer who has the best rapport knowledge about the subject and the most superior communication skills.

(d)We desire that the trainer be him who has the best rapport knowledge about the subject and the most superior communication skills.

(e)We would want the trainer to be him who has the best rapport knowledge about the subject and superior most communications skill.

39.If she were to win the Olympic medal, I for one would be surprised.

(a)If she were to win the Olympic medal, I for one would be surprised.

(b)If she were to go on to win the Olympic medal, I for one would be surprised.

(c)If she becomes the winner of the Olympic medal, I for one would be surprised.

(d)In the event that she would win the Olympic medal, I for one would be surprised.

(e)If she goes to win the Olympic medal, I for one would be surprised.

40.The soldiers were told to take a long arduous hike, pitch their camps, have dinner, and that they should be in bed by 10 p.m.

(a)The soldiers were told to take a long arduous hike, pitch their camps, have dinner, and that they should be in bed by 10 p.m.

(b)The soldiers were told to take an arduous hike, pitch their camps, have dinner, and that they should be in bed by 10 p.m.

(c)The soldiers were told to take a long arduous hike, pitch camp, have dinner, and be in bed by 10 p.m.

(d)The soldiers were told to take a long arduous hike, pitching their camps, have dinner, and be in bed by 10 p.m.

(e)The soldiers was told to take a long arduous hike, pitch camp, having dinner and to be in bed by 10 p.m.

41.The Indian government’s failing to keep its pledges will have the effect of earning distrust from all the other nation in the region.

(a)The Indian government’s failing to keep its pledges will have the effect of earning distrust from all the other nation in the region.

(b)The Indian government failing to keep it’s pledges will have the effect of earning distrust from all the other nations in the region.

(c)The Indian government’s failing to keep its pledges will have the effect of earning distrust from all the other nations in the region.

(d)The Indian government failing to keep its pledges will have the effect of earning distrust from all the other nations in the region.

(e)The Indian government’s fail to keep its pledges will have the effect of earning distrust of all other nations in the region.

42.Her elder brother along with her grandparents insist that she remain in the same collage.

(a)Her elder brother along with her grandparents, insist that she remain in the same college.

(b)Her elder brother along with her grandparents insists that she remain in the same college.

(c)Her elder brother along with her grandparents are insisting that she remain in the same college.

(d)Her brother along with her grandparents have insisted that she remain in the same college.

(e)Her elder brother along with her grandparents insisted on that she remained in the same college.

43.Most students like to read these kind of books for using their spare time.

(a)Most students like to read these kind of books for using their spare time.

(b)Most students like to read these kind of book for using their spare time.

(c)Most students like to read this kind of book for using their spare time.

(d)Most students like to read this kind a book for using their spare time.

(e)Most students like to read this kind of book for using of their spare time.

44.Not only was he efficient but also welcoming in nature.

(a)He not only was competent but also friendly in nature.

(b)Not only was he competent but also friendly in nature.

(c)He not only was competent but friendly too in nature.

(d)He was not only competent but also friendly in nature.

(e)He, not only was competent but friendly also in nature.

45.In the normal course, John will graduate from college and enter a Post Graduate course in two years.

(a)In the normal course, John will graduate from college and enter a Post Graduate course in two years.

(b)In the normal course, John will graduate college and enter a Post Graduate course in two years.

(c)In the normal course, John should graduate from college and enter a Post Graduate course in two years.

(d)In the normal course, John will be able to graduate from college and enter a Post Graduate course in two years.

(e)In the normal course, John would graduate of college and enter a Post Graduate course in two years.

46.With the exception of Dipanjan and I, everyone in the class finished the assignment before the teacher came.

(a)With the exception of Dipanjan and I, everyone in the class finished the assignment before the teacher came.

(b)With the exception of Dipanjan and me, everyone in the class finished the assignment before the teacher came.

(c)With the exception of Dipanjan and me, everyone in the class had finished the assignment before the teacher came.

(d)With the exception of Dipanjan and I, everyone in the class had finished the assignment before the bell rang.

(e)With the exception of Dipanjan and I, everyone in the class finished the assignment before the teacher comes.

47.Familiar with the terrain from previous visits, the explorer’s search for the Big Monkey’s abode was a success.

(a)Familiar with the terrain from previous visits, the explorer’s search for the Big Monkey’s abode was a success.

(b)Familiar with the terrain from previous visits, the success of the explorer’s search for the Big Monkey’s abode was a mere formality.

(c)Familiar with the terrain from previous visits, the explorer succeeded in finding the Big Monkey’s abode.

(d)Familiar with the terrain from previous visits, the search by the explorer for the Big Monkey’s abode was successful.

(e)Familiar of the terrain with previous visits, the explorer succeeded in searching the Big Monkey’s abode.

48.Liberalisation has gone hand in hand and has offered incentives for such things as personal initiative, ambition, loyalty, hard work, and resourcefulness.

(a)Liberalisation has gone hand in hand and has offered incentives for such things as personal initiative, ambition, loyalty, hard work, and resourcefulness.

(b)Liberalisation has gone hand in hand with and has offered incentives for such things as personal initiative and ambition, loyalty, hard work, and resourcefulness.

(c)Liberalisation has gone hand in hand with and has offered incentives for such things as personal initiative and ambition, loyalty, hard work, and resourcefulness.

(d)Liberalisation has gone hand in hand and is offering incentives for such things as personal initiative ambition, loyalty, hard work, and resourcefulness.

(e)Liberalisation has gone hand in hand while and providing incentives for such things as personal initiative and ambition, loyalty, hard work, and resourcefulness.

49.I am not to eager to go to this movie because it did not get good reviews.

(a)I am not to eager to go to this movie because it did not get good reviews.

(b)Because of its poor reviews, I am not too eager to go to this movie.

(c)I am not too eager to go to this movie because the critics did not give it good reviews.

(d)I am not too eager to go to this movie because of its poor reviews.

(e)I am not too eager to go to these movie because of its poor reviews.

50.May I venture to say that I think this batting performance is the most superior I have ever seen?

(a)May I venture to say that I think this batting performance is the most superior I have ever seen?

(b)May I venture to say that this batting performance is the most superior I have ever seen?

(c)May I say that this batting performance is the most superior I have ever seen?

(d)I think this performance is superior to any I have ever seen.

(e)May I venture to say that this batting performance is more superior to anyone I have ever seen.

Type 2

Directions for Questions 1 to 25: For each of the following questions, a part or the whole of the original sentence has been underlined. You have to find the best way of writing the underlined part of the sentence.

1.The matter was referred back to the expert committee since the solution to the problem was different from the one proposed earlier.

(a)referred back to the expert committee since the solution to the problem was different from the one proposed earlier.

(b)referred to the expert committee since the solution to the problem was different from the one proposed earlier.

(c)referred back to the expert committee since the solution to the problem was different than the one proposed earlier.

(d)referred to committee since the solution to the problem was different than the one proposed earlier.

(e)referred back to the committee since the solution for problem was different than one proposed earlier.

2.Completing the physical examination, the tonsils were found to be diseased.

(a)Completing the physical examination, the tonsils

(b)Having completed the physical examination, the tonsils

(c)When the physical examination was completed, the tonsils

(d)The physical examination completed, the tonsils

(e)Completion of the physical examination, the tonsils

3.The smaller firms in any industry sell either on a price or quality-of-workmanship basis.

(a)The smaller firms in any industry sell either on a price or quality-of-workmanship basis.

(b)The smaller firms in any industry either sell on a price or quality-of-workmanship basis.

(c)The smaller firms in any industry sell on either a price or a quality-of-workmanship basis.

(d)The smaller firms in any industry sell on either a price or on a quality-of-workmanship basis.

(e)The smaller firms of any industry sell off either on a price or quality-of-workmanship basis.

4.Current economic conditions demand that we not only cut jobs and prices but also reduce the rate of interest on PF deposits.

(a)that we not only cut jobs and prices but also

(b)not only cutting job and prices but also to

(c)not only to cut jobs and prices but also

(d)not only a cut in jobs and prices but also to

5.All rounders in any cricket team, in theory, make good sense; in actuality, however, they are normally difficult to discover.

(a)they are normally

(b)it is normally

(c)such players are normally

(d)it is usually expected that it is

(e)as they are normally difficult to discover.

6.Aamir was sitting with his friends when the Premier, in accompaniment with his only social secretary, entered the garden.

(a)in accompaniment with his only social secretary

(b)accompanying only by his social secretary

(c)accompanied only by his social secretary

(d)only accompanied by his social secretary

(e)is accompanied by only his social secretary

7.Being in the need for a variety of clothing, he founded Azam Lucman, a Bihari tailor in Patna who could produce any type of uniform in a couple of days.

(a)he founded Azam Lucman, a Bihari tailor in Patna who could produce any type of uniform in a couple of days.

(b)a Bihari tailor Azam Lucman found him in Patna who could produce any type of uniform in a couple of days.

(c)a Bihari tailor Azam Lucman was found by him a couple of days later, who could produce any type of uniform.

(d)he founded Azam Lucman tailors, a Bihari tailor in Patna who could produce any type of uniform in a couple of days.

(e)a Bihari tailor Azam Lucman was founded by him in Patna who could produce any type of uniform in a couple of days.

8.Reared in a village where computers and the internet were objects of curiosity, Purty today hardly gives a thought to the immense possibilities that the internet revolution has thrown open to him.

(a)Reared in a village where computers and the internet were objects of curiosity

(b)Curious to know that computers and the internet were objects of curiosity in the village he was reared up

(c)Being reared in the village where the computers and the internet are objects of curiosity

(d)Reared in a village where computers and the internet were an object of curiousness

(e)Rearing in a village where computers and the internet were objects of curiosity

9.In the attempt to destroy them with completeness, the Indian team has launched a coordinated attack on the opposing team.

(a)In the attempt to destroy them with completeness

(b)In attempting to destroy them completely,

(c)In an attempt to destroy them completely,

(d)In the attempt of destroying them completely,

(e)In the attempt to destroy them with completely

10.Balancing a home delivery pizza with one hand and gripping a six-pack carton of Coke with another, the young boy Vijay, paused in front of the guard room of the building.

(a)Balancing a home delivery pizza with one hand and gripping a six-pack carton of Coke with another

(b)Balancing a home delivery pizza with one hand and having gripped a six-pack carton of Coke with another

(c)Having a balance of a home delivery pizza with one hand and gripping a six-pack of carton of Coke with the other

(d)Balancing a home delivery pizza with one hand and gripping a pack of six Cokes with the other

(e)Balancing a home delivery pizza in one hand and gripping a six-packed carton of Coke with another

11.Armed with the talents of a high intellect, an actor with extraordinary gifts and an ingenious criminal, Charles Sobhraj played an overbearing role in the sensationalisation of crime during the later part of the 20th century in the Indian sub continent.

(a)an actor with extraordinary gifts and an ingenious criminal,

(b)an ingenious actor and an extraordinarily gifted criminal,

(c)a gifted actor and an ingeniously criminal,

(d)an extraordinarily gifted actor and an ingenious criminal,

(e)An actor with extraordinary gifts of an ingenious criminal,

12.Dr. Pam Saxena, an Indian specialist in drug rehabilitation medicine, advises against going easy on rehabilitated drug addicts for the fear of their relapsing into addiction.

(a)Dr. Pam Saxena, an Indian specialist in drug rehabilitation medicine, advises against going easy on rehabilitated drug addicts

(b)An Indian specialist in drug rehabilitation medicine, Dr. Pam Saxena, advises against going easy on rehabilitated drug addicts

(c)An Indian specialist in drug rehabilitation medicine, Pam Saxena, is of the opinion that one should not go easy on rehabilitated drug addicts

(d)Dr. Pam Saxena, an Indian specialist in drug rehabilitation medicine, advice against going easy on rehabilitated drug addicts

(e)Dr. Pam Saxena, an Indian specialist in drug rehabilitation medicines advises against easy going of rehabilitated drug addicts

13.In the fall of 1996, the Indian government dispatched samples of the cells of the militants to those four US scientists, who were only the Americans authorised to test them.

(a)dispatched samples of the cells of the militants to those four US scientists, who were only the Americans authorised to test them.

(b)dispatched samples of the militant’s cells to those four US scientists, the only Americans authorised to test them.

(c)dispatched samples of the cells of militants to those four US scientists who were authorised to test them.

(d)dispatch the samples of the cells of the militants to those four US scientists, who were the only Americans authorised to test them.

(e)dispatched samples of cells of militants to those four US scientists, of the only Americans authorised to test them.

14.To prepare himself, he subjected himself to two weeks of total abstinence and intensive training in the open fields of the Panipat, climbing the hills nearby 30 times, spend nights in the open and to test to see how long he could hold out without food.

(a)climbing the hills nearby 30 times, spend nights in the open and to test to see

(b)climbed the hills nearby 30 times, spending nights in the open and tested to see

(c)spending nights in the open by climbing the hills nearby 30 times and tested for seeing

(d)climbing the hills nearby 30 times, spending nights in the open and testing to see

(e)climbing the nearby hills 30 times, spend nights in the open and tested to see

15.In November 1984, the Vesuvius volcano, started showing seismic activity, and later beginning belching gases, fumes and water and rumbled with the force of millions of tones of molten rock beneath the earth.

(a)started showing seismic activity, and later beginning belching gases, fumes and water and rumbled with

(b)started showing seismic activity, and later began belching gases, fumes and water and rumbling with

(c)showing some seismic activity, and later began belching gases, fumes and water and rumbled with

(d)had started to show seismic activity, and later began belching gases, fumes and water and began rumbling with

(e)has starting to show some seismic activity, and later began belching gases, fumes and water and rumbled with

16.Many middle-class South Asians find that they cannot obtain good medical attention, despite the fact they need it badly.

(a)they need it badly.

(b)they badly need it.

(c)of they need it badly.

(d)that they need it badly.

(e)they need it that badly.

17.The world today is totally different than, we have seen in the last century.

(a)than, we have seen

(b)from what we have seen

(c)from what we seen

(d)than what we seen

(e)than from that we have seen

18.Start the engine, and then you should press the accelerator.

(a)Start the engine, and then you should press

(b)Start the engine and then press

(c)Start the engine, then go on pressing

(d)Starting the engine, then pressing

(e)Starting the engine go on to pressing

19.He is an asset to the organisation, although he seems to be an eccentric and is a loner.

(a)He is an asset to the organisation, although he seems to be an eccentric and is a loner.

(b)Although he is eccentric, he is an asset to the organisation and wants to be a loner.

(c)Although he is eccentric, he is an asset to the organisation although he wants to be a loner.

(d)Although he is eccentric and wants to be a loner, he is an asset to the organisation.

(e)He is an asset to the organisation, seeming an eccentric and a loner although.

20.During the oil price hike of 2005 caused by the global market conditions, the amount of oil imported by our country decreased markedly.

(a)amount of oil imported by our country decreased markedly.

(b)amount of the oil imported by our country decreased markedly.

(c)amount of oil imported by our country decreased very visibly.

(d)amount of the oil we imported as a country decreased markedly.

(e)amount of oil imports of our country decreases markedly.

21.In rural India, many mango trees are planted at the end of a village or at the border of a district, for providing excellent shade during summer, and shelter during winter.

(a)for providing excellent shade during summer, and shelter during winter.

(b)to provide excellent shade in summer, and shelter in winter.

(c)in order to provide excellent shade in summer, and shelter in winter.

(d)so as to excellently provide shade in summer, and shelter in winter.

(e)for providing excellent shading during summer and shelter in winter.

22.Some of the most gut wrenching images of the previous year 1985 were, the tsunami striking South East Asian countries, the earthquake striking Pakistan, and famine stalking region after region.

(a)the tsunami striking South East Asian countries, the earthquake striking Pakistan, and famine

(b)the tsunami stricken South East Asian countries, the earthquake stricken Pakistan, and famine

(c)the tsunami striking South East Asian countries, the earthquake stricken Pakistan, and famine

(d)the tsunami striking South East Asian countries, the earthquakes striking Pakistan, and the famine

(e)the tsunami striking the South East Asian countries, the earthquake striking the Pakistan, and famine

23.Mental intelligence and common sense are essential for outstanding achievement because they involve your natural ability to comprehend difficult concepts quicker and to analyse them clearly and incisively.

(a)your natural ability to comprehend difficult concepts quicker and to analyse them clearly and incisively.

(b)one’s natural ability for the comprehension of difficult concepts quickly and analysing them clearly and incisively.

(c)your natural ability of comprehension of difficult concepts quickly and clear and incisive analysis of it.

(d)one’s natural ability to comprehend difficult concepts quickly and to analyse them clearly and incisively.

(e)one has natural ability to comprehension of difficult concepts quickly and to analyse them clearly and incisively.

24.Panchayati Raj institutions are now entrusted upon the execution of all rural upliftment schemes and programs in India.

(a)entrusted upon the execution of all rural upliftment schemes and programs

(b)entrusted with the execution of all rural uplift schemes and programs

(c)entrusted with the execution of all rural upliftment schemes and programs

(d)entrusted within the execution for all rural uplift programs and schemes

(e)entrusted of the execution of all rural upliftment schemes and programs

25.Mr. Singhania was perhaps the single most effective executive within the country, who had succeded without a degree, money and without any logistic support.

(a)who had succeeded without a degree, money and without any logistic support.

(b)without whom, a degree, money or logistic support, succeeded.

(c)who, without a degree, money or logistic support, succeeded.

(d)who, succeeded without a degree, money or logistic support.

(e)who, had succeed without a degree, money and without any logistic support.

Type 3

Directions for Questions 1 to 50: In the following questions, you have to identify the correct sentence/s.

For each of the following questions find the sentence/s that are correct.

1.

(A)

When you look up a word, the main thing that you want to know was its basic meaning.

 

(B)

It’s time to winding up the discussion now.

 

(C)

A great many various words in English have more than one meaning.

 

(D)

That wasn’t a very fair thing to say!

   

(a) D only

   

(b) A and D

   

(c) A, B and D

   

(d) All of the above are correct

   

(e) None of the above

2.

(A)

She has a fair chance of winning the first prize.

 

(B)

Fair weather is forecasted for tomorrow.

 

(C)

There’s a fair on at the park this very week.

 

(D)

Don’t forget to wind down your watch.

   

(a) A only

   

(b) A and C

   

(c) A, B and C

   

(d) None of the above are correct

   

(e) Only A and B

3.

(A)

Every language has a lot of different words with similar but slightly differing meanings.

 

(B)

Words are used with each other in fairly fixed ways in every language.

 

(C)

Words do not only have meanings, they also have associations.

 

(D)

At an advanced level of any language, it is important to develop an impression of what connotations certain words have.

   

(a) A only

   

(b) A and C

   

(c) A, B and C

   

(d) All of the above are correct

   

(e) Only (b)

4.

(A)

Make a special note of any special characteristics that a word has had.

 

(B)

The judge Mr. Dhuan increased the sentence of life imprisonment.

 

(C)

We had a lightish dinner.

 

(D)

Raveesh is very good at putting on different accentuals.

   

(a) A only

   

(b) A and C

   

(c) A, B and C

   

(d) None of the above are correct

   

(e) Only (b) and (c)

5.

(A)

I don’t like recorded music, I prefer the real thing.

 

(B)

These items are the genuine articles.

 

(C)

You can give a wide summary of something.

 

(D)

You can describe something in minute detail.

   

(a) A and C

(b) A and B

   

(c) B and D

(d) C only

   

(e) None of these

 

6.

(A)

It’s something I feel powerfully about.

 

(B)

If I remember perfectly, it happened at about six-thirty.

 

(C)

It is useful to learn which adverbs most typically modify particular types of objectives.

 

(D)

The majority of these adjectives has a negative connotation.

   

(a) C only

(b) B and C

   

(c) A only

(d) None of these

   

(e) All of these

 

7.

(A)

You lift your hand to ask a question.

 

(B)

You can raise a family.

 

(C)

You can go to a website on the world wide web.

 

(D)

You can inspect a hotel inside which you want to stay.

   

(a) A only

(b) C only

   

(c) B and D

(d) B and C

   

(e) None of these

   

8.

(A)

The Seven Horses hotel in Singapore is much great.

 

(B)

He just doesn’t live in the genuine world.

 

(C)

This briefcase is made of authentic leather.

 

(D)

She is a very genuine person.

   

(a) A, B and D

(b) B and D

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) A and B only

 

9.

(A)

After his death, she went to the hospital to collect his personal affairs.

 

(B)

He made a rather fragile attempt of an apology, but it didn’t convince anyone.

 

(C)

Abhijit was a dreadful opponent, and I respected him for that.

 

(D)

I was feeling pretty anxious when she didn’t arrive on time.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) D only

(d) C only

   

(e) None of these

 

10.

(A)

A brash walk before dinner helps to enforce the appetite.

 

(B)

The death tally in the Pakistan earthquake has now risen to 300,000.

 

(C)

Let’s take a sluggish stroll along the beach, shall we?

 

(D)

If you want to stay at home tonight, that’s perfectly OK with me.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) A and B only

 

11.

(A)

My aunt bereaved Rs.500,000 in her will to cancer research.

 

(B)

If I remember rightly she had two brothers, both older than her.

 

(C)

If you want information about the publisher of this book, you can accede their website.

 

(D)

Eating all those peanuts has attacked my appetite.

   

(a) B only

(b) B and C

   

(c) A and C

(d) D only

   

(e) Only A

 

12.

(A)

It’s only fair that we should share the work equally.

 

(B)

The Patna Book Fair is a very important event for most publishers.

 

(C)

Our house gives us shelter through fair weather or foul.

 

(D)

I’ve got fair eyelashes, hence my eyes look awful without mascara.

   

(a) A, B and C

(b) C and D

   

(c) A, C and D

(d) All of the above

   

(e) Only A and B

 

13.

(A)

The firefighters managed to save the people trapped in the burning third-floor flat.

 

(B)

The countryside round here is terribly flattened and boring.

 

(C)

To join the Lucknow Golf Club you pay a flattened fee of Rs. 5 lacs.

 

(D)

He was able to erect the child’s toy in five minutes flat.

   

(a) B and C

(b) A only

   

(c) A and D

(d) None of above

   

(e) A and B

 

14.

(A)

He struck a match box and we slowly began to look around the pitch dark room.

 

(B)

The batsmen of the visiting team were not a matching for any of the home team batsmen.

 

(C)

Their marriage has been called a matching made in heaven.

 

(D)

The tense match between India and Pakistan ended in a draw.

   

(a) A only

(b) C only

   

(c) D only

(d) C and D

   

(e) Only B

 

15.

(A)

Rameez’s going to be in the saddle while the boss is on the foreign trip.

 

(B)

It’s hard to know what to do when the management keeps moving the goalposts.

 

(C)

Starting his own decorating business was just another of his half-baked ideas.

 

(D)

We’ve had to tighten our belts since our father lost his job.

   

(a) A only

(b) B, C and D

   

(c) All of the above

(d) A, C and D

   

(e) A and B

 

16.

(A)

More unusual and original metaphors are used a great dealing in literature.

 

(B)

All the world’s a stage and all the men and women merely players.

 

(C)

The candles of the night are burnt out; and the jocular day stands tiptoe atop the misty mountain tops.

 

(D)

There is a tide in the affairs of men, which, taken at the peak of the flood, leads on to fortunate.

   

(a) B and C

(b) D and C

   

(c) C only

(d) B only

   

(e) Only A

   

17.

(A)

This book threw a great deal of fresh light on the history of the period.

 

(B)

We could save half an hour at least if we went through the wood forest.

 

(C)

Try to keep your cool even if he argues with you.

 

(D)

She spent all her life fighting to get her company recognised and magnificent.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) C and D

   

(e) A and C

   

18.

(A)

She works in a shop that sells lady’s clothes.

 

(B)

Do you like the new shades that I’ve got?

 

(C)

Did you see that documentary about Wales on TV last night?

 

(D)

Have you met Amita’s newish boy friend?

   

(a) C only

(b) B only

   

(c) B and C

(d) D only

   

(e) C and D

 

19.

(A)

It was a very bad hotel, with an overpriced menu.

 

(B)

In this program, you can choose to overwrite the existing file or to save it as a new file.

 

(C)

Our garden is overshadowed by the apartment block built next door.

 

(D)

Amit always felt overshadowed by his older, more talented and successful, brother.

   

(a) All of the above

(b) A, C and D

   

(c) A, B and D

(d) C and D

   

(e) None of the above

 

20.

(A)

Don’t underestimate the time that the work will take.

 

(B)

The company is variously understaffed.

 

(C)

The underlying issue is a very simple one.

 

(D)

Kapil wishes his would not undermine everything that he does.

   

(a) A and C

(b) C and D

   

(c) B and D

(d) A and B

   

(e) Only B

21.

(A)

The airline upgraded me to business class.

 

(B)

There has been an upward upturn in the economy.

 

(C)

Cross-border cooperation has led to series of arrests of drug smugglers.

 

(D)

Cross-cultural misunderstandings happen very often in today’s world.

   

(a) C and D

(b) B and C

   

(c) A and B

(d) A and D

   

(e) B and D

22.

(A)

He was ejected from the restaurants for bad behaviour.

 

(B)

The engine emitted a loud noise and then stopped running.

 

(C)

The building is adjacent of the hotel.

 

(D)

She gave me an annotated edition to Salman Rushdie’s works.

   

(a) A and B

(b) B only

   

(c) B and C

(d) D only

   

(e) All of the above

23.

(A)

I really think he overstayed his case, and lost a lot of sympathy.

 

(B)

The plane’s undercarriage failed to open and it crashed.

 

(C)

A detailed list of the participants in the seminar is given overleaf.

 

(D)

Rajendra has a very overbearing personality.

   

(a) C and D

(b) A and C

   

(c) A and B

(d) D only

   

(e) Only A

 

24.

(A)

The project was underfunded from the outset.

 

(B)

During the cruise, a small cat fell board and drowned.

 

(C)

Cooperation across the fronts has been very good.

 

(D)

Cross-border cooperation has been exemplary good.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C and D

(d) None of the above

   

(e) A and B

   

25.

(A)

The hotel staff members gave me a luxury room instead of the ordinary one I’d booked.

 

(B)

Would you like to spend the night at the camp site or come back the same day?

 

(C)

The problem that lies under surface is a very serious one.

 

(D)

Misunderstandings between cultures, is sadly, extremely frequent.

   

(a) A and C

(b) B and C

   

(c) B only

(d) A and D

   

(e) A, B and C

   

26.

(A)

I think this restaurant charges too much.

 

(B)

The company experienced a rise in popularity since he changed its name.

 

(C)

I felt that what she said was critical of my position and weakened it some well.

 

(D)

It would be a mistake to think Monica was less intelligent than she really would be.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) A and D

 

27.

(A)

The weather can’t be predictable.

 

(B)

Poisonous snakes can be easily identified.

 

(C)

He thinks so much about his career that he has no time for their family.

 

(D)

The new windscreen designs are supposed to be in the process of being destructible by vandals.

   

(a) A and D

(b) A, B and C

   

(c) B only

(d) C and B

   

(e) Only C

 

28.

(A)

I had to postpone my trip to Kanpur.

 

(B)

She asked the star for his signature on the behind of her table napkin.

 

(C)

She took a degree in the sciences of crime at the Harvard University.

 

(D)

The novel is largely based on the writer’s own life story.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) A and D

(d) C only

   

(e) C and B

   

29.

(A)

It’s an art exhibition looking back of the artists life and work.

 

(B)

Deepak Chopra believes you can cure yourself into telling yourself that you are cured.

 

(C)

Working at the home site and keeping in contact with the office by phone, fax and electronics is becoming increasingly common.

 

(D)

Some constituencies are now deliberately trying to becoming less backward.

   

(a) None of Above

(b) A only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) A and C

   

30.

(A)

Most of the time modern airplanes fly on autopilot.

 

(B)

The firm makes job applicants do a graphology tests.

 

(C)

Rajat’s a technique-wizard!

 

(D)

Is it OK if I post-date this cheque!

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) All of the above

   

31.

(A)

The company will be committing economics hara-kiri if it agrees to such a proposal.

 

(B)

Most children these days are inoculated against vaccines when they are babies.

 

(C)

I have some lovely pink earrings, they match my pink pendant perfectly.

 

(D)

A weekend at the seaside was just the roster we needed after the long arduous journey.

   

(a) A only

(b) A and B

   

(c) A and D

(d) C only

   

(e) None of the above

   

32.

(A)

Seventeen prisoners have broken out into the high security Ambarka jail.

 

(B)

The disease has broken out of several villages in the north of the country.

 

(C)

Economists are looking out for signs in an end to the recession.

 

(D)

He stood at the corner looking out at passing cars.

   

(a) A only

(b) C and D

   

(c) B only

(d) None of the above

   

(e) A and D

   

33.

(A)

There has been a breakout of a high security jail.

 

(B)

There has been an outbreak of the deadly disease in several villages in the south of the state.

 

(C)

The outlook is not gracious as the country’s economy seems be stagnant.

 

(D)

He was the overlooker while the others robbed the bank.

   

(a) A only

(b) A and C

   

(c) B only

(d) B and D

   

(e) Only C

   

34.

(A)

I have always maintained a policy of not intervening affairs that are not my business.

 

(B)

The traffic was stationery for a few minutes after the accident, then its begun to move again.

 

(C)

She paid me a nice complement by saying that I was the most intelligent person she had ever worked with.

 

(D)

I am sorry but I wasn’t trying to avoid you.

   

(a) A and C

(b) D only

   

(c) C and D

(d) A and B

   

(e) B and C

   

35.

(A)

At the entrance there was a big signal saying ‘No dogs allowed’.

 

(B)

The coach intervened in order to stop the argument between the two players.

 

(C)

The other benefits I received in the job were complimented by an excellent pension plan.

 

(D)

If you need stationery for your desk at the office, just ask the secretary.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) All of the above

 

36.

(A)

Amitesh was continually complaining about something or other.

 

(B)

Amit was fined Rs. 25,900 for avoiding taxes and failing to declare one’s income.

 

(C)

The signal changed to green and the train moved away from the station.

 

(D)

You have to press the button continuously until the light comes out.

   

(a) C and B

(b) D only

   

(c) C only

(d) A only

   

(e) A and C

   

37.

(A)

I don’t think these sweaters will outlast till the end of the season.

 

(B)

We ended up the table and used it to block the doorway.

 

(C)

The cheetah is such a fast animal that it can even out run the fastest cars.

 

(D)

Binny is always trying to do out everyone.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) B and C

   

38.

(A)

The committee held up her complaint, and she was awarded compensation.

 

(B)

The Rolling Stones have out lasted most other music groups of the 1960s in popularity.

 

(C)

We ended up eating in a dingy café on the edge of town.

 

(D)

I’ll leave on Monday as I don’t want to stay out my welcome.

   

(a) B only

(b) B and A

   

(c) C and D

(d) A and C

   

(e) A, B and C

   

39.

(A)

There has been a violence out break in the old part of the city.

 

(B)

I couldn’t go to work since my stomach was bad inside.

 

(C)

He is extremely cheerful and positive about his life.

 

(D)

They fooled him into thinking his car had been set up and stolen, but it hadn’t.

   

(a) A and C

(b) D only

   

(c) C only

(d) B only

   

(e) None of the above

   

40.

(A)

I imagine that I would get bored if I had a nine-and five job.

 

(B)

When I arrive in the morning and leave in the evening I use this card to clock out and check in.

 

(C)

I’m very tired as recently I’ve had a very heavy task.

 

(D)

I don’t want an office job because I don’t want to spend all day stuck in house.

   

(a) A only

(b) B and C

   

(c) None of the above

(d) D only

   

(e) B only

   

41.

(A)

Amitabh can clock in any time between eight and ten and clock out between four and six; he is on flexi-time.

 

(B)

I’d hate to feel trapped in my job and to be stuck inside lift.

 

(C)

Amitabh’s not here this evening, he’s working nights as he does shifty work.

 

(D)

Amitabh said “I work for different companies at different times as it suits me. I’m flexi-worker.”

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) All of the above

   

42.

(A)

I used to work for a company, but now I’m my own senior boss, I’m free lance.

 

(B)

Ravindra stopped working in the restaurant as it was just a dead shift.

 

(C)

When I was working for Reliance, all I could think of all day was about the evening.

 

(D)

Being a corporate executive is a nice job, but you can’t go out much with friends.

   

(a) A and C

(b) C and D

   

(c) D only

(d) A and B

   

(e) B and D

   

43.

(A)

A unique painting will come inside the hammer in at Sotheby’s tomorrow.

 

(B)

It’s a sensible idea to shop around a bit before buying a computer.

 

(C)

Jimmy has promised me that, if he ever decides to sell his motorbike, I can have refusal on it.

 

(D)

Amisha doesn’t mind trying a hard sell on a person who has expressed an interest in her company’s products.

   

(a) B and C

(b) A and C

   

(c) D only

(d) B and D

   

(e) Only B

   

44.

(A)

I wasn’t sure whether the shoe would fit my son’s foot size so I bought it on approval.

 

(B)

If you hope to make a bids for something in an open auction you first have to catch the auctioneer’s eyes.

 

(C)

If you work as a receptionist in this industry you spend most of your day on the cold-calling.

 

(D)

They produce special implements for elderly people who like to do yoga and have really captured this very wide market.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) Only A and B

   

45.

(A)

As they had common business interests, it did not take them very long to come to an agreement on the issues under discussion.

 

(B)

If you want to go into the manufacturing business, you had better be prepared for a lot of bureaucracy and governance.

 

(C)

Sportswear is a very profitable business to be in at the peak of the inflation.

 

(D)

Only a small percentage of IIM Graduates have a real talent for the risk-taking of opening new business avenues.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) All of the above

   

46.

(A)

Does the customer know that he has many accounts outstanding which have yet to be paid?

 

(B)

Until what date is the employment contract valid to expire?

 

(C)

Please let us know when you receive our payment.

 

(D)

It is very important that you complete your work by the agree time table.

   

(a) A and B

(b) C and D

   

(c) C only

(d) B and D

   

(e) None of the above

   

47.

(A)

Perizaad is working on a very interesting resource project at the moment.

 

(B)

Unfortunately, there’s a morale flaw in your reasoning.

 

(C)

What used to be called Personnel in the 1980s is now named Human Resource.

 

(D)

Mr. Mazumdar, the new COO is doing his best to raise the morale in the office.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) D only

(d) A and C

   

(e) All of the above

   

48.

(A)

The top brass of an organisation is often in the habit of rewarding itself, regardless of the performance of the organisation.

 

(B)

It is impossible to be both brainy and beautiful at the same time.

 

(C)

Managers don’t pay enough attention to the people who work for them.

 

(D)

Large businesses succeed by destroying small businesses.

   

(a) All of the above

(b) B, C and D

   

(c) A, B and D

(d) D only

   

(e) Only A

   

49.

(A)

It’s very easy to fall behind your annual targets even if you under perform for a few days every month.

 

(B)

She seemed to just breeze through the exams.

 

(C)

I just can’t seem to get hang of my biology subjects.

 

(D)

When I sat down and looked at the exam paper my mind just went black.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C and D

(d) A and B

   

(e) D only

   

50.

(A)

He is the nicest person you can hope to come across.

 

(B)

Six Indians were awarded the Order of Merit by the foreign dignitary.

 

(C)

You should treat everyone with equal respect.

 

(D)

Man is a severely competent person.

   

(a) A only

(b) B and C only

   

(c) A and C

(d) A, B and C

   

(e) None of the above

   

Type 4

Directions for Questions 1–50: In each of the following questions, one or more of the sentences is/are incorrect. You have to identify the incorrect sentence/s:

1.

(A)

Soaring oil prices have raised the stakes in China’s game of brinkmanship over the hotly disputed Spratly islands, with the Philippines this week becoming the first rival claimant to break ranks.

 

(B)

In a separate development, Beijing reacted with unusual restraint to Vietnam’s announced plans to begin regular air services to another Spratlys atoll within months, indicating that the feuding neighbors may have reached an accommodation on the issue.

 

(C)

Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and her Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao agreed at talks in Beijing jointly to study potential oil deposits in the South China Sea atolls as part of a three-year research project involving two state energy firms.

 

(D)

A communiqué by the Philippine government went to great pains to emphasise that the pact did not imply that the two countries, whose naval forces have clashed over the contested reefs, would proceed past the drilling stage.

   

(a) A and B

(b) B and D

   

(c) A, C and D

(d) D only

   

(e) All of the above

   

2.

(A)

Salvation was to come from the direction of Central Asia, with Russia shipping 400,000 barrels per day of crude through an overland pipeline to Daqing, in northern China.

 

(B)

However, it is more than a year behind schedule, and dogged by uncertainty.

 

(C)

Suddenly the hundreds of coral atolls have shifted over into focus, even though the documented evidence of oil and gas supplies is at best circumspect.

 

(D)

Diplomatic reports suggest that China may be poised for a decisive push into the region.

   

(a) A only

(b) A and C

   

(c) C only

(d) A, B, C and D

   

(e) Only B

   

3.

(A)

Tokyo, concerned that gas fields on his side of the boundary might be exhausted, sent a survey team to the area in July.

 

(B)

Japan’s gas reserves are projected at 200 billion meters, a commercially viable level.

 

(C)

Beijing proposed in June that the gas field be jointly developed, but Tokyo has not responded, reportedly because the extent of the Chinese reserves is unknown and out of concern that the issue might inflame tensions between China and Taiwan.

 

(D)

Further to the east, Petro China has been given the green light to begin drilling for gas near the Nanxia Archipelago, a strategic area contested by Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan and the Philippines.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) A and B

(d) A and D

   

(e) None of the above

   

4.

(A)

Think of the merger and acquisition (M&A) game and immediately a lot number of American or European companies come to mind.

 

(B)

Indian firms takes over more than 75 international companies last year.

 

(C)

Among the most publicised deals, Tata Motors, part of Tata Group, India’s oldest industrial conglomerate, bought South Korean company Daewoo’s truck plant in that country.

 

(D)

Reliance Infocomm, belonging to India’s largest privately held business house, Reliance Group, took over Flag International, a major telecom network, for US $211 million.

   

(a) A and B

(b) A, B and C

   

(c) A only

(d) B only

   

(e) C only

   

5.

(A)

In fact, the global ambitions of Indian industrial houses are best illustrated by Aditya Birla Group, which has a presence in 18 countries and overseas revenue of $1.8 billion.

 

(B)

The group employs 12,000 people in 20 countries.

 

(C)

Their manufacturing activities span carbon black, tire cord, viscose staple fiber, metals and chemicals.

 

(D)

Earlier, global operations for an Indian company means plain exports.

   

(a) A and D

(b) A only

   

(c) D only

(d) A, C and D

   

(e) A, B and C

   

6.

(A)

It began with acquisitions in the information technology and related services sector.

 

(B)

In pharmaceuticals, Wockhardt has bought C P Pharma of the United Kingdom for $10.85 million.

 

(C)

Tata Tea has taken over Tetley of the UK, the world’s biggest tea bag maker, for $430 million.

 

(D)

With the process, it has become the world’s second largest tea company.

   

(a) B and D

(b) D only

   

(c) B only

(d) A, B and D

   

(e) A only

   

7.

(A)

There are two main reasons for that predatory mood.

 

(B)

Having established a domestic presence, the component makers are now looking for an international presence.

 

(C)

Second, having improved their productivity, quality and reliability, Indian companies feel more confident about spreading their wings abroad.

 

(D)

Various other factors are being attributed to this Indian penchant for the takeover game in all sectors.

   

(a) A only

(b) A and B

   

(c) B only

(d) none of those

   

(e) C only

   

8.

(A)

Since 1996, it has been regularly been winning GM’s “Supplier of the year” award.

 

(B)

It is on the urging of GM that SFL set up its China operations in May 2004 in Hainan province.

 

(C)

A presence aboard means easier reaches to new markets.

 

(D)

This explains why TVS Group has also set up a motorcycle plant in China.

   

(a) A and C

(b) A, C and D

   

(c) C and D

(d) A and D

   

(e) All of the above

   

9.

(A)

A changing perception as to India has also helped.

 

(B)

India is no longer a backward, third world country.

 

(C)

Helping boost the image are favorable opinions of leading international financial institutions (FI).

 

(D)

India will be the third biggest economy by 2050, just behind China and the US, in that order.

   

(a) A

(b) A and D

   

(c) B only

(d) No error

   

(e) C only

   

10.

(A)

Alfa Laval India, which has plants in three locations, is taking this step to better utilise its reserves.

 

(B)

In the UK alonely, Indian firms have about 440 investments/joint ventures.

 

(C)

There are 1,441 Indian companies operating in Singapore.

 

(D)

Of these more than 450 are technology enterprises.

   

(a) A

(b) B

   

(c) B and C

(d) no error

   

(e) A and B

   

11.

(A)

A print design project communicates a message.

 

(B)

Contrast is a good way to create a noticeable design and layout.

 

(C)

Contrast can be size, color, direction, format or the expected versus the unexpected.

 

(D)

Size contrast can involve graphics or type.

   

(a) B

(b) B and C

   

(c) C

(d) A, B and C

   

(e) A and C

   

12.

(A)

I remember seeing a full page-advertisement with a bright background colour.

 

(B)

The only other item on the page was a very small line of type in a lighter shade of the same colour.

 

(C)

Since I can still recall the ad, it must made an impression.

 

(D)

Using colour to impact your design works best when it involves the unexpected or extreme.

   

(a) B

(b) C

   

(c) D

(d) No error

   

(e) A

   

13.

(A)

Moving one by one step away from the expected with graphics and photography can also create reader interest.

 

(B)

Try using a conceptual image or photo to highlight your main message versus very first thing to come to mind when thinking about your product or service.

 

(C)

Another form of contrast is in the actual design.

 

(D)

An unusual fold in a brochure or direct mail piece can add excitement.

   

(a) A and B

(b) B only

   

(c) A only

(d) No error

   

(e) B and D

   

14.

(A)

The typeface that you choose for your print project is an important piece of the foremost overall design process.

 

(B)

First, narrow down your choice by selecting the tone you want to present.

 

(C)

Typefaces can convey personality.

 

(D)

For instance, if you are in the banking industry you might choose a classic serif font such as Garamond, to convey dependability.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) no error

   

(e) D only

   

15.

(A)

Readability is crucial.

 

(B)

Be sure the font we choose is legible and logical.

 

(C)

With all of the newest and interesting typefaces available today, it is tempting to pick one that you think looks “cool”.

 

(D)

This can work if you are going for an edgy look that will appeal to a young audience, but your copy still needs to be easily understood.

   

(a) A and D

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) B and C

   

(e) A only

   

16.

(A)

Words setting and word spacing are another consideration to achieve for your design.

 

(B)

The optimal setting for your body text is flush left, rag right.

 

(C)

This setting allows comfortable readability.

 

(D)

The flush left makes it easier for the reader to find the next line.

   

(a) B only

(b) C only

   

(c) B and C

(d) no error

   

(e) A only

   

17.

(A)

Justified text works best for lengthy materials such as books or magazine articles.

 

(B)

Centered text will create right and left ragged edges.

 

(C)

This can create a dignified look if treated carefully.

 

(D)

Vary the lines to give the ragged edges an interesting look and try increasing the space between the lines to add readability.

   

(a) A only

(b) A and D

   

(c) B and D

(d) C and D

   

(e) None of the above

   

18.

(A)

The brain is a strange organ.

 

(B)

It works in ways we don’t understand and manage to create everything we see.

 

(C)

Working at odds with the rest of the body it performs best when we are not consciously trying.

 

(D)

Creativity will be at the life-blood of every facet of life.

   

(a) B and D

(b) B only

   

(c) D only

(d) A and B

   

(e) A only

   

19.

(A)

One easy answer is water colour painting.

 

(B)

The gentle movement of a brush has a relaxing, de-stressing effect which has also been noted in activities such as calligraphy.

 

(C)

Whilst the mix of colours and there application energises parts of the brain which would normally get scanned stimulation.

 

(D)

Couple this to mix this a visual/tactile experience as your painting emerges and presto!

   

(a) B, C and D

(b) C and D

   

(c) B and D

(d) B and C

   

(e) A, B and C

   

20.

(A)

Painting a water colour is a life-affirming thing.

 

(B)

You have an image of the world in your head.

 

(C)

You start getting it down on your art paper and before you know it you have captured a piece of the world around you and it’s been through your own efforts.

 

(D)

What could be more satisfying than that?

   

(a) B only

(b) B and D

   

(c) A and C

(d) no error

   

(e) A and B

   

21.

(A)

The rightfully believing that his geniuses in poetry laid in personal utterances, Irish poet William Butler Yeats recognised that these personal utterances alone could not organise a body of a lyric poetry and drama into the organic structure he hoped to build.

 

(B)

For one thing personal utterances is beset by danger of sentimentality, which leads poetry away from that reality that poetry would deal with various kinds of self-pity and self-deceptions.

 

(C)

He thus has to technique by which the person could some how be objectified, be given the appearance of impersonal “truth” and yet retained motive force of privately felt belief.

 

(D)

The partial solution was the theory the mask.

   

(a) A, C and D

(b) B, C and D

   

(c) A, B, C and D

(d) A and B

   

(e) All of the above

   

22.

(A)

Those not under the confluence with the mask are much more concerned with the things at hand.

 

(B)

They see no reason of building castles in the air and certainly no reason to go live in them.

 

(C)

They will not dare to dream and will like things to be as they appear or seem to appear.

 

(D)

They do not question and certainly do not venture to know more than what is let known to them by their predecessors.

   

(a) A and B

(b) A, C and D

   

(c) A, B and C

(d) none of these

   

(e) A only

   

23.

(A)

We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom.

 

(B)

Symbolising an end as well as a beginning.

 

(C)

I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forbears will prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago.

 

(D)

The world was very different now.

   

(a) A, C and D

(b) A and B

   

(c) A, B and C

(d) All of above

   

(e) B and C

   

24.

(A)

Let the world go forth from this time and place would be to friend and foe alike.

 

(B)

The torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans.

 

(C)

Born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of which our ancient heritage.

 

(D)

Unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed.

   

(a) A and C

(b) A, B and C

   

(c) A, C and D

(d) A only

   

(e) No error

   

25.

(A)

In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger.

 

(B)

I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation.

 

(C)

The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it.

 

(D)

The glow from that fire can truly light the world.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) no error

   

(e) D only

   

26.

(A)

Finally, television stars had came into their own.

 

(B)

They are big enough to be ‘celebrity contestants’ on KBC.

 

(C)

Of course, there are also endorsements, charity causes and ribbon-cuttings that were hitherto reserved for the big screen idols.

 

(D)

These gods of Bollywood clutter as the preferred professionals for festivals in Navratri and Diwali melas.

   

(a) A and D

(b) A, B and C

   

(c) B and D

(d) A and C

   

(e) A only

   

27.

(A)

“I just read in a news magazine that TV comprises 67 per cent of the Indian entertainment industry.”

 

(B)

Films and other things comprise the other 23 per cent.

 

(C)

Finally, television is at par with the film industry.

 

(D)

A TV actor is a bonafide star now and TV is not a poor cousin of Bollywood anymore.

   

(a) A and C

(b) B only

   

(c) A, B and C

(d) A and D

   

(e) C only

   

28.

(A)

I am probably the world’s worst cook.

 

(B)

I am fine when it comes to appreciating this cuisines of great chefs but, left to myself, I couldn’t even fry an egg.

 

(C)

It is not that I don’t know how to do all this.

 

(D)

I can tell you how a kakori kabab is made, how the flavour of a coq au vin is directly related to the wine you should use.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) B and D

(d) no error

   

(e) C only

   

29.

(A)

The problem is that I am all theory; no practice.

 

(B)

Put me in a kitchen and a look of panic will settle on my face while I clumsily bash around with the pots and pans.

 

(C)

Within the trade, they have a term for this: a bad hand.

 

(D)

A good chef is not somebody who know how the great dishes are made while these days everybody has access to most recipes.

   

(a) B only

(b) B and D

   

(c) D only

(d) C and D

   

(e) A and D

   

30.

(A)

The reason I like risotto has nothing to do with taste.

 

(B)

Most rice dishes, pulao for instance—require you to cover the rice with water and then go away and do something else while it cooks.

 

(C)

It requires very constant attention.

 

(D)

Take your eye away from the pan and you will soon have an ex-risotto or a risotto that has failed its exam.

   

(a) A only

(b) C only

   

(c) B and C

(d) D only

   

(e) B only

   

31.

(A)

The whole point of a risotto is that the creaminess comes from the rice’s own starch.

 

(B)

You should never wash the rice you use for risotto (to preserve the starch) but should add it straight to the pan.

 

(C)

Then you need to add stock, one ladleful at a time, and stir, stir, stir.

 

(D)

It is the stirring that persuades the grains of rice to surrender to their starch.

   

(a) A and D

(b) B and C

   

(c) C and D

(d) D only

   

(e) Only A and C

   

32.

(A)

A new year is a goodwill time for a reality check on your love life.

 

(B)

If we have attached any much importance to specific days, using those days to take specific decisions is a strategic approach.

 

(C)

Let go of memorabilia from old, failed relationships.

 

(D)

Bring all problems to the table in a spirit of give and take and thrash things out.

   

(a) A and B

(b) B and C

   

(c) C and A

(d) D and B

   

(e) A and D

   

33.

(A)

The phone rang horribly late at night fall but, for reasons I cannot fathom.

 

(B)

Normally the hour and tone of the conversation would undoubtedly have put me off.

 

(C)

I am a regular reader of your column and I notice that you are always criticising everything.

 

(D)

The bold and blunt query took me aback.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) All of the above

   

34.

(A)

A reflective calm seemed to have released the earlier impatience.

 

(B)

Why don’t you write about what you like about India?

 

(C)

Give me three good reasons on a Sunday morning to feel happy and satisfied.

 

(D)

Instead, you often leave me feeling the opposite other way.

   

(a) A and C

(b) B and D

   

(c) A and D

(d) C and D

   

(e) Only B

   

35.

(A)

When they want to, Indians have an amazing way of telling the truth.

 

(B)

At the most surprising of moments they exactly blurt it out.

 

(C)

It’s said without artifice and without care for political correctness.

 

(D)

Unvarnished it no doubt is but it’s also refreshingly unalloyed.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) A and D

   

36.

(A)

In fact, no other country seems to have this incredible quality.

 

(B)

The Brits are too phlegmatic, the French too loquacious, the Germans far too upright and the Italians simply muddleheaded.

 

(C)

The Americans wouldn’t know enough and the Chinese races would be horrified at anything approximates to the blunt truth.

 

(D)

That’s not their way of doing things.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) None of these

   

37.

(A)

They don’t ever care if they end up making a spectacle of themselves.

 

(B)

They do it because they feel they have to.

 

(C)

The passion that moves them cannot be diffused by etiquette or politesse or even lack of opportunity.

 

(D)

So, this morning, I want to compliment my late night interlocutor for helping me appreciate a quality I had not properly think before.

   

(a) A and B

(b) C and D

   

(c) A, B and D

(d) none of these

   

(e) A and C

   

38.

(A)

Do you knew how many illegal Bangladeshi immigrants there are in India?

 

(B)

I ask because this truth is that nobody knows how many illegal Bangladeshi migrants have made India their home.

 

(C)

Every figure you read will be an approximation.

 

(D)

The 30-million figure, for instance, is usually quoted by people who want to claim that the problem of migration has now veered dangerously out of control.

   

(a) A and B

(b) A and C

   

(c) B, C and D

(d) A, B and D

   

(e) All of the above

   

39.

(A)

At an incentive level, however, we do recognise that there are many illegal migrants in India.

 

(B)

The border between India and Bangladesh is porous and there is little that anyone can do to check migration.

 

(C)

Moreover, many people in the border villages do not recognise that an international boundary exists.

 

(D)

It is not uncommon for a man to cycle from a Bangladeshi village to a town in India to buy something—and for him to then cycle back home on the same day.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) D

(d) C and D

   

(e) C only

   

40.

(A)

First of all, there are supposed to be too many of them.

 

(B)

Secondary, there is a danger that some of them will have terrorist links.

 

(C)

There are simply not enough jobs too go around.

 

(D)

If you think about it, no of this makes much sense.

   

(a) A, C and D

(b) B, C and D

   

(c) C and D

(d) A and D

   

(e) All of the above

   

41.

(A)

In my view, the police should have better things to do.

 

(B)

I don’t to think it is possible for anybody to support the manner in which alleged Bangladeshis are being deported.

 

(C)

I have been reading a pamphlet produced by the Citizen’s Campaign for Preserving Democracy.

 

(D)

Members of this group studied the way in which the police rounded up Bangladehis.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) B and C

   

42.

(A)

In effect, this means that the authorities can decide that anybody is an legal immigrant and can throw him out of the country.

 

(B)

There is nothing a victim can do by way of protest.

 

(C)

There is no appeal at all.

 

(D)

Anybody who does not keep them happy will be deported unless he then pays off the local police.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) C only

(d) D only

   

(e) None of these

   

43.

(A)

For anyone who believes in the law of averages or the notion that whatever goes up must come down, it may well appear that the prospects for 2006 will not be as bright as they were in the last year.

 

(B)

After all, world economy grew at 4 per cent-plus for the second consecutive year in 2005.

 

(C)

Significantly, the biggest contribution to global growth came from Asia.

 

(D)

The Indian economy has grown at nearly 8 per cent in 2005, which is a rare feat considering that agricultural growth were quite ordinary.

   

(a) A only

(b) B only

   

(c) A and D

(d) D only

   

(e) D and B

   

44.

(A)

One of the most telling trends of last year were that news of 8 per cent GDP growth stopped surprising us in India.

 

(B)

The competitiveness-led buoyancy would continue and consolidate further in 2006.

 

(C)

Even if one grants the possibility of some cyclical correction in the global growth momentum or the consumer demand, there is likely to be a compensatory force in the formed of investment demand.

 

(D)

No doubt, with such robust investment activity, it is now going to be increasingly difficult to keep interest rates low.

   

(a) A and C

(b) B and C

   

(c) A and D

(d) C and D

   

(e) B and D

   

45.

(A)

As the growing economy makes increasing demands on infrastructure inputs, these problems could worsen in the coming year.

 

(B)

Therefore, addressing infrastructure gaps needs to doing our topmost priority next year.

 

(C)

The second risk lies in the global macroeconomic imbalances, reflected in the twin deficits of the US and rising surpluses of Asia.

 

(D)

The longer these imbalances have persisted, the greater has become the risk of a disruptive correction.

   

(a) B only

(b) A only

   

(c) D only

(d) C only

   

(e) None of these

   

46.

(A)

Where there are wills there’s always a way.

 

(B)

This is an old saying, but so true.

 

(C)

All these years we have been hearing from BCCI officials that if players don’t play domestic cricket, they will not be considered for selection to the national team.

 

(D)

That was only talk and nothing else, for most of the top players stayed away from Ranji, Duleep or Challenger Trophy games.

   

(a) A only

(b) A and C

   

(c) B and A

(d) D

   

(e) B and C

 

47.

(A)

The only problem is that the wickets that are on offer for domestic cricket are hardly conducive for batsman.

 

(B)

It is here that BCCI needs to show the same will, as they have shown in making players play domestic cricket.

 

(C)

For years now, pitches have been prepared to suit the home team’s strengths and that is fine so long as the pitch is not a lottery.

 

(D)

If one goes by the scores in some of the matches, especially Delhi’s games, then it is quite obvious that the pitches prepared are sub-standard and not conducive to a fair contest between bat and ball.

   

(a) B only

(b) A only

   

(c) D only

(d) C only

   

(e) A and B

   

48.

(A)

A day after a controversy broke out over medicines manufactured by the guru, the Health Ministry said that they would put the medicines to the test.

 

(B)

The government will not scrap the Delhi-Mumbai airport modernisation plan.

 

(C)

In the district town, the children told the committee members that they were not consuming the meals served by the schools.

 

(D)

The committee would keep watch on the quality of grain.

   

(a) B only

(b) A only

   

(c) D only

(d) C only

   

(e) C and D

   

49.

(A)

In an economy heady with its success in Information Technology, it is easy to forget that industrially advanced regions like California or countries like France are also leading agriculture producers.

 

(B)

But politicians have not been particularly helpful in the process.

 

(C)

The situation there is almost alarming.

 

(D)

The spread of these activities to the south is a clear matter of worry.

   

(a) B only

(b) A only

   

(c) D only

(d) No error

   

(e) C only

   

50.

(A)

“You are from England? After Israel and America you are our best friends.”

 

(B)

The national team floundered thanks to an insistence that players be pious rather than professional.

 

(C)

In Iran, the conservative clergy has no greater foe than soccer.

 

(D)

Now, any Iranian football defeat is laid at their feet.

   

(a) B only

(b) A only

   

(c) D only

(d) No error

   

(e) B and C

   

◊ Answer Key

Type 1

1. (b)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (a)

6. (d)

7. (a)

8. (a)

9. (d)

10. (d)

11. (b)

12. (c)

13. (a)

14. (d)

15. (d)

16. (d)

17. (d)

18. (c)

19. (b)

20. (d)

21. (d)

22. (c)

23. (b)

24. (d)

25. (d)

26. (b)

27. (c)

28. (b)

29. (d)

30. (d)

31. (d)

32. (a)

33. (d)

34. (b)

35. (a)

36. (a)

37. (b)

38. (b)

39. (a)

40. (c)

41. (c)

42. (a)

43. (c)

44. (d)

45. (b)

46. (c)

47. (c)

48. (b)

49. (d)

50. (a)

Type 2

1. (b)

2. (b)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (a)

6. (c)

7. (d)

8. (a)

9. (c)

10. (d)

11. (d)

12. (a)

13. (b)

14. (d)

15. (b)

16. (d)

17. (b)

18. (b)

19. (d)

20. (a)

21. (b)

22. (d)

23. (d)

24. (c)

25. (d)

Type 3

1. (a)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (d)

5. (b)

6. (d)

7. (d)

8. (d)

9. (c)

10. (d)

11. (a)

12. (d)

13. (c)

14. (c)

15. (c)

16. (d)

17. (c)

18. (c)

19. (a)

20. (a)

21. (d)

22. (b)

23. (a)

24. (d)

25. (c)

26. (a)

27. (c)

28. (a)

29. (a)

30. (a)

31. (d)

32. (d)

33. (c)

34. (b)

35. (b)

36. (c)

37. (c)

38. (a)

39. (c)

40. (c)

41. (a)

42. (b)

43. (d)

44. (a)

45. (a)

46. (c)

47. (c)

48. (a)

49. (d)

50. (d)

Type 4

1. (d)

2. (c)

3. (a)

4. (a)

5. (a)

6. (b)

7. (a)

8. (b)

9. (a)

10. (b)

11. (b)

12. (b)

13. (a)

14. (a)

15. (d)

16. (d)

17. (b)

18. (a)

19. (b)

20. (d)

21. (c)

22. (a)

23. (a)

24. (a)

25. (d)

26. (a)

27. (a)

28. (b)

29. (c)

30. (b)

31. (d)

32. (a)

33. (a)

34. (c)

35. (b)

36. (c)

37. (b)

38. (a)

39. (a)

40. (c)

41. (b)

42. (a)

43. (d)

44. (a)

45. (a)

46. (a)

47. (b)

48. (c)

49. (b)

50. (d)

Explanatory Notes

Type 1

1.B is the best way of expressing the idea.

2.D. The correct answer corrects the incorrect use of I in the other sentences.

3.The improper use of the pronouns one and you is corrected in Choice C.

4.The omission of the past participle been is corrected in Choice D.

5.A. There is no error in the original sentence.

6.D. The correct pronoun is its.

7.No error. Poor product quality is singular, so the singular noun ‘ it’ must also be correct.

8.A. No error. The phrases are all parallel: soft hair sharp pawsand keen sense of hearing

9.D. Having bowed our heads is a dangling modifier. Option D is the best way of rephrasing it.

10.Option D is the best way of phrasing the message.

11.B. This corrects the unnecessary switch in the pronouns, anyone-you.

12.C. This is the most correct and concise form of the sentence.

13.A. There is no error in the original sentence.

14.D. The reason is that is preferable to The reason is because.

15.D. This corrects the double negative (hadn’t hardly) and also uses those with kinds correctly.

16.D. Both together and up are unnecessary since their meaning is included in the words cooperate and divide.

17.D. Parallel structure requires the use of the verbal noun as the object of the verb enjoyed: Enjoyed what? splashing, bathing; and sun bathing, Enjoy should not be followed by an infinitive construction.

18.C. The other choices have misplaced modifiers.

19.B. The clause that money doesn’t make you happy is the predicate nominative of the verb is.

20.D. This is an incomplete sentence since the verb is missing. Option D provides the verb (is recognised) and presents the only complete sentence among the options.

21.D. This was an unnecessary shift of pronoun. Do not shift from you to one. Choice D changes the meaning unnecessarily.

22.C. The demonstrative pronoun those is needed here —from those (persons).

23.B. This corrects the dangling participle and the misuse of stole for stolen.

24.D. None of the sentences are correct.

25.D. Do not use caculate or reckon when you mean think.

26.B. This question tests the agreement between subject and verb and pronoun and antecedent are both involved. Community (singular) needs a singular verb, influences. Also, the pronoun which refers to community should be singular (its). Choice B is best.

27.Option C is the correct answer as it is the best way of expressing the idea. All the other options are awkward

28.Option B is the best way of phrasing the answer. The original sentence contains a dangling participle depending. The other choices change the emphasis presented by the author.

29.D. Either should precede the two choices offered.

30.D. Since the words but also precede a phrase, the words not only should precede the previous phrase.

31.Option D is the most appropriate answer. The pronoun they has to match with their.

32.A. No error. Option D is also correct grammatically, but it changes the message.

33.D. The other options repeat the word ‘person’ unnecessarily.

34.B. Choice A suffers from the use of the ambiguous pronoun they. Choices C and D are correct grammatically but they change the message by dropping the word immediately.

35.A. Choice A is correct because the subject of the verb had must be who, not whom. Which in Choice E should not be used to refer to a person.

36.A. Already is an adverb; all ready is an adjectival construction. Allready is a misspelling. Choices D and E do not convey the thought of the sentence.

37.B. One way of correcting a dangling participle is to change the participial phrase to a clause. Choices B and D substitute clauses for the phrase. However, choice D changes the meaning of the sentence.

38.B. “He” is the subject of the sentence, which takes who as the relative pronoun.

39.A. No error. Some of the other sentences are also grammatically correct, but are rejected on the grounds that Choice A is more concise than them.

40.C. This choice does not violate the parallel structure, neither does it change the original message.

41.Choice C corrects errors in the possessive form of government (needed before a verbal noun) and it.

42.B. The agreement should be between Her elder brother and insists.

43.C. This is also an error in agreement: Kind is singular and requires a singular modifier (this).

44.D. This choice eliminates the error in parallel structure.

45.B. The correct idiom is graduate from. Choice C changes the meaning of the message.

46.C. This corrects the two errors in this sentence—the error in case (me for I) and the error in tense (had finished for finished).

47.C. In choices A, B, and D, the modifier familiar is dangling. Choice C corrects the error while retaining the original meaning of the sentence and conveying it most concisely.

48.B. The preposition with is needed to complete the phrase has gone hand in hand with. Choice C unnecessarily loses the parallel structure.

49.D. It is the shortest and most concise form of writing the sentence, while retaining the original idea.

50.A. The correct answer is Option A.

Type 2

1.B. Referred back is redundant. The prefix re means “back.”

2.Option B is the best way to convey the message.

3.C. The either... or structure should always be as close as possible to the things that they are attached to.

4.Option A maintains the parallel structure in the best way.

5.A.

6.C.

7.D. The modifier ‘Being in the need of a variety of clothing’ qualifies for the pronoun ‘he’. As a general rule, the modifier must be placed as near to the noun or pronoun it qualifies, as possible. Option D is both, grammatically and structurally correct.

8.A. The ‘first principle’ of sentence correction questions is, ‘never make an unnecessary correction.’ There is nothing wrong with the original sentence. The modifier is correctly used and the part also follows ‘subject-verb agreement.

9.C. The problem in the original sentence is in the use of the noun (completeness) in place of an adverb (completely). Option C corrects this.

10.D. A question on parallelism. Two ‘actions’ are being described in the underlined part of the sentence, and both the ‘actions’ must be in the same form.

11.D. Option A is incorrect as it uses the adjective AFTER the noun it qualifies. Options B and C are eliminated as they change the meaning of the sentence. Hence, the correct option is D.

12.A. The original sentence is correct and needs no change.

13.B. The only problem with the original sentence is its structure. ‘cells of the militants’ should be replaced with ‘the militants cells’. Moreover, the use of the modifier ‘only’ at the appropriate place can make the sentence correct. Option C changes the meaning of the sentence, and hence it is eliminated.

14.D. A question on parallelism. As the sentence has several ‘actions’, all the ‘actions’ must be in the same form. Only option D takes care of it. None of other options follows the rule of parallelism.

15.B. Another question on parallelisms which are only dealt with correctly in option B.

16.D. Despite should be used as a preposition, not as a word joining clauses.

17.Option B is the most grammatically correct way of phrasing the message.

18.B. The two verbs should be parallel: start and press.

19.D. The key idea is that he is an asset to the organisation. To create a suspenseful or periodic sentence, the writer should place he is a genius at the end of the sentence.

20.A. Never change a correct sentence.

21.B. ‘To provide’ is the best way to state the idea.

22.D. A sentence that tests the knowledge of ‘prepositions’ and ‘parallelism’. Option A is perfect.

23.D. One’s natural ability is the best way to phrase the start of the underlined portion. That leaves us with option B & D. Option D is more succinct and correct.

24.C. ‘Entrust with’ is the correct phrase. This eliminates options A and D. The noun ‘upliftment’ has to be used instead of the verb ‘uplift’.

25.D. A question on parallel structure.