How to Prepare for Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension for the CAT (2014)

Part 2: Verbal Ability

Section 6: New Verbal Question Types in CAT

Chapter 24. Irrelevant Statement Questions

“Find The Sentence That Does Not Fit The Sequence In The Paragraph”

This Question type made its appearance in the CAT 2011 and has been coming regularly ever since.

This question type is stated as follows : ‘In each of the questions given below, four sentences are given labeled (a), (b), (c) and (d). Of these, three statements need to be arranged in a logical order to form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.’ The candidate has to choose one statement from a paragraph which is irrelevant.

The best way to solve this sentence is to use a strategy similar to Paragraph Jumbles with a combination of the Odd Man Out question type.

The most important step is to find the Main Idea in the paragraph that has been broken down into individual sentences and then find the sentence which is not aligned to either the main idea or the points of references.

Once the main idea has been identified and the supporting details are in place, it becomes easy to identify the sentence which is either not contributing to the paragraph or whose presence is making the paragraph lose its coherence.

That sentence which fits the above description will be the correct answer choice in this case.

PRACTICE EXERCISE 1

Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Wisdom involves the direction of life by relevant knowledge, and thus, that it incorporates both a theoretical and a practical element.

(b)Go placidly amid the noise and haste, and remember what peace there may be in silence.

(c)Speak your truth quietly and clearly; and listen to others, even the dull and ignorant; they too have their story.

(d)As far as possible without surrender be on good terms with all persons.

1.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Ontology has frequently been understood as the theory of the ultimate classes of existents or entities and of characteristics of and structures that belong to all entities merely as such.

(b)Understood in these way acts of human cognition, for example, like all other events, obviously fall within the domain of ontology.

(c)There are thus also certain special or ‘regional’ ontology, which attempt to exhibit the essential characteristics and structures peculiar to the members of each of the ultimate classes of entities — of minds (and mental acts), physical bodies, and so on.

(d)But even given this it is still not strictly true, as Gustav Bergmann has often said, that “... epistemology is but the ontology of the knowing situation.”

2.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)The discovery of the giant planet has puzzled the astronomers, effectively throwing a wrench in planet formation theories.

(b)Planets close to their stars, like Earth, coalesce from small asteroid-like bodies born in the primordial disk of dust and gas that surrounds a forming star.

(c)An international team of astronomers, led by a University of Arizona graduate student, discovered the planet HD 106906 b around a Sun-like star.

(d)“This system is especially fascinating because no model of either planet or star formation fully explains what we see,” said Vanessa Bailey, who led the research.

3.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Governments, city-planners and conservationists can work together to predict and plan in advance for urbanization’s threats to nature.

(b)According to the report, humans are building the equivalent of a city the size of Vancouver every week.

(c)Having information on cities’ impacts to these endangered species and protected areas enables planners to shape the growth of cities before it’s too late, and to implement more sustainable urban planning.

(d)However, a lack of funding, especially in developing countries, may prevent the implementation of smart-growth plans.

4.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Philosophers and seers since long have mull over fundamental questions regarding our existence.

(b)Is our existence a random event in evolution or is there a greater principle in life with meaning and purpose?

(c)The Upanishads say, “neti, neti” — not this, not this — that the true meaning of life is that something which is beyond our intellectual grasp, as it perhaps lies in the stillness beyond the workings of the mind. 

(d)This inquiry has served as catalyst for evolution of ideas, philosophical and scientific quests, and a trigger for some of the greatest spiritual odysseys.

5.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)This can be or may not be the only way.

(b)By holding onto resentment, all you are doing is continuing and intensifying your own sadness.

(c)Learn to let things go, especially those which are unchangeable and that are in the past. 

(d)This feeling will eat at you from the inside and cause stress. 

6.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Corporate Social Responsibility has entered India’s legal corridors.

(b)In India, traditionally, pro bono legal work was carried out by lawyers who had dedicated themselves to helping society.

(c)Top law firms and lawyers are doing pro bono so that they can give back to society.

(d)There are a number of socially aware and generous souls who are increasingly lending their expertise for pro bono work.

7.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Commuters today are more likely to be plugged into their phones, scrolling content compressed for our lowered attention spans.

(b)Penguin India has introduced Esingles, digital downloads described as “byte-sized stories easily completed in the course of a daily commute or lunch hour”.

(c)The internet has created new demands on our time and a stream of alerts, updates and tweets leave us impatient with the long-winded.

(d)As information is pared down, it seemed unlikely books would be left behind, so it’s no surprise that ‘byte-size’ and ‘quick’ are adjectives now associated with a once-leisurely activity.

8.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Dinets first observed the behaviour in 2007 when he spotted crocodiles lying in shallow water along the edge of a pond in India with small sticks or twigs positioned across their snouts. 

(b)The behaviour potentially fooled nest-building birds wading in the water for sticks into thinking the sticks were floating on the water. 

(c)The crocodiles remained still for hours and if a bird neared the stick, they would lunge. 

(d)Crocodiles are way clever than thought about generally.

9.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)The competitive pressures in the environment have radically altered the context in which Human Resource services are delivered in Indian organizations.

(b)The HR Competencies, in other words, differentiate outstanding performers from average performers in the HR function.

(c)The traditional role of HR, based on the image of a transaction and administrative oriented HR practitioner providing services to a set of customers, is undergoing change. 

(d)With the focus moving towards integrating HR into strategic planning of the organization, another dimension is added to the picture of HR service delivery. 

10.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Every campaign leader knows how to pick up and kiss a child in the crowds,  how to hug an old widow, how to chant with the pundits, and show abeyance to the Mullahs.

(b)Did anyone hit at “quality” for infrastructure, amenities, education, health and finally governance.

(c)Politics is still a game of money, mind and manipulations

(d)False promises are not entirely a sin, but let these be redeemed by true, professional, and quality governance, that shows at the end of the tenure. 

11.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)The emerging web services paradigm offers the promise of new efficiencies and improve integration designed to enhance collaboration between internal and external applications.

(b)For example web services can serve as a bridge between an e-procurement application and an internal inventory system.

(c)Although, web services are relatively nascent and adoption rates currently low, it is critical for ERP vendors to begin taking steps to prepare for their rapidly maturing initiative

(d)As items are purchased through e-procurement application, a web service specific to inventory reduction can be invoked to adjust inventory levels.

12.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Much of the modern use of metals happens behind closed doors of corporations, under the veil of trade secrets.

(b)He chooses to restrict his analysis to metals and metalloids, which could face more critical constraints because many of them are relatively rare.

(c)Even if we can find out how certain metals are used, it may not always be possible to determine the proportions they are used in.

(d)The authors compromise was to account for the use of 80% of the material that is made available each year through extraction and recycling.

PRACTICE EXERCISE 2

Irrelevant Sentences

1.

 
 

(1)

The MOEF projects itself is a professional ministry where executive decision making with regard to environmental clearances is exercised.

 

(2)

The Ministry of Environment and Forests has brought back the quota licensing regime.

 

(3)

Projects have to be cleared or refused on the basis of an objective criteria and not ministerial discretions.

 

(4)

It is time that heads of government took it upon themselves to establish an effective grievances redressal system.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

2.

 
 

(1)

Even London’s latest pet project – proving that Russia cannot host an Olympics as successfully as Beijing or London – could easily backfire.

 

(2)

For more than two decades, August has been the most cruel month for Russian leaders

 

(3)

The August 1991 coup led to the departure of President Mikhail Gorbachev and the end of the Soviet Union.

 

(4)

The August 1998 debt default and ruble collapse laid waste to President Boris Yeltsin’s free-market reforms and resulted in the sacking of his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

3.

 
 

(1)

Commercial use of drones is banned by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), although it makes some exceptions such as for hobbyists’ flights in unpopulated areas where the aircraft stays in sight of a human operator.

 

(2)

These sites will help the FAA understand how to integrate UAS into American airspace, which Congress has told it to do by September 2015

 

(3)

It is believed that Amazon’s new project will pose a new challenge to the FAA operations.

 

(4)

But the skies are opening up: by the end of December the FAA will select six UAS testing sites from a list of 25 applicants in 24 states.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

4.

     
 

(1) 

The Assad regime depends on its patrons in Iran and the Iranian-backed Hezbollahmilitia in neighbouring Lebanon.

 

(2)

The Sunni-led opposition is similarly turning to its regional patrons. 

 

(3)

These regional players, with their own agendas, will keep pulling Syria apart until a functioning national government can be re-established. 

 

(4)

Syrian society is considered fractured and dissonant.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

5.

 
 

(1)

It has become something of a cliché to predict that Asia will dominate the twenty-first century.

 

(2)

It is a safe prediction, given that Asia is already home to nearly 60% of the world’s population and accounts for roughly 25% of global economic output.

 

(3)

Asia is also the region where many of this century’s most influential countries – including China, India, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Indonesia, and the United States – interact.

 

(4)

These developments both reflect and reinforce heightened nationalism throughout the region.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

6.

 
 

1.

This indicates a deep lack of concern for citizens on the part of the administrators.

 

2.

Before this year will have ended, the French parliament will have enacted a comprehensive pension overhaul, which is essential not only to putting France’s public finances on a sound and sustainable footing, but also to shoring up confidence in the eurozone in 2014 and beyond.

 

3.

This effort has gained broad public acceptance because it was fair: both retirees and working people will contribute, as will companies and households.

 

4.

For the first time, pension reform has been carried out in France in continuous consultation with employers’ associations and trade unions. 

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

7.

 
 

(1)

The concept of “sustainable harmony” can be promoted by publishing indices of personal well-being and environmental preservation, alongside standard GDP data.

 

(2)

The desire to help others without consideration for ourselves is not just a noble ideal.

 

(3)

Selflessness raises the quality and elevates the meaning of our lives, and that of our descendants; in fact, our very survival may even depend on it.

 

(4)

Studies have shown that individuals and societies can learn to be more altruistic.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

8.

 
 

(1) 

The problem with charities is that they have little incentive to become more efficient. The problem with charities is that they have little incentive to become more efficient.

 

(2)

Yet the real value is in training people to deliver for themselves, at a local scale – empowered rather than controlled, creative rather than rehearsed, and working by choice rather than in desperation.

 

(3) 

There is no simple way to monitor the quality and efficiency of a charity – especially one devoted to long-term changes (that is, investments) rather than daily delivery of services.

 

(4)

Since starting my own non-profit organization, I look at other nonprofits with new eyes.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

9.

 
 

(1)

Nowadays, many people seem to be more relaxed than ever about nationality, with the Internet enabling them to forge close connections with distant cultures and people.

 

(2)

But states remain extremely sensitive about their borders’ inviolability.

 

(3)

A great game is beginning among Asia’s great powers, and there are scant rules in place to manage how it will be played

 

(4)

After all, territory – including land, oceans, air space, rivers, and seabeds – is central to a country’s identity, and shapes its security and foreign policy.

   

(a) 1

(b) 2

   

(c) 3

(d) 4

PRACTICE EXERCISE 3

1.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Heavy rain brought by cyclone Phailin, which hit the state coast led to floods in the city.

(b)Mohapatra said the government had provided relief to the flood-hit by road services and stooped air dropping operations.

(c)The Cyclone has claimed 21 lives.

(d)As thousands of marooned people cried for food, the State Government in tandem with Central agencies stepped up relief & rescue operations.

2.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Basic problems of an economy are solved by a controlled and regulated price mechanism.

(b)In mixed economy, private and public sectors coexist.

(c)In mixed economy, basic economy problem are solved by both, by price mechanism and economic planning.

(d)It is an economy characterized by existence of certain features of both capitalistic and socialistic economy.

3.Four statements are given below, labeled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Fifteen or twenty years ago, there were few summer camps for children.

(b)Some camps are also operated by welfare societies, boy scouts and girl guides.

(c)Because even those were expensive; only the wealthy could afford to send their son and daughter to them.

(d)Within the past ten years, however, the numbers of camps have greatly increased.

4.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)The rainforest contains more than half of Earth’s plant and animal species, even though rain forests cover only about 6% of the earth’s surface.

(b)Many of the plants and foods in your home originated in the rainforests.

(c)Common house plants, such as bromeliads, African violets, periwinkle and the Christmas cactus, began in the rain forest.

(d)More than 1,400 varieties of tropical plants are thought to be potential cures for cancer.

5.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Drivers chew some intoxicant, smoke, use pills and consume special drinks mainly to drive more, sleepless and deliver fast.

(b)A recent survey has found that truck and other vehicle drivers working overtime use intoxicants and suffer from health problems including sleeplessness and stress

(c)Around 27% of the drivers surveyed admitted that they consumed alcohol while driving, another 10% said they chewed tobacco and 26% smoked beedi,the survey in the states revealed.

(d)The survey was conducted as part of a project by the Institute of Road Traffic Education (IRTE) and Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of the US across states including Rajasthan Maharashtra and the NCR.

6.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)The book ‘Knowing Christ Today’ by Dallas Willard deals with the disastrous effects of divorcing the teachings of Jesus Christ and his people from the domain of human knowledge.

(b)Its aim is to reposition the substantial teachings of Christianity (“Mere” Christianity) as a body of knowledge in the contemporary world.

(c)It is Dr. Willard’s hope that this book will put those who practice Christian discipleship in a different and much stronger position, and that it will be helpful for all areas of education, but especially for Christian schools, colleges and universities.

(d)In the process it explains what knowledge is, as compared to belief, commitment and profession, and clarifies the difference it makes whether or not an area of thought and practice is regarded as an area of knowledge.

7.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)The “Dare To Lead” conference was attended by more than 150 women executives spanning across various industries and touched upon issues pertaining to the challenges faced by women in the corporate world.

(b)An Executive Debani Ghosh said that women have to stop putting themselves down; no one else can banish their insecurities for them.

(c)Be confident in your competence that you don’t need to play the gender card anymore, equality can only be demanded if women themselves stop expecting any special treatment.

(d)From the shop-flower to board room women have proven that they are skilled.

8.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Writers do not always express in direct words what they want to say; they depend on the common sense of the reader to be able to form total impression of whole writing.

(b)In a comprehension exercise you may be asked all types of questions designed to test your knowledge of the passage.

(c)You may be asked to give the facts and interpretation of these facts.

(d)You may be asked to express the meaning of word or phrase as it is used in the passage.

9.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)It is tough to find another sports person who holds so many records, Given that cricket is a sport driven by numbers

(b)He has made his fans fall in love with numbers because he kept clocking them one after the other, with each figure seeming more incredible.

(c)I remember the time when he suffered the tennis elbow; it was a big concern for us as he had missed many matches.

(d)100 hundreds in international cricket, 15,847 test runs, first to score a double hundred in ODIs, most runs in World Cup the list goes on and on for him.

10.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)A prototype of a thermoelectric refrigerant based on Peltier effect has been developed in an Indian company which does not require a compressor, expansion valves, absorbers or solution pumps necessary while using refrigerant liquid.

(b)The team worked on the idea for one-and-a-half years at the college’s Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development Centre.

(c)They are now ready with a prototype labelled ‘Photovoltaic-driven refrigerator-cum-warmer.’

(d)The device can achieve 200 degrees Celsius in a few seconds and cool down to 8 degrees Celsius in 40 minutes.

11.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)The NSA says its online surveillance programs have played an instrumental role in thwarting terrorism.

(b)Even when it’s encrypted, online data can still be heisted, but the information looks like gibberish without the decoding keys.

(c)Facebook also has said it’s cloaking its social networking network with greater encryption, but hasn’t publicly set a timetable for getting all the added protection in place.`1

(d)The increased use of encryption technology is aimed at stymieing government surveillance that may be occurring without the companies’ knowledge.

12.Four statements are given below, labelled a, b, c and d. Of these, three statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit the sequence.

(a)Bitcoin is a decentralised digital currency which is an open source peer-to-peer electronic mode of payment.

(b)The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is, and rightly so, keeping an eye on the growing popularity of Bitcoin and is adopting a wait-and-watch approach.

(c)With many establishments in the United States, China and not to mention online sites accepting Bitcoin, pressure will increase for its transaction in India.

(d)But it is doubtful as to how long it can stay on the sidelines and observe the developments without intervening.

◊ Answer Key

Exercise 1

1. (d)

2. (b)

3. (b)

4. (c)

5. (a)

6. (d)

7. (b)

8. (d)

9. (b)

10. (b)

11. (c)

12. (b)

     

Exercise 2

1. (d)

2. (a)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (d)

6. (a)

7. (a)

8. (b)

9. (c)

 

Exercise 3

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (a)

6. (c)

7. (a)

8. (a)

9. (c)

10. (d)

11. (c)

12. (a)

     

Solutions

Exercise 1

The statements (b), (c), (d) explain the ways in which one can inculcate wisdom in one’s life while statement(a) is a general concept about wisdom, thats why wisdom is so important in life. Hence the answer is (a).

1.Statement (d) explains the view of Gustav Bergmann regarding ontology as he assumes ontology is a part of epistemology. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as “theory of knowledge” and ontology is the branch of philosophy which deals with nature of existence. While statements (a), (b), (c) explain about ontology.

2.Statement (a) mentions about discovery of a new planet. Statement (b) provides a general concept about planets that how planets are formed. Statement (c) mentions about who all were involved in discovering this planet while Statement (d) mentions about Bailey views who led this research. Statements (a), (c), (d) seem to be interconnected, so the logical order is (a), (c), (d).

3.Statements (a), (c) are related to how the planners and government can work together on gathered information regarding urbanization, and create a smart plan for development without affecting environment and biodiversity. Statement (d) tells that lack of funds affect implementation of such plans. Whereas statement (b) tells about a report on urbanisation and is illogical in context to the passage as statements (a), (c), (d) seem to be interconnected as they mention about plans and implementation of plans.

4.The passage is about Search for Meaning of Existence. Statements (a), (b), (d) are statements related to the main idea of passage. Statement (b) mentions about question relating to meaning and purpose of existence. Statement (a) also mentions about such questions over which philosophers have been pondering on since ages. Statement (d) also seems to be related as it mentions about inquiry and researches of the philosophers etc. Statement (c) seems to be illogical as mentions about Upanishads and explains about meaning of life and not about questions or researches.

5.Statement (b), (d), (c) are interrelated as all three have a common idea about how to hold on resentment. If somebody is stressed he becomes sad and at times misses the best opportunity in his/her way. While statement (a) talks about uncertainty and is thus the odd one out.

6.Statement (a) mentions about the term corporate social responsibility which is slowly creeping and becoming a part of India’s business era. The term pro bono means, ‘for the public good’, pro bono means a case is taken up for free or the rates are deeply discounted. Statements (c) and (b) mention about the legal system and pro bono work. Statement d is not about the legal system.

7.Statements (a), (c), (d) are interrelated as they mention about the increment in number of people who surf internet even for small matters, people are switching from thick books to e-books because they have become handy. Statement (b) specifically mentions about Penguin India, innovation while rest are a general statement.

8.Statement (d) is a general statement about crocodiles and their characteristic and tactics of attracting their prey. Statement (a) mentions about a researcher Dinet who carried out a research on crocodiles. Statement (b) & (c) support this statement.

9.Statements (a), (c), (d) are focusing upon the integration of HR techniques into strategic planning of the organization, whereas Statement (b) focuses upon competencies in HR professionals that differentiates between outstanding and average performers.

10.Statements a, c, are in logical order as they explain the tactics applied by politicians to attract the voters towards them. Statement (b) stands out

11.The logical order is (a), (b), (d).

The three options logically in order explain us about the advantages of applying web services in an enterprise while statement(c) stands out as it explains about the disadvantage of web service and what alternate step could be taken.

12.Statements (a), (c), (d) tell us about the analysis conducted by the author, while statement (b) tells us about the areas of limitation in the research.

Exercise 2

1.The fourth sentence talks of grievance redressal mechanisms, whereas the rest of the sentences refer to the decision making process of the government, with special reference to quota licensing. Thus option (d) is the irrelevant sentence.

2.Sentence a addresses London’s attempt at proving that Russia cannot host the Olympics. This is unlike the other three sentences that make direct references to the bad luck that the month of August brings to Russia in particular. Thus sentence (a) is irrelevant to the rest of the passage.

3.Option (c) is the answer as it speaks of Amazon, which is unaddressed in the other three sentences that deal with the operations of the FAA in the American airspace. Thus (c) is the irrelevant sentence.

4.While options (a), (b) and (c) describe the political regime in Syria, option (d) makes a remark about Syrian society, which is not in line with the theme followed by the rest of the sentences. Thus, it is the irrelevant sentence.

5.First, option (d) is unspecific in the region it speaks of. Second, it brings up nationalism which has no continuity with the rest of the sentences’ ideas. Thus it is the irrelevant sentence.

6.Option (a) directly contrasts what has been said in the other options, which is appreciative and laudatory of the French parliament’s efforts at implementing a comprehensive pension overhaul. Thus, it is irrelevant in the given context.

7.While option (a) does seem connected to the rest of the sentences, it is still the most irrelevant from among the options present. It is an extension of the concept of altruism in discussion in the question, in that it discusses ‘sustainable harmony’. Options (b), (c) and (d) hover around the same premise and thus constitute a consistent thought.

8.Option (b) is the answer because it diverges into a different direction from the one author takes in the other three sentences in his/her assessment of charities. It does not express an idea similar to these other sentences. It is thus the irrelevant sentence.

9.Options (a), (b) and (d) talk of interconnectedness and territorial concerns of countries across the world, in a broad way. There is no specific mention of any particular region or country. The mention of Asia’s power games and focus on it is what makes option C the irrelevant sentence.

Exercise 3

1.Statements(a), (c), (d) talk about the cyclone and the current relief provided by the State Government and central agencies. Statement (b) is not fit as the paragraph does not talk about one’s opinion (i.e., Mohapatra’s).

2.Statements (d), (c), (b) are relevant as these sentences are descriptive and describes the characteristics of mixed economy while (a) does not follow the order as it focuses on price mechanism.

3.Statements (a), (c), (d) form mandatory pairs by focusing on the past and present conditions and increment in numbers of summer camps each year while statement (b) tells about various organizations and people who carry out these camps.

4.Out of the given statements, statement (a,b,c) are in logical order. Statement (d) does not fits the sequence as the para mentions the existence of various plants in rainforest and not their medicinal value.

5.The para is about the survey conducted on heavy vehicle drivers who work overtime and consume intoxicants. Statement(a) talks about drivers who drink and drive fast. While rest statement talk about survey conducted on heavy vehicle drivers, hence statement (a) is odd one out

6.The para is based on the content of the book called “Knowing Christ Today” by Dallas Willard. Statement (a), (b), (d) mentions about content of the book but Statement(c)mentions Dr.Willards percept for the book.

7.Statement (a) describes about conference held on women empowerment. While statements (b), (c), (d) mentions opinion of a women executive Debani Ghosh.The correct order is (b, c, d). As all three are interrelated and focus on thoughts of Ghosh on women empowerment.

8.The logical order is b, c, d as it mentions what skills or knowledge is demanded on the part of the reader while he is solving a comprehension exercise. All the three sentences are interrelated and talk in the same sense while option (a) mentions a writer’s tactics applied in a comprehension to make it trickier.

9.Statement (a) describes how the sportsperson made incredible record and made his fans fall in love with numbers. Statement (b) is also interconnected as it also talks about numbers “sportsperson who holds so many records”. Statement (c) talks about the writer’s memory about the sportsperson’s injury. Statement (d) tells about the sportsperson’s records in various groups of cricket scores.

10.Statements (a), (b), (c) mention about development of thermoelectric refrigerant invented to cope up with global warming, while Statement(d) does not fit the sequence because it mentions about particular characteristic of the device.

11.The statements focus on the enhancement of encryption techniques. Statement(c) stands out as it talks about the way Facebook is protecting the data of its users. Statements (a) (b) and (d) talk in particular about the techniques that NSA has used for encrypting data for security reasons.

12.The above statements explain about RBI’s focus on the growth of a digital currency, Bitcoin. To this statement (b)(c)(d) stand connected as they explain about the activities of RBI in connection with bitcoin whereas statement (a) defines bitcoin and stands out.