Critical Reading Test 1
Critical Reading Test 2
Critical Reading Test 3


*Remember: Since this is an e-Book, record all answers on the Practice Tests separately.



Section 1


Section 2


Section 3





Section 1

24 Q

For each of the following questions, select the best answer from the choices provided and fill in the appropriate circle on the answer sheet.

Each of the following sentences contains one or two blanks; each blank indicates that a word or set of words has been left out. Below the sentence are five words or phrases, lettered A through E. Select the word or set of words that best completes the sentence.




Fame is ----; today’s rising star is all too soon tomorrow’s washed-up has-been.




(A) rewarding

(B) gradual

(C) essential

(D) spontaneous

(E) transitory




   1. Despite careful restoration and cleaning of the murals in the 1960s, the colors slowly but steadily ____.

       (A) persisted

       (B) embellished

       (C) saturated

       (D) deteriorated

       (E) stabilized

   2. After the lonely rigors of writing, Mr. Doyle enjoys the ____ aspects of filmmaking.

       (A) impersonal

       (B) transitory

       (C) narrative

       (D) social

       (E) profitable

   3. So ____ was the textile trade between England and America—vast quantities of indigo and raw-ginned cotton a year going in one direction, millions of yards of printed cotton fabrics in the other—that it ____ right through the American War of Independence.

       (A) negligible…endured

       (B) important…continued

       (C) illicit…collaborated

       (D) inappropriate…persisted

       (E) pervasive…ceased

   4. Like doctors exploring the mysteries concealed within the human body, astronomers are finding that X rays offer an invaluable means for examining otherwise ____ structures.

       (A) inconsequential

       (B) hidden

       (C) ambivalent

       (D) diseased

       (E) ephemeral

   5. When trees go dormant in winter, the procedure is anything but ____: it is an active metabolic process that changes the plant ____.

       (A) sleepy…radically

       (B) pleasant…intermittently

       (C) dynamic…majestically

       (D) overt…openly

       (E) organic…thoroughly

   6. As Reginald Machell’s lavishly carved throne clearly illustrates, California craftsmen were not afraid of ____.

       (A) competition

       (B) embellishment

       (C) imitation

       (D) expediency

       (E) antiquity

   7. One might dispute the author’s handling of particular points of Kandinsky’s interaction with his artistic environment, but her main theses are ____.

       (A) unaesthetic

       (B) incongruous

       (C) untenable

       (D) undecipherable

       (E) irreproachable

   8. After reading numbers of biographies recounting dysfunctions and disasters, failed marriages and failed careers, Joyce Carol Oates ____ a word to ____ the genre: pathography, the story of diseased lives.

       (A) invented…curtail

       (B) reiterated…criticize

       (C) hypothesized…indict

       (D) dismissed…obscure

       (E) coined…describe


Read each of the passages below, and then answer the questions that follow the passage. The correct response may be stated outright or merely suggested in the passage.


Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following passage.

               In 1846, when the three Bronte sisters,
hoping for publication, sent their verses to
Messrs. Aylott and Jones, they adopted masculine

Line pseudonyms, calling themselves Currer,

(5)   Ellis, and Acton Bell. Strictly speaking, this
masculine disguise was unnecessary: in
England, women writers had been published
since the 1670s, when the novelist and playwright
Aphra Behn became the first woman to

(10)  earn a living with her pen. The Brontes, however,
knew the prejudice they would face,
were they to publish under their own names.
Even Robert Southey, then Poet Laureate of
England, shared this common prejudice, writing

(15)  to Charlotte Bronte, “Literature cannot be
the business of a woman’s life, and it ought
not to be.”

   9. In line 3, “adopted” most nearly means

       (A) approved

       (B) altered

       (C) assumed

       (D) fostered

       (E) confiscated

   10. The passage suggests that the Brontes’ decision to use masculine pseudonyms was

       (A) counterproductive

       (B) prejudicial

       (C) temporary

       (D) arbitrary

       (E) justified

Questions 11 and 12 are based on the following passage.


               “What monsters these devilfish are, what
vitality our Creator has given them, what
vigor in their movements!” So Jules Verne

Line wrote, conjuring up the attack of the giant

(5)  squid. Despite Verne’s stirring words, members
of genus Architeuthis (Greek for “chief”
squid) have shown little vitality on surfacing;
commonly they have been found dead or
dying, caught in trawlers’ nets or washed

(10)  ashore. Marine biologists have long dreamed
of observing these reputedly lethargic creatures
of the deep in their native habitat. Now a
team of Japanese scientists has managed to
film a giant squid aggressively attacking its

(15)  prey at a depth of 3,000 feet. The race to film
the giant squid is over.

   11. The tone of lines 5–10 (“Despite…ashore”) is best described as

       (A) ebullient

       (B) censorious

       (C) resentful

       (D) ironic

       (E) mournful

   12. The conclusion of the passage (lines 10–16) suggests that the giant squid

       (A) is a more active predator than previously supposed

       (B) deserves its reputation for lethargy

       (C) has abandoned its native habitat

       (D) will be featured in a horror movie

       (E) is preyed upon by other creatures of the deep

Questions 13–24 are based on the following passage.


The following passage is an excerpt from Henry James’s short story “The Pupil.” In this section, Pemberton, the young British tutor, describes some of the hasty trips around Europe during which he came to know his pupil, Morgan Moreen, and Morgan’s family.


               “A year after he had come to live with them
Mr. and Mrs. Moreen suddenly gave up the
villa at Nice. Pemberton had got used to suddenness,

Line having seen it practiced on a considerable

(5)  scale during two jerky little tours—one
in Switzerland the first summer, and the other
late in the winter, when they all ran down to
Florence and then, at the end of ten days, liking
it much less than they had intended, straggled

(10)  back in mysterious depression. They had
returned to Nice “for ever,” as they said; but
this didn’t prevent their squeezing, one rainy
muggy May night, into a second-class
railway-carriage—you could never tell by

(15)  which class they would travel—where
Pemberton helped them to stow away a wonderful
collection of bundles and bags. The
explanation of this manoeuvre was that they
had determined to spend the summer “in some

(20)  bracing place”; but in Paris they dropped into
a small furnished apartment—a fourth floor in
a third-rate avenue, where there was a smell
on the staircase and the portier
1 was hateful—
and passed the next four months in blank

(25)  indigence.

               “The better part of this forced temporary
stay belonged to the tutor and his pupil, who,
visiting the Invalides
2 and Notre Dame, the
Conciergerie and all the museums, took a hundred

(30)  rewarding rambles. They learned to know
their Paris, which was useful, for they came
back another year for a longer stay, the general
character of which in Pemberton’s memory
today mixes pitiably and confusedly with that

(35)  of the first. He sees Morgan’s shabby knicker- bockers—
the everlasting pair that didn’
match his blouse and that as he grew longer
could only grow faded. He remembers the
particular holes in his three or four pairs of

(40)  colored stockings.

               “Morgan was dear to his mother, but he
never was better dressed than was absolutely
necessary—partly, no doubt, by his own fault,
for he was as indifferent to his appearance as a

(45)  German philosopher. “My dear fellow, so are
you! I don’t want to cast you in the shade.”
Pemberton could have no rejoinder for this—
the assertion so closely represented the fact. If
however the deficiencies of his own wardrobe

(50)  were a chapter by themselves he didn’t like his
little charge to look too poor. Later he used to
say “Well, if we’re poor, why, after all,
shouldn’t we look it?” and he consoled himself
with thinking there was something rather

(55)  elderly and gentlemanly in Morgan’s disrepair
— it differed from the untidiness of the
urchin who plays and spoils his things. He
could trace perfectly the degrees by which, in
proportion as her little son confined himself to

(60)  his tutor for society, Mrs. Moreen shrewdly
forbore to renew his garments. She did nothing
that didn’t show, neglected him because he
escaped notice, and then, as he illustrated this
clever policy, discouraged at home his public

(65)  appearances. Her position was logical
enough—those members of her family who
did show had to be showy.

               “During this period and several
others Pemberton was quite aware of how he and his

(70)  comrade might strike people; wandering languidly
through the Jardin des Plantes
3 as if
they had nowhere to go, sitting on the winter
days in the galleries of the Louvre, so splendidly
ironical to the homeless, as if for the

(75)  advantage of the steam radiators. They joked
about it sometimes: it was the sort of joke that
was perfectly within the boy’s compass. They
figured themselves as part of the vast vague
hand-to-mouth multitude of the enormous

(80)  city and pretended they were proud of their
position in it—it showed them “such a lot of
life” and made them conscious of a democratic
brotherhood. If Pemberton couldn’t feel a
sympathy in destitution with his small companion

(85)  —for after all Morgan’s fond parents
would never have let him really suffer—the
boy would at least feel it with him, so it came
to the same thing. He used sometimes to wonder
what people would think they were—to

(90)  fancy they were looked askance at, as if it
might be a suspected case of kidnapping.
Morgan wouldn’t be taken for a young patrician
with a tutor—he wasn’t smart enough—
though he might pass for his companion’s

(95)  sickly little brother. Now and then he had
a five-franc piece, and except once, when they
bought a couple of lovely neckties, one of
which he made Pemberton accept, they laid it
out scientifically in old books. This was sure

(100) to be a great day, always spent at the used
book stands on the quays, in a rummage of the
dusty boxes that garnish the parapets. Such
occasions helped them to live, for their books
ran low very soon after the beginning of their

(105) acquaintance. Pemberton had a good many in
England, but he was obliged to write to a
friend and ask him kindly to get some fellow
to give him something for them.

   13. The primary purpose of the passage is to

       (A) denounce the ill treatment of an exceptional child

       (B) describe a boy’s reactions to his irresponsible parents

       (C) portray a selfish and unfeeling mother and son

       (D) recount an outsider’s impressions of an odd family

       (E) advocate an unusual educational experiment

   14. It can be inferred from lines 10–25 that the reason for the Moreens’ sudden departure from Nice had to do with

       (A) ill health

       (B) changes in climate

       (C) educational opportunities

       (D) financial problems

       (E) shifts of mood

   15. According to lines 17–25, Pemberton’s visit to Paris can be described as all of the following EXCEPT

       (A) gratifying

       (B) sudden

       (C) instructive

       (D) elegant

       (E) frugal

   16. Lines 30–35 suggest that the narrator is making these comments about Pemberton’s travels with the Moreen family

       (A) on Pemberton’s return with the Moreens to Nice

       (B) in response to visiting Paris for the first time

       (C) some time after Pemberton’s wanderings with the Moreens

       (D) in answer to Morgan’s questions about his childhood

       (E) in an effort to write down his memoirs

   17. The tone of Morgan’s speech to his tutor (lines 45 and 46) can best be described as

       (A) apathetic

       (B) bitter

       (C) teasing

       (D) exasperated

       (E) self-righteous

   18. The statement that “the deficiencies of his own wardrobe were a chapter by themselves” (lines 49 and 50) serves to

       (A) indicate the author’s intention to cover this topic in a separate chapter

       (B) separate Pemberton’s problems from those of Morgan and the rest of the Moreens

       (C) suggest that Pemberton was allotted insufficient closet space by the Moreens

       (D) establish Pemberton’s inability to learn to dress himself appropriately

       (E) convey Pemberton’s sensitivity about the disreputable state of his clothes

   19. According to lines 61–67, Mrs. Moreen most likely ceases to spend money on new clothing for Morgan because

       (A) she and her husband have grown increasingly miserly with the passage of time

       (B) the child is so small for his age that he needs little in the way of clothing

       (C) she is unwilling to offend Pemberton by dressing his pupil in finer garments than Pemberton can afford

       (D) she resents the child and intentionally neglects him, spending money on herself that should be his

       (E) she has only enough money to buy clothes for the family members who must appear in polite society

   20. As described in lines 41–67, Mrs. Moreen’s approach toward Morgan can best be described as

       (A) stern but nurturing

       (B) fond but pragmatic

       (C) cruel and unfeeling

       (D) tentative but loving

       (E) doting and overprotective

   21. The author most likely describes the galleries of the Louvre as “so splendidly ironical to the homeless” (lines 73 and 74) because

       (A) homeless and other destitute people are not allowed within the museum

       (B) people in the galleries make sarcastic comments about poorly dressed museum goers

       (C) the Louvre originated as a shelter for the homeless of Paris

       (D) their opulence contrasts so markedly with the poverty of those who lack homes

       (E) the museum does an excellent job of teaching poor people about different styles of life

   22. Morgan and Pemberton regard the “hand-to-mouth multitude” of Paris (lines 77–83) with a sense of

       (A) amusement

       (B) condescension

       (C) indifference

       (D) identification

       (E) resentment

   23. In line 93, “smart” most nearly means

       (A) intelligent

       (B) painful

       (C) fashionable

       (D) impudent

       (E) resourceful

   24. An aspect of Pemberton’s character that is made particularly clear in the final paragraph is his

       (A) tendency to joke about serious matters

       (B) longing to have a younger brother

       (C) concern for how he appears to others

       (D) reluctance to accept gifts from Morgan

       (E) pride in his identification with the poor


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not work on any other section in the test.



1Hall porter or custodian.

2Famous Paris monument; site of the tomb of Napoleon.

3Botanical garden.


Section 2



For each of the following questions, select the best answer from the choices provided and fill in the appropriate circle on the answer sheet.

Each of the following sentences contains one or two blanks; each blank indicates that a word or set of words has been left out. Below the sentence are five words or phrases, lettered A through E. Select the word or set of words that best completes the sentence.




Fame is ----; today’s rising star is all too soon tomorrow’s washed-up has-been.




(A) rewarding

(B) gradual

(C) essential

(D) spontaneous

(E) transitory




   1. Because the salt used to deice highways in snowbelt states is highly ____ , it can turn the reinforcing bars in the concrete on highways, bridges, and parking garages into rusty mush.

       (A) adhesive

       (B) obvious

       (C) diluted

       (D) corrosive

       (E) profitable

   2. Although the book might satisfy Bloom’s hard-core fans, it is ____ by its monotonous citations and its ____ style.

       (A) marred…slipshod

       (B) warped…elegant

       (C) enhanced…impeccable

       (D) unified…laconic

       (E) annotated…exhaustive

   3. Sociobiology, the study of the biological and evolutionary basis of social behavior, is a ____ discipline, part biology and part sociology, that requires an understanding of both fields.

       (A) summary

       (B) hybrid

       (C) prolific

       (D) hypothetical

       (E) pedantic

   4. By nature he was a ____, demanding that his subordinates follow his orders ____.

       (A) pessimist…positively

       (B) dissident…noncommittally

       (C) martinet…meticulously

       (D) despot…magnanimously

       (E) virtuoso…obsequiously

   5. Publishers have discovered that Black America is not a ____ of attitudes and opinions but a rich mixture lending itself to numerous expressions in print.

       (A) concoction

       (B) medley

       (C) monolith

       (D) paradox

       (E) controversy


Read the passages below, and then answer the questions that follow. The correct response may be stated outright or merely suggested in the passages.


Questions 6–9 are based on the following passages.

Passage 1

               Should a novelist be allowed to take liberties
with the lives of historical figures? This
question has engaged critics for centuries,

Line with some supporting the cause of historical

(5)  accuracy and others weighing in on the side of
artistic freedom. There is, to my mind, a difference
between Daniel Defoe’s use of the
story of Alexander Selkirk, who endured four
years as a castaway, to create his character

(10)  Robinson Crusoe, and Doctorow’s wholesale
appropriation of historical personages such as
Booker T. Washington and Emma Goldman,
whose fame or notoriety he capitalizes on as
he makes them “interact” with his fictional

(15)  characters.

Passage 2

               What do I love best about the novels of
E. L. Doctorow? The answer to that is simple.
I love the way he mixes up fact and fiction
to create something new and magical. Take

(20)  Ragtime, for example. In Ragtime he throws together Emma Goldman, the anarchist; Harry
Houdini, the “escapologist”; Sigmund Freud,
the father of psychology; and Henry Ford, the
father of the Model T, turning these historical

(25)  figures into characters in a novel. Freud and
Jung actually went to Coney Island on their
visit to America. That the historians can document.
Did they take a ride through the Tunnel
of Love, as in the novel? Who knows? But

(30)  what a fantastic idea.

   6. In line 3, “engaged” most nearly means

       (A) hired

       (B) absorbed

       (C) betrothed

       (D) pursued

       (E) misled

   7. In Passage 1, the author’s attitude toward Doctorow’s “wholesale appropriation of historical personages” (lines 10 and 11) can best be characterized as one of

       (A) grudging admiration

       (B) anxious bewilderment

       (C) objective neutrality

       (D) fundamental disapproval

       (E) unconditional acceptance

   8. The author of Passage 2 mentions Freud and Jung’s ride through the Tunnel of Love in order to

       (A) take issue with the novelist’s disregard for facts

       (B) document a historic encounter

       (C) correct a critical misapprehension

       (D) commend a happy invention

       (E) evoke a sense of nostalgia

   9. Unlike the author of Passage 2, the author of Passage 1

       (A) discusses a phenomenon

       (B) draws a contrast

       (C) formulates a hypothesis

       (D) poses a question

       (E) quotes an authority

Questions 10–15 are based on the following passage.

The style of the renowned modern artist Pablo Picasso changed radically in the course of his long career, as he reacted to new artistic stimuli and fresh ways of seeing the world. In this excerpt from a survey of Picasso’s art, the critic Alfred Barr considers the impact of Black African art onPicasso’s work, in particular on his painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (The Girls of Avignon).


               Traditionally, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
was indeed supposed to have been influenced by
African Negro sculpture but Picasso has since

Line denied this, affirming that although he was

(5)  much interested in Iberian1 sculpture he had no
knowledge of Negro art while he was at work
on Les Demoiselles. Only later in 1907, he
states, did he discover Negro sculpture.

               Quite recently however Picasso has

(10)  assured us that the two right-hand figures of
Les Demoiselles were completed some time
after the rest of the composition. It seems possible
therefore that Picasso’s memory is
incomplete and that he may well have painted

(15)  or repainted the astonishing heads of these figures
after his discovery of African sculpture,
just as only a year before, stimulated by
Iberian sculpture, he had repainted the head of
Gertrude Stein’s portrait months after he had

(20)  completed the rest of the picture … .

               The discovery and appreciation of African
Negro sculpture among the artists of Paris in
the early 1900’s is still a somewhat confused
story. It seems probable that as early as 1904

(25)  Vlaminck began to take an interest in this
hitherto neglected art. Shortly afterwards he
introduced Derain to his new enthusiasm, and
before long Derain and his fellow fauve
Matisse began to form collections. Vlaminck’s

(30)  admiration lay more in the romantic and
exotic values of the masks and fetishes but
Derain and Matisse found in them unhackneyed
aesthetic values involving the bold distortion
and structural reorganization of natural

(35)  forms.

               It is strange that Picasso, who had met
Matisse by 1906, should have been unaware
of Negro art until the middle of 1907 when, as
he says, he discovered it for himself almost

(40)  accidentally while leaving the galleries of historic
sculpture in the Trocadéro. However, the
discovery, he affirms, was a “revelation” to
him and he began immediately to make use of
it. Whatever general stimulation the fauves

(45)  had got from African art there is little specific
trace of it in their painting. But several of
Picasso’s works of 1907–08 incorporate
African forms and possibly colors to such an
extent that the title “Negro Period” has hitherto

(50)  been applied to his art of this time, including Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.
Actually, Iberian sculpture continued to interest
him and often its forms were fused (and by
critics confused) with those of the Congo and

(55)  the Guinea Coast.

               For instance the Woman in Yellow has long
been considered one of the important paintings
of Picasso’s Negro period but it now
seems clear that this hieratically impressive

(60)  figure is related to Iberian bronzes even more
closely than are the three earlier figures of Les
Demoiselles d’Avignon which it resembles in
style. As Sweeney has pointed out, the face
and pose are remarkably similar to an archaic

(65)  votive figure from Despeñaperros. The ocher
color and striated patterns, however, may have
been suggested by Negro art. More African in
form is the Head, which may have been
inspired by the almond-shaped masks of the

(70)  Ivory Coast or French Congo.


1The term Iberian refers to the peninsula in southwest Europe that is made up of Spain and Portugal.

2The fauves were a group of twentieth-century French artists noted for vivid colors and striking contrasts.

10. The opening paragraph suggests that Picasso would have agreed with which of the following statements?

       (A) In painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, he was directly inspired by black art.

       (B) In painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, he may have been indirectly influenced by African sculpture.

       (C) In painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, he explicitly copied Iberian models.

       (D) In painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, he may have been influenced by ancient Spanish art.

       (E) In painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, he lost interest in Iberian sculpture.

   11. As shown in lines 12–20, Picasso reacted to new artistic stimuli by

       (A) attempting to reproduce them faithfully

       (B) deciding to come back to his artistic roots

       (C) rethinking already completed works of art

       (D) beginning to collect inspiring examples

       (E) forgetting his earlier influences

   12. In the second paragraph, the author

       (A) poses a question

       (B) refutes a misapprehension

       (C) makes a hypothesis

       (D) cites the testimony of authorities

       (E) contrasts two unlike situations

   13. According to lines 36–41, Picasso first became acquainted with African art

       (A) through another artist

       (B) on a trip to Africa

       (C) through an art historian

       (D) in an art gallery

       (E) in a book of reproductions

   14. In line 50, “applied to” most nearly means

       (A) spread on

       (B) credited to

       (C) placed in contact with

       (D) used to designate

       (E) requested as

   15. We can infer from lines 63–65 that Despeñaperros is most likely

       (A) a town on the Ivory Coast of Africa

       (B) the name of a young French girl from Avignon

       (C) a contemporary artist known to Picasso

       (D) a location on the Iberian peninsula

       (E) the name of a village near Avignon

Questions 16–24 are based on the following passage.

Taken from the writings of Benjamin Franklin, the following excerpt, published in 1784, demonstrates Franklin’s attitude toward the so-called savages of North America and reveals something of what these Native Americans thought about the white men and women who had come to their land.


               Savages we call them, because their manners
differ from ours, which we think the perfection
of civility; they think the same of

Line theirs.

(5)       Perhaps, if we could examine the manners
of different nations with impartiality, we
should find no people so rude as to be without
rules of politeness, nor any so polite as not to
have some remains of rudeness.

(10)      The Indian men, when young, are hunters
and warriors; when old, counselors, for all
their government is by counsel of the sages;
there is no force, there are no prisons, no officers
to compel obedience or inflict punishment.

(15)  Hence they generally study oratory, the
best speaker having the most influence. The
Indian women till the ground, dress the food,
nurse and bring up the children, and preserve
and hand down to posterity the memory of

(20)  public transactions. These employments of
men and women are accounted natural and
honorable. Having few artificial wants, they
have abundance of leisure for improvement by
conversation. Our laborious manner of life,

(25)  compared with theirs, they esteem slavish and
base; and the learning, on which we value ourselves,
they regard as frivolous and useless.

               An instance of this occurred at the treaty
of Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, in the year

(30)  1744, between the government of Virginia and
the Six Nations. After the principal business
was settled, the commissioners from Virginia
acquainted the Indians by a speech that there
was at Williamsburg a college, with a fund for

(35)  educating Indian youth; and that, if the Six
Nations would send down half a dozen of their
young lads to that college, the government
would take care that they should be well provided
for, and instructed in all the learning of

(40)  the white people. It is one of the Indian rules
of politeness not to answer a public proposition
the same day that it is made; they think
that it would be treating it as a light matter,
and that they show it respect by taking time to

(45)  consider it, as of a matter important. They
therefore deferred their answer till the day following;
when their speaker began by expressing
their deep sense of the kindness of the
Virginia government in making them that

(50)  offer, saying:

               “We know that you highly esteem the kind
of learning taught in those colleges, and that
the maintenance of our young men, while with
you, would be very expensive to you. We are

(55)  convinced, therefore, that you mean to do us
good by your proposal, and we thank you
heartily. But you, who are wise, must know
that different nations have different conceptions
of things; and you will therefore not take

(60)  it amiss, if our ideas of this kind of education
happen not to be the same as yours. We have
had some experience of it. Several of our
young people were formerly brought up at the
colleges of the northern provinces: they were

(65)  instructed in all your sciences; but when they
came back to us they were bad runners, ignorant
of every means of living in the woods,
unable to bear cold or hunger. They knew neither
how to build a cabin, take a deer, nor kill

(70)  an enemy, spoke our language imperfectly,
were therefore neither fit for hunters, warriors,
nor counselors; they were totally good for nothing.

               We are, however, not the less obliged by

(75)  your kind offer, though we decline accepting
it; and, to show our grateful sense of it, if the
gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of
their sons, we will take care of their education,
instruct them in all we know, and make men of

(80)  them.”

16. According to Franklin, Indian leaders maintain their authority by means of their

       (A) warlike ability

       (B) skill as hunters

       (C) verbal prowess

       (D) personal wealth

       (E) punitive capacity

   17. In line 17, “dress” most nearly means

       (A) clothe

       (B) adorn

       (C) medicate

       (D) straighten

       (E) prepare

   18. To which of the following does Franklin attribute the amount of leisure time for conversing available to the Indians?

         I. Their greater efficiency and productivity

        II. Their simpler, more natural lifestyle

       III. Their distinctive set of values


       (A) I only

       (B) II only

       (C) I and II only

       (D) II and III only

       (E) I, II, and III

   19. Franklin’s purpose in quoting the speech that concludes the excerpt is primarily to

       (A) demonstrate the natural oratorical abilities of Indians

       (B) condemn the Virginians’ failure to recruit Indian students for their schools

       (C) give an example of the Indian viewpoint on the benefits of white civilization

       (D) describe a breakdown in communications between Indians and whites

       (E) advocate the adoption of Indian educational techniques

   20. The Indians’ chief purpose in making the speech seems to be to

       (A) tactfully refuse a friendly gesture

       (B) express their opinions on equality

       (C) gratify their intended audience

       (D) describe native American customs

       (E) request funds to start their own school

   21. According to this passage, the Indians’ idea of education differs from that of the gentlemen of Virginia in that the Indians

       (A) also believe in the education of young women

       (B) have different educational goals

       (C) teach different branches of science

       (D) include different aspects of nature

       (E) speak a different language

   22. In line 69, “take” most nearly means

       (A) endure

       (B) transport

       (C) confiscate

       (D) capture

       (E) accept

   23. The Indians responsible for the speech would probably agree that they

       (A) have no right to deny Indian boys the opportunity for schooling

       (B) are being insulted by the offer of the commissioners

       (C) know more about the various branches of science than the commissioners do

       (D) have a better way of educating young men than the commissioners do

       (E) should not offer to educate the sons of the gentlemen of Virginia

   24. The tone of the speech as a whole is best described as

       (A) aloof but angry

       (B) insistently demanding

       (C) grudgingly admiring

       (D) eager and inquiring

       (E) courteous but ironic


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not work on any other section in the test.



Section 3



For each of the following questions, select the best answer from the choices provided and fill in the appropriate circle on the answer sheet.

Each of the following sentences contains one or two blanks; each blank indicates that a word or set of words has been left out. Below the sentence are five words or phrases, lettered A through E. Select the word or set of words that best completes the sentence.




Fame is ----; today’s rising star is all too soon tomorrow’s washed-up has-been.




(A) rewarding

(B) gradual

(C) essential

(D) spontaneous

(E) transitory




   1. Before the 1960s, African-American cartoonists labored mostly without mainstream recognition, their work ____ African-American magazines, journals, and newspapers.

       (A) confined to

       (B) unconscious of

       (C) irrelevant to

       (D) unacceptable to

       (E) derided by

   2. Calculation and planning informed the actress’s every word and gesture: there was not a ____ moment in her entire performance.

       (A) spontaneous

       (B) tasteful

       (C) histrionic

       (D) lethargic

       (E) poignant

   3. None of her students minded when Professor Rivera’s lectures wandered away from their official theme; her ____ were always more fascinating than the topic of the day.

       (A) summaries

       (B) digressions

       (C) intimations

       (D) metaphors

       (E) imprecations

   4. Though Widow Douglas hoped to reform Huck, her sister Miss Watson ____ him ____ and said he would come to no good end.

       (A) called…amendable

       (B) declared…qualified

       (C) pronounced…incorrigible

       (D) proclaimed…optimistic

       (E) professed…cured

   5. Critics point out that, far from moving ____ closer to its goals, the field of behavioral genetics is ____ the same problems that have always plagued it.

       (A) intermittently…composed of

       (B) dramatically…divorced from

       (C) inexorably…mired in

       (D) steadily…acclaimed for

       (E) uniformly…enhanced by

   6. Rebuffed by his colleagues, the initially ____ young researcher became increasingly ____.

       (A) outgoing…withdrawn

       (B) boisterous…excitable

       (C) diligent…tolerant

       (D) theoretical…pragmatic

       (E) tedious…polished


Read the passages below, and then answer the questions that follow. The correct response may be stated outright or merely suggested in the passages.


Questions 7–19 are based on the following passages.

The following passages concern the learning and behavior of infants during the first months of life. The first passage comes from a popular guide for new parents, the second from a textbook on child development.

Passage 1


               The two-month-old baby has hardly
roused himself from the long night of his first
weeks in this world when he is confronted

Line with some of the profound problems of the

(5)  race. We invite him to study the nature of reality,
to differentiate self and non-self, and to
establish useful criteria in each of these categories.
A project of such magnitude in academic
research would require extensive laboratory

(10)  equipment and personnel; to be fair about it,
it has taken just that to reconstruct the experiments
of the infant. And there are few grown
and fully accredited scientists who can equal
the infant for zeal and energy in sorting out

(15)  the raw data in this project. His equipment is
limited to his sensory organs, his hands, his
mouth, and a primitive memory apparatus.

               At two months, as we have seen, he recognizes
an object that we know to be a human

(20)  face and we know to be an object outside himself.
But to the baby this is just an image, an
image incidentally that he can’t differentiate
from the mental image, the picture in memory.
But this face is one piece in the jigsaw puzzle—

(25)  a key piece, we think. Then gradually in
the weeks to come the association of breast or
bottle, of hands, voice, a multitude of pleasurable
sense experiences begin to cluster around
this face and to form the crude image of a

(30)  person.

               Meantime the infant is conducting a series
of complicated experiments in sensory discrimination.
We must remember that in the
early months he does not discriminate

(35)  between his body and other bodies. When he
clutches the finger of his mother or his father
he doesn’t see it as someone else’s finger and
his behavior indicates that he treats it exactly
the same as he does his own finger. It takes

(40)  him some time, in fact, to recognize his own
hand at sight and to acquire even a rudimentary
feeling that this is part of his own body. In
the first group of experiments he discovers
that the object that passes occasionally in front

(45)  of his eyes (which we know to be his hand) is
the same as the object with visual and taste
qualities that he can identify. In another experimental
series he discovers that the sensations
that accompany the introduction of this object

(50)  into his mouth are different from those experienced
when he takes a nipple into his mouth,
or a toy, or his mother’s or father’s finger.

Passage 2


               Very soon after birth, environmental
forces, or response contingencies, begin to

(55)  operate in conjunction with the infant’s
built-in response repertoire to produce learned
changes in behavior. It will not be long before
the baby, instead of awaiting a touch near the
mouth to open it, will do so when the bottle or

(60)  nipple is seen approaching it. Or the head may
be turned in the appropriate direction when the
baby is placed in the accustomed feeding posture.
Such anticipatory gestures symbolize the
essence of learning. Such response systems

(65)  are the classically conditioned or Pavlovian
variety, because they involve elicited behavior.

               Operant conditioning is in a sense also
anticipatory; the infant makes a response presumably
in anticipation of receiving a reward.

(70)  Response consequences serve as reinforcers of
the behavior, then, and tend to perpetuate the
behavior. Thus an infant who spontaneously
makes a sound, which is then followed by an
attractive consequence such as sweet fluid or

(75)  the smiling presence of the mother, will very
likely repeat the act with increasing frequency
as time (and reinforcement) goes on.
Similarly, a response which is followed by an
aversive consequence, such as a frightening

(80)  noise, will tend not to be repeated in the
future. The infant thus behaves in accordance
with expectations about the availability of
positive reinforcers or punishments, based
upon past experience.

(85)       It must be clear by now that thought
begins at birth. There are psychologists who
would not want to term the anticipatory gestures
just spoken of as thought. Even they,
however, would have difficulty pinpointing

(90)  the stage of development or learning at which
the onset of thought occurs. It is perhaps more
meaningful to speak of increasing levels of

               A number of developmental theorists have

(95)  postulated stages of thought development.
While no two systems or theories of cognition
or thought development are exactly the same,
most are agreed that the baby begins with a
primitive appreciation of what is there and

(100) what is not, and most agree that early in life
what is not there is unimportant to the child.
Only with increasing cortical development,
cognitive complexity, and experience in sensing,
perceiving, and storing information does

(105) the child begin to take into consideration the
current absence of past stimulation and to
consider how things are different or might be
different than they are. Such “mental manipulations”
occur later and set the stage for very

(110) symbolic higher thought processes of which
mature persons are capable.

   7. By stating that a two-month-old baby confronts “some of the profound problems of the race” (lines 1–5), the author means that the infant

       (A) will start to figure out what is real and what is imaginary

       (B) is far more intelligent than we may think

       (C) begins to understand that dreams are not real

       (D) begins to locate his physical boundaries

       (E) soon learns to communicate with the world outside itself.

   8. The author of Passage 1 compares a baby with a scientist (lines 12–15) in order to make the point that

       (A) infants are tireless in their efforts to understand their environments

       (B) infants use a form of the scientific method

       (C) scientific experimentation is very time-consuming

       (D) an infant is a human laboratory

       (E) many scientific studies have been done on how infants learn

   9. The author of Passage 1 apparently believes that during infancy learning begins with

       (A) feeling loved

       (B) the baby’s senses

       (C) images that the infant sees

       (D) ideas stored in the infant’s memory

       (E) repetition of certain sights and sounds

   10. The account in Passage 1 of how an infant learns to discriminate between has own body and the body of others suggests that

       (A) all babies follow one of several well-defined patterns

       (B) the sequence is highly structured and precise

       (C) some babies learn more quickly than others

       (D) there are several different theories about how the process works

       (E) male babies learn differently from female babies

   11. According to Passage 1, an important milestone in infant development apparently occurs when a baby learns

       (A) to grasp someone else’s finger with his hand

       (B) to remember objects like a mother’s face even when the object is out of sight

       (C) that his mother and father have different faces

       (D) that his own hand has a distinctive smell and taste

       (E) that his own hand is different from another person’s hand

   12. The behavior of infants discussed in the first paragraph of Passage 2 occurs because

       (A) infants feel emotions just as adults do

       (B) every baby responds to the environment in certain predictable ways

       (C) every baby is born with certain instincts

       (D) infants naturally learn to respond to certain stimuli in the environment

       (E) healthy babies do not need to be taught to ingest food

   13. The author uses the phrase “classically conditioned” response system (lines 64–66) to mean that infants

       (A) use built-in response contingencies to satisfy their basic needs

       (B) cry when they are hungry

       (C) respond to their environments early in life

       (D) can be trained to learn from their environments

       (E) learn to elicit certain behaviors from their caregivers

   14. With regard to an infant’s capacity to think, the author of Passage 2 believes that

       (A) newborns are capable of thought

       (B) thought develops even without external stimulation

       (C) real thought does not occur until an infant has had some experience

       (D) the development of memory triggers thought

       (E) all newborns have the same thoughts

   15. The author suggests that the term “symbolization” (line 93) be used to refer to

       (A) fright that infants feel after hearing a loud noise

       (B) vivid images in an infant’s mind

       (C) the difference between positive and negative reinforcement

       (D) a form of mental activity occurring in an infant

       (E) an infant’s memory

   16. Passage 2 implies that one can determine the maturity of people’s thought processes by

       (A) observing their capacities to think abstractly

       (B) measuring the speeds at which their minds work

       (C) checking their rates of intellectual growth

       (D) assessing the sizes of their memory banks

       (E) evaluating their abilities to retain information

   17. The authors of both passages agree that early in life newborns learn

       (A) to manipulate ideas in a primitive form

       (B) to differentiate between things that are not there and things that are

       (C) what to do when they feel discomfort

       (D) to distinguish between behaviors that provide pleasure and behaviors that don’t

       (E) to influence the immediate environment

   18. Compared to Passage 1, Passage 2 places more emphasis on the

       (A) research being done to understand newborn infants

       (B) parents’ role in helping an infant develop

       (C) external indications of an infant’s thought patterns

       (D) emotional growth of infants

       (E) psychology of thought development

   19. In contrast to the author of Passage 2, the author of Passage 1 describes the development of an infant’s thought with greater

       (A) attention to theory

       (B) authority

       (C) seriousness of purpose

       (D) scientific evidence

       (E) accuracy


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not work on any other section in the test.