Practice Test 4 - Practice Tests - Cracking the New SAT with 4 Practice Tests, 2016 Edition

Cracking the New SAT with 4 Practice Tests, 2016 Edition (2015)

Part VII. Practice Tests

Chapter 26. Practice Test 4

Click here to download a PDF for Practice Test 4.

Reading Test


Turn to Section 1 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.


Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph).

Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

This passage describes the life and work of Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784), a poet from Massachusetts.

1.The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to

A)criticize readers for not having read more works by authors subjected to adverse circumstances.

B)describe the life and work of an author while noting some of the complications of that life and work.

C)outline a general history of African-American literature and discuss its major figures.

D)praise one slaveholder for his particularly forward-thinking views by showing his kindness to slaves.

2.Based on the information in the passage, Phyllis Wheatley’s life can best be described as

A)difficult, because she was never freed from slavery despite her fame as a poet.

B)charmed, because she was given so many wonderful opportunities upon arriving at the Wheatleys’ home.

C)impressive, although it contains many aspects that are troubling or confusing to present-day readers.

D)contemplative, although some of the sentiments in her work show a refusal to think deeply about her own life.

3.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 18-24 (“Although…Wheatley”)

B)Lines 48-56 (“Wheatley’s story…1805)”)

C)Lines 57-69 (“Tragically…poet”)

D)Lines 84-90 (“Wheatley’s poems…groups”)

4.The passage suggests which of the following about Phyllis Wheatley’s popularity?

A)Her family was prominent in Massachusetts, and she gained all of her connections through the family.

B)She was admired in the United States, but she achieved greater fame in Europe.

C)She was considered one of the greatest poets in the country, but few people consider her a great poet today.

D)She was admired by prominent people, but such admiration did not make her life less difficult.

5.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 1-6 and 84-90

B)Lines 24-32 and 73-83

C)Lines 44-47 and 84-90

D)Lines 48-56 and 57-65

6.The reference to Frederick Douglass in lines 13-14 serves primarily to

A)name a writer whose life story is less interesting than Wheatley’s.

B)allude to a type of literary achievement distinct from Wheatley’s.

C)note a discrepancy in literary history that is not often acknowledged.

D)refer to a friend of Wheatley’s who encouraged the publication of her work.

7.In context, the “circumstances” in line 19 refer to

A)precise and complete biographical details.

B)unintended consequences and failures.

C)climate and weather conditions.

D)general context and historical events.

8.The information in lines 41-47 primarily illustrates Phyllis Wheatley’s

A)remarkable aptitude.

B)poetic nature.

C)vicious subjection.

D)confounding life.

9.The word “progressive” appears in quotations in line 39 and line 66 in order to emphasize

A)the remarkable achievement of those who behave well before it is common to do so.

B)the awkwardness of using contemporary terms to described past events.

C)the difficult nature of describing negative behavior in a positive way.

D)the fact that the word comes from Wheatley’s poetry and essays.

10.As used in line 86, “hallmarks” most nearly means

A)distinctive features.

B)cordial greetings.

C)political leanings.

D)troublesome qualities.

Questions 11-20 are based on the following passage.

This passage is adapted from a “fireside chat” given on May 7, 1933, by Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt gave these addresses to the American public over the new technology of radio. The “chats,” as the name implies, were intended as simplified versions and explanations of the challenges facing the country at that time.

11.Roosevelt’s primary purpose in this speech is to

A)criticize his detractors while drumming up support for his re-election campaign.

B)plead for more time to make adjustments to an unsuccessful plan.

C)reassure the public about the efficacy and appropriateness of actions the government has taken.

D)showcase his own achievements as a leader and ask for greater indulgence.

12.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 1-7 (“On a Sunday…confidence”)

B)Lines 18-24 (“These institutions…1933”)

C)Lines 34-35 (“I am…country”)

D)Lines 53-59 (“We are…ago”)

13.As used in line 13, “by inches” most nearly means

A)with that form of measurement.

B)in a gradual way.

C)in a short time.

D)on its feet.

14.Based on the information in lines 12-20, Roosevelt believes that the “national institutions” are

A)criminals who are stealing from those who have invested money in their institutions.

B)overly dependent on the value of commodities to run successful businesses.

C)devoted to the implementation of economic theories that were unsuccessful.

D)struggling in such a way that they do unfortunate things to investors.

15.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 8-11 (“Tonight…do”)

B)Lines 13-24 (“It…1933”)

C)Lines 28-33 (“Today…assurance”)

D)Lines 35-42 (“I…high prices”)

16.In lines 26-27, what is the most likely reason that Roosevelt refers to a “condition and not a theory”?

A)He is issuing a proclamation on new health initiatives within the United States.

B)He is suggesting that the problem is concrete rather than abstract.

C)He is holding economic theorists responsible for the current economic turmoil.

D)He is implying that the current economic crisis cannot be solved.

17.In lines 28-33, Roosevelt makes a distinction between

A)politicians and citizens.

B)conditions and theories.

C)cautious optimism and full-throated support of a recovery

D)bankers and farmers.

18.Based on the information in the fourth paragraph (lines 28-52), the economic situation in the United States has improved in all of the following ways EXCEPT

A)increased railroad traffic.

B)increased industry.

C)a second speculative wave.

D)improved crop prices.

19.As used in line 41, “providence” most nearly means





20.Which of the following gives accurate information based on the graph?

A)Roosevelt’s purpose was accomplished in 2008 when the unemployment rate hit an all-time low of 6.1%.

B)Government control of farming, industry, and transportation resulted in a steady decrease in unemployment through the 1940s.

C)The partnership between government and farming brought an end to unemployment in 1943.

D)Roosevelt was addressing Americans at a time when unemployment was higher than it would be for the next 70 years.

Questions 21-31 are based on the following passage.

The following passage comes from George Washington Cable’s The Silent South, published in The Century in 1885. In the passage, Cable defends attacks against his previous article, “The Freedman’s Case in Equity,” which advanced full civil rights and equality for the slaves freed in 1865 amid national Civil War.

21.In the article, the role that Cable plays can best be described as that of

A)a traditionalist attacking an article published in a magazine.

B)a theorist defending his views against those who misconstrue them.

C)an ideologue creating social unrest with his uncompromising views.

D)an observer describing two sides of an argument with equal sympathy.

22.Based on the information presented in Cable’s article, it can be inferred that those who oppose civil equality for African-Americans

A)have refused to read his earlier article with adequate care.

B)willfully misunderstand the basic tenets of the U.S. Constitution.

C)believe that such equality will lead to an undesirable social mixing.

D)cite legal technicalities in order to further their own arguments.

23.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 8-9 (“They…Equality”)

B)Lines 24-25 (“Nothing…privileges”)

C)Lines 36-38 (“No…about”)

D)Lines 39-46 (“And…preferences”)

24.As used in line 23, “runs in the grooves of” most nearly means

A)corresponds with.

B)dances along to.

C)cuts an irregular pattern in.

D)breaks violently from.

25.The principal rhetorical effect of the phrase in lines 31-32 (“The North…world”) is to

A)identify the disagreements described in the article as those of particular regions.

B)outline the places that have already accepted Cable’s views and to encourage the South to join them.

C)suggest that there is widespread agreement about a single fundamental principle.

D)praise some parts of the United States for being more intelligent than others.

26.Cable refers to “the delicate machinery of society’s self-distribution” (line 44) in order to

A)demonstrate that his detractors violate a natural order with a misguided set of rules.

B)praise the United States for its perfect alignment with natural human needs.

C)use figurative language that encapsulates his views on the substance of a debate.

D)scold readers for their belief in an unworkable and impractical system of government.

27.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 5-8 (“Many…chaos”)

B)Lines 47-51 (“This…at all”)

C)Lines 52-58 (“Do we…cannot be”)

D)Lines 60-61 (“The family…succession”)

28.The primary purpose of the third paragraph (lines 52-58) as it relates to the passage as a whole is to

A)speak ironically of people’s good intentions while disparaging those who disagree.

B)concede the good intentions of detractors while introducing a main point.

C)summarize the arguments presented in the first two paragraphs in much the same language.

D)close the debate by refusing to acknowledge the views of another side.

29.As used in line 73, “pleasure” most nearly means





30.In the final paragraph of the passage, Cable’s attitude toward those who cite social rights (lines 61-63) can best be described as





31.Based on the final paragraph, Cable’s definition of civil rights includes all of the following EXCEPT

A)legal protection for all races.

B)rights that can be dictated by law.

C)nothing about social interaction.

D)interactions based on personal preference.

Questions 32-42 are based on the following passage.

The following two passages are adapted from a special issue of a scientific journal, in which the origins of human bipedalism (walking on two legs rather than four) are discussed.

Passage 1

Passage 2

32.The author mentions primate ancestors (lines 3-4) in order to

A)suggest that scientists have wondered about bipedalism since before written history.

B)doubt the claims of evolutionary biologists who cite monkeys as human ancestors.

C)establish a link between two groups that shows how significantly one of those groups has changed.

D)answer the question posed in the second half of the sentence.

33.In Passage 1, the reference to “two free limbs” (line 9) serves to

A)emphasize that the two limbs used for walking have grown much stronger.

B)explain why animals that walk on all fours cannot go grocery shopping.

C)criticize bipedal animals for not taking full advantage of all of their limbs.

D)imply that bipedal animals can use some of their limbs for higher-order functions.

34.As used in line 16, “manually” most nearly means

A)without technology.

B)by hand.

C)with difficulty.

D)by humans.

35.In discussing the nature of human handiness, the author of Passage 1 suggests that

A)humans’ intellectual ability is inseparable from skillful use of hands.

B)humans’ hands were useless for a long while before humans developed sufficient intellectual sophistication.

C)human dexterity took approximately 4 to 7 million years to develop.

D)humans would be just as intelligent if they wrote with their feet rather than their hands.

36.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 1-3 (“One…four”)

B)Lines 14-18 (“They…do”)

C)Lines 24-30 (“The…dexterity”)

D)Lines 30-35 (“Human…fours”)

37.As used in line 53, “brook” most nearly means





38.The third paragraph of Passage 2 (lines 54-65) primarily serves to

A)question research methods that would put monkeys on treadmills.

B)criticize the author of Passage 1 for his outmoded research.

C)introduce new findings that offer a new take on an old debate.

D)give a detailed account of an average laboratory research setup.

39.From the information presented in Passage 2, it can be inferred that

A)humans and primates stemmed from a common ancestor.

B)the author of Passage 2 rejects Darwin’s theory of human evolution.

C)human ancestors required a certain level of intelligence before they could see the efficiency of bipedalism.

D)the debate surrounding human bipedalism was resolved in 2007.

40.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 39-40 (“After…bias”)

B)Lines 44-47 (“It is…cause”)

C)Lines 54-56 (“A study…energy”)

D)Lines 56-59 (“Three…humans”)

41.The authors of both passages would most likely agree with which of the following?

A)Bipedalism and human intelligence evolved at the same time in history.

B)If primates were to walk on two legs, they would expend less energy.

C)Primates would expend as much energy as humans if the two went grocery shopping.

D)Human use of hands and human intelligence are likely connected in the evolutionary process.

42.What is the primary difference in the way Passages 1 and 2 incorporate new information?

A)Passage 1 uses contemporary analogies while Passage 2 uses modern scientific research.

B)Passage 1 dismisses newer scientific research while Passage 2 uses it sparingly.

C)Passage 1 uses new scientific research while Passage 2 is more interested in deductive reasoning.

D)Passage 1 is eager to incorporate new materials while Passage 2 dismisses any theories that come after Darwin’s.

Questions 43-52 are based on the following passage.

The following article is adapted from Robert Martone, “Scientists Discover Children’s Cells Living in Mothers’ Brains,” in Scientific American (December 4, 2014).

*a neurogenerative disease that, among other symptoms, causes problems with memory.

Various types of microchimerisms affect humans. The common mother-Mc and fetus-Mc and the organs/presumed cell types affected by them are shown.

43.What is the rhetorical effect of the opening line of the passage?

A)To elicit a response from the reader about his or her personal experience

B)To cast doubt on a cliché idea that is now outmoded

C)To introduce a well-known topic to which the author will add new information

D)To question the fallacy that a mother is closer to her children than a father is

44.Which of the following models the structure of the author’s argument throughout the passage?

A)He outlines a common misconception, shows new evidence to the contrary, then offers a new solution.

B)He presents his own original research, discusses his methods for acquiring it, then critiques earlier studies.

C)He questions a new set of data, shows its inconsistencies, then offers his own new hypothesis.

D)He starts from a point of basic agreement, introduces new information, and speculates about that new information.

45.What is the primary purpose of the passage?

A)To explain how, while we each have a unique genetic code, cells from other unique individuals may live inside our bodies

B)To suggest that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by cells with “Y” chromosomes

C)To illustrate the difficulty of drawing conclusions from scientific research

D)To show how the common conception of the bond between mothers and children is wrong

46.As used in line 22, “autonomous” most nearly means





47.According to the passage, what is one potential outcome of a woman’s brain containing dormant male cells?

A)Women with such cells may be less susceptible to memory disorders.

B)Women with such cells are less likely to suffer from immune disorders.

C)Women with such cells tend to be more aggressive and physically stronger.

D)Women with such cells are more likely to live with men for several decades at a time.

48.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 16-18 (“These…disorders”)

B)Lines 30-34 (“What…brain”)

C)Lines 51-54 (“This…pregnancy”)

D)Lines 72-76 (“Microchimerism…nursing”)

49.Which idea best describes the function of the statement “We all…strange” (lines 35-37)?

A)Many people with certain disorders prefer not to come into contact with strangers.

B)After birth, children often help their mothers and fathers through difficult times.

C)The idea that everyone is unique in some way is no longer scientifically provable.

D)The notion of total individuality may be inconsistent with scientific reality.

50.According to the passage, non-twin siblings may have some cells in common because they

A)share at least the mother’s half of their genetic makeup.

B)are present for one another’s significant illnesses.

C)are less likely to suffer from the memory disorders that afflict the elderly.

D)may have exchanged unique cells as the younger sibling was in the womb.

51.Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A)Lines 55-57 (“Since…gestation”)

B)Lines 64-69 (“Since…disease”)

C)Lines 76-81 (“In addition…gestation”)

D)Lines 81-85 (“Women…mother”)

52.Based on the information in the passage and the graphic, which of the following most accurately describes an effect of microchimerism?

A)It is possible that a mother’s cells would be found in the brain of an infant to whom she has given birth.

B)A women and her fetus exchange an equal number of liver cells during gestation.

C)It has been firmly established that fetus cells can migrate to the brain of the mother, as well as to several other organs.

D)It is due to the lack of cells produced and transferred from mother to fetus that children can be born with immune disorders.


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not turn to any other section in the test.

Writing and Language Test


Turn to Section 2 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.


Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.

Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.

After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.

Questions 1–11 are based on the following passage.

An Official, Certified…Criminal?

[1] The image is as old as computers themselves. [2] These are the hackers, immortalized in the 1995 cult classic film Hackers. [3] Of late, these “cybercriminals” have become the scourge of the American public in recent years because of huge security breaches at major businesses. [4] “Hackers” are the reason we password-protect our WiFi networks and feel a twinge of skepticism every time we pay for something with a credit card. [5] A ponytailed group of geeks, their computer monitors reflecting brightly off of their glasses, breaks into some “mainframe” from an evil corporation.



B)in the present day


D)DELETE the underlined portion.

2.The best placement for sentence 5 would be

A)where it is now.

B)after sentence 1.

C)after sentence 2.

D)after sentence 3.

While the popular image of the hacker might not have changed, it has, in some cases, been given a bit of a makeover. Schools like Hack Reactor in San Francisco teach aspiring software engineers and wear the name “Hack” proudly, as if it’s a sign of authenticity. In this line, a “hacker” is now seen as one whose powers can be used for good as well as ill. There is a new crop of hackers, called Certified Ethical Hackers (CEH), who can help to protect against our evil counterparts and make computers safer for us all.

3.Which of the following would best introduce this paragraph by linking it to ideas from the previous paragraph?


B)Because hacking is a federal crime with a range of punishments,

C)As identity theft becomes a more public problem,

D)Although hackers’ style is now more conventionally attractive,

4.Which of the following alternatives to the underlined portion would be LEAST acceptable?










Certified Ethical Hackers follow a course of study either at an Accredited Training Center or by self-study. The final exam is a 125 multiple-choice exam: it takes four hours and requires 70% correct to receive a passing score. There is another certification Certified Network Defense Architect which has the same basic course and test but is available only for certain U.S. Government agents.



B)certification, Certified Network Defense Architect,

C)certification Certified Network Defense Architect,

D)certification, Certified Network Defense Architect

7.The writer is considering deleting the phrase but is available only for certain U.S. Government agents from the preceding sentence, ending the sentence with a period after the word test. Should this phrase be kept or deleted?

A)Kept, because it helps to differentiate the two certifications mentioned in this paragraph.

B)Kept, because it shows that CEHs also have an important role to play in maintaining national security.

C)Deleted, because it contains information already stated in an earlier part of the paragraph.

D)Deleted, because it suggests that hacking is only a problem in the United States.

CEHs combine many facets of computer study into one typically. A company will hire a CEH to ensure maximum security of that company’s network, whether that’s company secrets or customer payment information or anything in between. Essentially, an ethical hacker does everything that an unethical one does, but he or she does so at the request of a particular organization. “We want you to hack us,” says that organization, “so we will have known how to avoid being hacked.” It’s kind of like the old saying, “It takes a crook to catch a thief,” except in this case the “crook” is not a crook at all.

Some in the computing community disparage the term. They say that “hacker” is a criminal designation, so saying “ethical hacker” is like saying “ethical thief,” that is, a contradiction of terms. This objection is of course overstated, and overwhelmingly, companies are happy to have “hackers” on staff. That designation can help to overcome the stodgy, impersonal image that corporations tend to have, and it can tap in to a kind of underground energy that many find irresistible.



B)one, typically, a company

C)one. Typically, a company

D)one typically; a company





D)would of known

10.At this point, the writer is considering adding the following true sentence:

To Catch a Thief was directed by Alfred Hitchcock and released in 1955.

Should the writer make this addition here?

A)Yes, because it helps to clarify the origin of the saying cited in the previous sentence.

B)Yes, because it is as relevant to the passage as the movie Hackers cited in the first paragraph.

C)No, because it does not maintain this paragraph’s focus on ethical hacking.

D)No, because it mentions a movie that existed before computer hacking became widespread.



B)contradictory under terms.

C)contradiction by terms.

D)contradiction in terms.

Questions 12–22 are based on the following passage.

Taking Stock of Modern Investing

Time is a funny thing. Often, we can feel that we’ve been studying for hours and hours only to realize that it’s been, say, 40 minutes. Or, if we’re watching a football game, we may have a sense of constant action, and that’s what sports fandom is all about. Each of these is plausible when we sit and think about it: we know that “time flies when you’re having fun” and that it drags when you’re not, but some statistics about time may surprise us. If time flies when you’re having fun, what about when there’s no “you” at all, or any other human for that matter?

12.Which of the following true choices best matches the style and tone of this paragraph?


B)while the average NFL play lasts only 6 to 7 seconds.

C)yet people continue to watch football every Sunday.

D)but there are some who find football boring as all get-out.






Increasingly, computers are running the world, and these computers operate on a completely separate time scale than us. They can process many millions of operations in seconds, operations that would take us multiple lifetimes to complete. That’s all fine if the computers are doing the work of computers—making calculations, assimilating data, or accessing that data. But what about when computers start working in human fields and competing with the human mind?



B)from ours.

C)from us.

D)than we do.

15.If the writer were to delete the phrase making calculations, assimilating data, or accessing that data from the previous sentence (ending the sentence at the word computers), the essay would primarily lose

A)a clarification of a term used earlier in the same sentence.

B)a complete list of the tasks that computers perform well.

C)a metaphor for the intrusion of technology into modern life.

D)nothing at all, because the information is stated explicitly in the following paragraph.



B)take the human field and the mind in competition with its working?

C)field the human mind and start working and competing with it?

D)work starting and competing in human fields and the mind?

Broader questions of artificial intelligence aside; the contemporary stock market offers an interesting test case. There’s no question that the average holding period has gone down significantly since the 1950s, but a recent study has shown that the data no longer fits an obvious trend. In 2014, the average holding period for a stock in the U.S. was 22 seconds. In 1920, it was even lower! Granted, the stock market has gone through some troubling permutations: many young people treat investing in the stock market like “investing” in the poker tables at Las Vegas, and people are less likely than ever to stay loyal to certain brands.



B)aside. The


D)aside, the

18.Which of the following gives information consistent with the graph?


B)It peaked in 1975!

C)What a change a decade makes!

D)In 1940, it was 10 years!

19.If the author were to remove the quotation marks from the preceding sentence, the sentence would primarily lose

A)nothing at all, because the punctuation does not influence the meaning of the word in quotations.

B)a suggestion that the author wishes he could find a more precise word.

C)an indication that the author is using the word investing ironically.

D)a direct quotation from one of the investors discussed in the essay.

However, 22 seconds is simply not a human time. That essentially means owning a stock for less time than it takes to complete the transaction online or with a broker. The number is so low because stock trading has come to be almost exclusively the province of powerful trading computers, which can buy and sell stocks in milliseconds. After all, 22 seconds is the average, so if there are still some human traders keeping your stocks for 10 years, that must make a stunning number of computer transactions.

In the end, the trend toward mechanized training is probably irreversible, regardless of what governments try to do to intervene. The question remains, though, what are the purely human activities left to us? Is there anything they can do that we can do better?

20.Which of the following alternatives to the underlined portion would be LEAST acceptable?









D)his or her



B)the trend, toward mechanized training, is probably irreversible,

C)the trend toward mechanized training is, probably, irreversible,

D)the trend, toward mechanized training, is, probably, irreversible,

Questions 23–33 are based on the following passage.

I Object!

Crime stories are as old as narrative itself. Some of the earliest texts we have center on questions of murder, theft, and other transgressions. Still, while people often remember the crimes and criminals themselves, typically these stories will revolve around a separate issue, guilt, and innocence. Courtroom dramas in our own day attest to this correlative fascination.



B)murder, theft, and, other transgressions.

C)murder theft and other transgressions.

D)murder: theft and other transgressions.



B)issue; guilt and innocence.

C)issue: guilt and innocence.

D)issue: guilt, and innocence.

25.Which of the following choices would most effectively conclude this paragraph and provide an effective transition into the next?

A)The most famous courtroom drama of all time is probably To Kill a Mockingbird.

B)Errol Morris has made many interesting films throughout his career.

C)We all have our fascinations in life, and there’s usually some TV show that lines up with these fascinations.

D)One of the great modern examples of such a fascination is Errol Morris’s famous documentary The Thin Blue Line (1988).

Morris’s story takes up the real-life case of Randall Dale Adams, a Texas police officer was killed by this Ohio man allegedly. Although the evidence in the trial was thin, Adams was sentenced to life in prison. Morris’s film in a sense reopens the case, interviewing many of those involved: many more people than just the defendant are involved in a case. All of the interviewees raise notable objections to Adams’s murder charge, and the film concludes with a sobering message from the prosecutor’s closing statement: the police are the “thin blue line” separating society from anarchy. At least they should be, the film wants us to see, but should this separation come at the expense of a man’s legal rights?



B)a man from Ohio who would be convicted of the murder of Texas police officer.

C)a Texas police officer being killed by this Ohio man allegedly.

D)a verdict of guilty was this Ohio man’s fate for the murder of a Texas police officer.

27.Which of the following choices gives the most detailed explanation of the words those involved, which appear before the colon?


B)witnesses, attorneys, detectives, and the judge who presided over the case.

C)he couldn’t interview the victim of the crime for obvious reasons.

D)there is nothing that says those involved can’t talk after the trial has concluded.

28.Which of the following alternatives to the underlined portion would be LEAST acceptable?





Within a year of the film’s 1988 release, Adams’s sentence was overturned. It’s not hard to see that it was Morris’s film that helped to build the appeals case. Such an event is remarkable, not only because of the relative rarity of a court overturning its verdict (one that peaked in the year of Morris’s film), but also because it was seemingly done outside of the courts.

The significance of The Thin Blue Line is again with us today with the podcast Serial, hosted by journalist Sarah Koenig. The podcast analyzes the records from the 1999 trial and conviction of Adnan Syed, a then-17-year-old high school student, who was convicted of killing his ex-girlfriend. While Koenig’s stated purpose is merely to understand the ins-and-outs of the trial, not necessarily to get Syed’s sentence overturned, she does identify a degree of uncertainty about the trial’s verdict. Unlike Morris, Koenig is not quite convinced of her subject’s innocence as Morris was, but she is equally interested in how the legal system determines that guilt and innocence, often showing how decidedly extralegal matters can play a serious role.

29.Which of the following gives accurate information based on the graph?


B)(the data do not account for repeated attempts to overturn verdicts),

C)(in 1989, the direct-appeal reversal rate was approximately 14%),

D)(one that actually trended downward in the years after Morris’s film),



B)Koenig’s stated purpose

C)Because Koenig’s stated purpose

D)However, Koenig’s stated purpose

31.The author is considering deleting the phrase as Morris was, placing the comma after the word innocence. Should the phrase be kept or deleted?

A)Kept, because the contrast with Errol Morris’s project is not clear without it.

B)Kept, because Koenig is clearly interested in duplicating Morris’s work in the podcast format.

C)Deleted, because the information is given elsewhere in the sentence.

D)Deleted, because it is not reasonable to suppose that a film and a podcast could be usefully compared.

Morris’s film and Koenig’s podcast both raise some serious questions about the legal system. For instance, how conclusive does the evidence have to be to prove someone’s guilt? And how can questions of innocence or guilt ever be determined by so many imperfect human actors? They both remind us that even though justice itself may be blind, and the U.S. court system prides itself on legal objectivity, such a thing may not be possible, especially as it promises that all of those on trial are innocent until proven guilty.



B)the podcast of Koenig’s

C)the podcast Koenig is making




B)Koenig and Morris

C)The two

D)DELETE the underlined portion (beginning the sentence at the word Both).

Questions 34–44 are based on the following passage.

Seeing Her Way to Space


On the strength of these achievements, Ochoa was selected for a NASA space mission in 1990. She became the first Hispanic female astronaut and the first in space in 1993. Ochoa’s career at NASA has been every bit as illustrious as one would expect of Hispanic descent: in 2013, she became the first person and the second woman to become director of NASA’s Johnson Space Center.


Her second patent came in 1989, for a device that identifies the positional coordinates of objects with a new kind of precision, the kind required in military operations. The device, which is characterized by their almost exact precision, uses the light and movement data to compute a specific spatial coefficient. The images produced by this device allow a mathematical precision that digital photography simply cannot provide. This invention has had popular applications as well, including advances in face-recognition technology and airport-security scanning devices.






35.If the punctuation were to be adjusted accordingly, the best placement for the underlined portion would be:

A)where it is now.

B)after the word she.

C)after the word person.

D)after the word Center.



B)are characterized by their

C)are characterized by its

D)is characterized by its

37.Which of the following true choices would best support the idea presented in the first part of this sentence?


B)though scientists can sometimes be less interested in popular applications than in scientific soundness.

C)but popular is a relative term when you’re talking about high-level, complex scientific discoveries.

D)which is not to say that like people were sitting around reading the patent for fun or anything.


Ellen Ochoa was born in Los Angeles, CA, in 1958. She did her primary schooling in La Mesa, and went on to get a bachelor’s degree in physics from San Diego State University. She earned a Ph.D. from Stanford in electrical engineering in 1981. San Diego State University is a good school, but Stanford is a truly great research institution.


Ochoa was first revere for her research. Her most notable contribution is an optical system that can detect defects in a repeating pattern. Her first patent came in 1987 for a special camera that could correct in real time. Unlike digital technology, which can operate neither quickly nor accurately enough in space missions, Ochoa’s optical analysis device uses laser light technology instead of the traditional digital. The technology operates on electromagnetic wavelengths and produces instantaneous hologram images that are themselves incorporated into the final image output. This technology has enabled the further development of such optics technology as powerful telescopes that can see through electromagnetic aberrations to accurate images.

38.Which of the following true sentences would best conclude this paragraph and support the main idea of the passage?


B)Despite her fairly conventional beginnings, Ochoa has gone on to become one of the most revered Hispanic women in science.

C)Ochoa is a fairly common surname for celebrities: Guillermo Ochoa is a soccer player, Amparo a singer, and Lorena a golfer.

D)On average, it takes approximately five years to earn a doctorate in electrical engineering.








B)Rather than using digital technology,

C)Using her knowledge of digital technology,

D)A specialist in non-digital technology,



B)in the place of digital.

C)not digital technology.

D)DELETE the underlined portion (ending the sentence with a period).


Ochoa’s third patent was issued in 1990. This technology enables a user to filter two-dimensional images to focus on particular parts of that image with equal precision. An electronic system ranks the components of image, removing the “noise” that is irrelevant to the desired part of the image. This technology gives a three-dimensional perspective to two-dimensional objects, essentially offering users the ability to search an image with the same range of motion and perspective that they could use when analyzing a real-life object. This patent has had an obvious role in high-definition cameras, but it has also led to innovations in other areas, such as fingerprint-recognition software.

42.At this point, the writer is considering adding the following true statement.

A design patent typically lasts for 14 years, but a utility patent lasts for 20.

Should the writer make this addition here?

A)Yes, because it helps to clarify many parts of the passage that discuss patents.

B)Yes, because the statement is true and advances the larger cause of education.

C)No, because the statement removes the focus from Ellen Ochoa’s career and accomplishments.

D)No, because patents are a politically sensitive topic when there are competing claims to them.



B)a two-dimensional image

C)one or two dimensional images

D)a pair of dimensional images

44.The best sequence for the paragraphs would be

A)1, 2, 3, 4, 5

B)2, 4, 3, 5, 1

C)3, 4, 2, 5, 1

D)4, 2, 3, 1, 5


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not turn to any other section in the test.

Math Test – No Calculator


Turn to Section 3 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.


For questions 1-15, solve each problem, choose the best answer from the choices provided, and fill in the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. For questions 16-20, solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid on the answer sheet. Please refer to the directions before question 16 on how to enter your answers in the grid. You may use any available space in your test booklet for scratch work.


1.The use of a calculator is not permitted.

2.All variables and expressions used represent real numbers unless otherwise indicated.

3.Figures provided in this test are drawn to scale unless otherwise indicated.

4.All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated.

5.Unless otherwise indicated, the domain of a given function f is the set of all real numbers x for which f(x) is a real number.


The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360.

The number of radians of arc in a circle is 2π.

The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.

1.David is planning a dinner for his birthday. At one restaurant, the cost per person for dinner is $15, with an additional one-time set-up charge of $35. David has a maximum budget of $150. If p represents the number of people (including David) who will attend the dinner, which of the following inequalities represents the number of people who can attend within budget?

A)15p ≤ 150 + 35

B) 35 ≤ 150 − 15p

C)15p ≥ 150 − 35

D) 35 ≥ 150 − 15p

2.When a virus breaks out, each infected person can infect multiple new people. In a particularly bad flu outbreak at an elementary school, the number of infected people triples each day in the first school week of January. If 5 people were sick with the flu on Monday, which of the following equations best predicts the number of infected people, I(d), d days after Monday?

A)I(d) = 5 × 3d2

B)I(d) = 5d3

C)I(d) = 5 × 3d

D)I(d) = 5 × 9d

3.During the month of July, the number of units, y, of a certain product sold per day can be modeled by the function y = −3.65x + 915, where x is the average daily temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Which of the following statements must be true?

A)As the temperature increases, the number of units sold decreases.

B)As the temperature increases, the number of units sold remains constant.

C)As the temperature increases, the number of units sold increases.

D)There is no linear relationship between temperature and the number of units sold.

4.Newton’s law of gravitation describes the strength of the force F between two objects with masses M and m separated by a distance of r units and is defined as. F = . Which of the following gives the value of Newton’s gravitational constant G, in terms of F, M, m, and r ?

A)G = Fr2Mm

B)G =

C)G =

D)G =

5.Which of the following expressions is equivalent to (4s)?





6.If A and B both lie on a circle with an area of 16π, and the length of is 2π, what is the radian measure of the central angle between A and B ?





7.Oil is being drained from an oil tank at a constant linear rate. Four hours after draining of the tank began, the volume of oil in the tank was 740 gallons, and seven hours after draining of the tank began, the volume was 545 gallons. Which of the following functions best models v(t), the volume of oil in the tank, in gallons, t hours after draining of the tank began?

A)v(t) = 740 − t

B)v(t) = 740 − 65t

C)v(t) = 1000 − 195t

D)v(t) = 1000 − 65t

8.What is the result of multiplying 8s2 − 6s + 2 by 4s − 1 ?

A)14s − 2

B)16s2 + 2s + 2

C)32s3 − 16s2 + 2s + 2

D)32s3 − 32s2 + 14s − 2

9.If the equation for a parabola is y = 5(x − 3)2 − 3, which of the following points represents the parabola’s vertex?

A)(3, −3)

B)(3, 0)

C)(0, −3)

D)(−3, 3)


In the equation above, what is the value of c ?






In the figure above, O is the center of the circle and the diameter is 10. If the area of the shaded region is π, what is the length of minor arc XY ?






x + 3y = 42
3xy = 8

In the system of equations above, how many points of intersection do the equations share and what is their relationship, if any?

A)Zero, and the lines are parallel.

B)Infinitely many, and the lines are the same line.

C)One, and the lines have no relationship.

D)One, and the lines are perpendicular.


The figure above shows the graph in the xy-plane of the function f. If q, r, s and t are distinct real numbers, which of the following could be f(x) ?

A)f(x) = (xq)2

B)f(x) = (xr)(x + s)

C)f(x) = (xr)(x + s)(x + t)

D)f(x) = (xq)(xr)(x + s)(x + t)

14.A 40-foot tall arch with a parabolic shape has a line drawn between the bases of the two legs of the arch. If the height above the ground, y, of the arch can be written as the function y(x) = a(x − 20)(x + 20), where x represents the horizontal distance along the line between the bases from a point on the ground directly under the highest point of the arch, then what is the value of negative constant a ?




D)− 20


The graph of f(x) is shown in the xy-plane above. Which of the following could be the graph of − [f(x − 2) + 3] ?






For questions 16-20, solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid, as described below, on the answer sheet.

1.Although not required, it is suggested that you write your answer in the boxes at the top of the columns to help you fill in the circles accurately. You will receive credit only if the circles are filled in correctly.

2.Mark no more than one circle in any column.

3.No question has a negative answer.

4.Some problems may have more than one correct answer. In such cases, grid only one answer.

5.Mixed numbers such as 3 must be gridded as 3.5 or 7/2. (If is entered into the grid, it will be interpreted as , not as 3.)

6.Decimal Answers: If you obtain a decimal answer with more digits than the grid can accomodate, it may be either rounded or truncated, but it must fill the entire grid.


h(t) = at2

As a space probe descends to the surface of Mars, its distance in meters above the surface can be modeled by the equation above. If t is the time in seconds it will take the probe to reach the surface, and it takes the probe 8 seconds to descend the final 120 meters to the surface, what is the value of the deceleration constant a?


3hj = 7
2h + 3j = 1

Based on the system of equations above, what is the value of h ?

18.A rectangular box has a volume of 24. If the length is halved and the height is tripled, what will be the new volume of the box?

19.If 6e(e + 3) = 3e(2e + 4) + 5, what is the value of e ?

20.Abeena is making punch for a winter party in a punch bowl that can hold at most 9 quarts. She wants to get as much vitamin C in her punch as possible, so she is using only orange juice and grape juice. She has 6 quarts of orange juice, which has 2 grams of vitamin C per quart, and 7 quarts of grape juice, which has 1 gram of vitamin C per quart. If there are 4 cups in a quart, what is the greatest possible amount of vitamin C, in grams, that Abeena can have in one cup of her punch?


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not turn to any other section in the test.

Math Test – Calculator


Turn to Section 4 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.


For questions 1-30, solve each problem, choose the best answer from the choices provided, and fill in the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. For questions 31-38, solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid on the answer sheet. Please refer to the directions before question 31 on how to enter your answers in the grid. You may use any available space in your test booklet for scratch work.


1.The use of a calculator is permitted.

2.All variables and expressions used represent real numbers unless otherwise indicated.

3.Figures provided in this test are drawn to scale unless otherwise indicated.

4.All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated.

5.Unless otherwise indicated, the domain of a given function f is the set of all real numbers x for which f(x) is a real number.


The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360.

The number of radians of arc in a circle is 2π.

The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.

1.If 16a2 + 4a − 6 = 0, what is a possible value of a ?





2.In order to make a profit, a zoo needs to sell at least 350 admission tickets each day. Four student groups, each of which includes 48 students, have purchased tickets for admission. If z represents the number of additional tickets sold today, and the zoo made its daily profit goal, which of the following inequalities could represent all possible values for z ?

A)4(48) + z ≤ 350

B)4(48) + z ≥ 350

C)4(48) − z ≤ 350

D)4(48) − z ≥ 350

3.A country’s birth rate is the number of births per year per 1,000 people in the country, and a country’s death rate is the number of deaths per year per 1,000 people. Immigration refers to the number of people who move into a country each year, and emigration refers to the number of people who move out of the country each year. A country’s population growth is determined by these four variables. Table 1 gives birth, death, immigration, and emigration rates in four countries and lines 1-4 in Figure 1 model the population for the four countries shown over time.

Line 1 represents which country’s population?

A)East Zealand

B)West Zealand

C)North Zealand

D)South Zealand

4.At the start of a new movie at the Cineplex 16, there are 250 people in the theater. However, 10% of the people walk out of the theater within the first 15 minutes of the movie starting. If another 10% leave in the next 15 minutes and this rate continues for the duration of the movie, which of the following graphs correctly models the number of people in the theater during the movie?






Which of the following includes all possible values of y in the equation above?


B){−6, 6}


D){6, 36}


The scatterplot above displays the marathon times of the eight members of a running club in relation to their ages and the line of best fit. How many people have times at least fifteen minutes faster than what would be expected based on the line of best fit?





Questions 7 and 8 refer to the following information.

The table below shows the relative investment in alternative energy sources in the United States by type. One column shows the relative investment in 2007 of $75 million total invested in alternative energy. The other column shows the projected relative investment in 2017 given current trends. The total projected investment in alternative energy in 2017 is $254 million.

United States Investment in Alternative Energy Sources

Actual 2007 Investment

Projected 2017 Investment










Fuel Cells






7.Based on the information in the table, if an investment was made in alternative energy in 2007, what is the probability that the money was invested in wind resources?





8.Based on the information in the table, which of the following statements is the most accurate?

A)The value of the 2007 investment in biofuels was approximately $50 million.

B)The portion of total alternative energy investment focused on wind sources is projected to decrease by 8% in 2017.

C)The dollar amount invested in fuel cells in 2007 is projected to double in 2017.

D)The top three types of alternative energy were invested in more equally in 2007 than they are projected to be in 2017.

9.Monster Truck Inc. leases a new truck for a down payment of $3,200 plus monthly payments of $380 per month for 36 months. Which of the following functions f represents the total amount paid, in dollars, after m months, where 0 ≤ m ≤ 36 ?

A)f(m) = 380 + 3,200m

B)f(m) = 3,200 + 36m

C)f(m) = 3,200 + 380m

D)f(m) = 10,480 − 380m

10.What is the equation of a line that contains the point (6, −5) and has an x-intercept of 3 ?





11.A single frame of 35 mm film is about three-quarters of an inch long. A film reel holds up to 1,000 feet of film. How many reels are required for a two-hour, forty-seven minute film shot at 24 frames per second?





12.Hua needs to receive completed surveys from at least 3,800 potential voters in her city. She has noticed that for every 5 surveys she sends out, only 1 survey is completed. Last week she received 1,350 completed surveys, and this week she received 900 completed surveys. Hua plans to send out s additional surveys. Which of the following inequalities shows all possible values for s that would ensure that Hua receives 3,800 completed surveys?

A)s ≥ 1,550

B)s ≥ 2,250

C)s ≥ 7,750

D)s ≥ 12,250


In the figure above C is the midpoint of BD and AC = DE. What is the value of n ?




D)Cannot be determined from the information given

14.Allie is a caterer who is building 4 sandwich platters. Each sandwich platter contains turkey slices that weigh 2 ounces each and bread slices that weigh 1 ounce each. In each platter, she has a total of 100 slices of turkey and bread that weigh a total of 160 ounces. Solving which of the following system of equations yields the number of turkey slices, t, and the number of bread slices, b, that are in the 4 sandwich platters?

A) t + b = 100
2t + b = 160

B) t + b = 160
2t + b = 100

C) t + b = 400
2t + b = 160

D) t + b = 400
2t + b = 640


4a + 2z = 10
−3a + z = −10

Based on the system of equations above, what is the value of 10a ?


B) −1

C) 3

D) 30

16.Isabella has $1,000 to invest and explores a number of options at her local bank. After learning about her options, she decides to deposit her $1,000 into a high-yield savings account that compounds at an annual rate of 4%, compounded quarterly. The banker tells Isabella that her projected earnings in dollars, P, as a function of time in years, t, can best be represented by the equation P(t) = 1000(1.01)4t. Which of the following graphs best illustrates Isabella’s projected earnings over time?






Which of the following quadratic equations is represented in the graph above?

A)y = x2x − 6

B)y = x2 + x − 12

C)y = x2 + 6x + 9

D)y = x2 + 5x + 6

18.Dahlia is competing in a group stair-climbing relay challenge with two of her friends. They will take turns climbing the stairs of two of Metropolis’s tallest buildings. The three of them each plan to climb an equal number of stairs, and Dahlia will go first. The first building has s stairs, and the second building has 3,639 stairs. During the race, Dahlia runs out of energy and is only able to complete 75% of her goal. What is the total number of stairs that Dahlia climbs?





19.Thirty-six percent of the 315 million people residing in the United States currently hold a passport. Of these passport-holding individuals, 8% travel internationally every year. Of those who travel internationally every year, approximately 10% visit European countries. How many U.S. residents visit European countries every year?





20.If the third degree polynomial x3 − 10x2 + 12x + 72 can be factored to (x + 2) · y2, what is y in terms of x ?

A)x − 6

B)x − 3

C)x − 1

D)x + 1


To better measure the effects of increases in poaching, the nation of Wakanda began a study in 2000 to track the number of elephants in each of the country’s three administrative districts. Every two years, researchers performed a count of the number of elephants in each region; these counts were performed in January. The table above shows the results of the study.

Researchers determine that at a 95% confidence level, their margin of error for the population of elephants in 2010 was 17.4. If the actual population in 2010 is within the confidence interval, what is the lowest possible population of elephants in Wakanda in 2010 ?






In figures I and II above, two stacks of identical carpenter’s sawhorses are shown, with heights of 92 and 60 inches, respectively. The height, in inches, of a stack of k sawhorses is given by the function h(k) = 16k + 12, where k is a positive integer and k ≥ 1. The number 12 in the function represents which of the dimensions shown in Figure III ?

A)a, the height of one sawhorse

B)b, the distance from the bottom of one sawhorse to the bottom of the next highest sawhorse

C)c, the distance from the top of one sawhorse to the bottom of the next highest sawhorse

D)d, the width of a sawhorse at the top


In the figure above, if sin a = cos b, which of the following is closest to the length of DF ?






Rick, Shane, and Darryl work at a widget factory. The table above shows the number of hours they each spent at the factory on a given day, the number of widgets they produced, and the number of 15-minute breaks they took while they were at the factory. Each man works at a constant rate.

Rick and Shane are each assigned an equal number of widgets. Neither will take breaks in order to complete this assignment as quickly as possible. Rick offers to do a certain percentage of Shane’s assignment so that they both finish at the same time. What percentage of Shane’s original assignment does Rick do?






The graph above represents the effect of efforts to reintroduce Chrysocyon brachyurus, a wolf-like predator, to Uruguay. It tracks the population of both Chrysocyon brachyurus and Sylvilagus brasiliensis, the rabbit species that is a primary food-source.

For which of the following periods did the Sylvilagus brasiliensis population undergo the greatest percent decrease?






y = x2 − 2x
y = 2x − 1

This system has two solutions for (x, y). What is the larger value of x ?



C)2 +


27.If csc θ = 1.66, then tan θ =






A group of patients is recruited for a clinical trial. Their heights, recorded in centimeters, are listed in the table above. Two more patients are recruited to the study. After these patients join, the mean height is 169 cm. Which of the following could be the heights of the two new patients?

A)146 cm and 177 cm

B)150 cm and 188 cm

C)165 cm and 177 cm

D)157 cm and 186 cm

29.What is the equation of the line that passes through the point (2.75, 0.975) and has an x-intercept of 2 ?

A) y + 5.9 = 2.5x

B) 4y + 12x = 29.1

C)6y + 27.15 = 12x

D) 10y − 13x = −26

30.A bacteria population, P, can be modeled by the equation P = P010kt, where P0 is the bacteria population at the beginning of the experiment, t is the time in hours since the beginning of the experiment, and k is a positive constant. Which of the following gives the time, t, in terms of k, P, and P0 ?






For questions 31-38, solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid, as described below, on the answer sheet.

1.Although not required, it is suggested that you write your answer in the boxes at the top of the columns to help you fill in the circles accurately. You will receive credit only if the circles are filled in correctly.

2.Mark no more than one circle in any column.

3.No question has a negative answer.

4.Some problems may have more than one correct answer. In such cases, grid only one answer.

5.Mixed numbers such as 3 must be gridded as 3.5 or 7/2. (If is entered into the grid, it will be interpreted as , not as 3.)

6.Decimal Answers: If you obtain a decimal answer with more digits than the grid can accomodate, it may be either rounded or truncated, but it must fill the entire grid.

31.Dan orders a soccer jersey online. If the jersey costs 40 euros and one euro is worth 1.2 dollars, how many dollars did Dan pay for the jersey?

32.An ice cream cart vendor sells 50 popsicles on an average fall day. During the summer, the ice cream cart vendor sells 7 less than twice as many popsicles per day than he does on the average fall day. How many popsicles does the ice cream cart vendor sell in 6 summer days?


1.3g + 1.7h = 5
3h = 20 + 13g

Based on the system of equations above, what is the value of h ?


The table above illustrates the results of a political poll. Five hundred voters were first asked whether they were registered as Democrat, Republican, or Independent. The voters were then asked whether they planned to vote for Candidate A, for Candidate B, or were Undecided. What percent of the registered Democrats plan to vote for Candidate A ? (Disregard the percent symbol when gridding your answer.)


x ≥ 0
3y − 2x ≥ −12
2x + 5y ≤ 20

What is the area of the triangle formed in the xy-plane by the system of inequalities above?

36.When (x2 + 2x − 3)(2x + 5) − (x + 1)(x − 1)(x + 3) is expressed in the form ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, what is the value of a + b + c + d ?

Questions 37 and 38 refer to the following information.

Nile is a track & field athlete at North Sherahan High School. He hopes to qualify for the Olympic Games in his best field event, the javelin throw. He experiments with different javelin weights to build his arm strength and currently measures the results in feet.

37.The distance at which Nile can throw a javelin is inversely proportional to the weight of that javelin. Nile can throw a 1.5 pound javelin exactly 260 feet. How far would Nile be able to throw a two pound javelin, in feet, assuming all other factors remain constant? (Disregard units when inputting your answer.)

38.During his preparations, Nile realizes that the upcoming Olympic qualifying competition will be judged in meters, rather than feet or yards. Nile wants to make sure he can throw the javelin the minimum required distance so he can advance in the competition. If his current best throw is 60 yards, and one yard is approximately 0.9144 meters, how much further, to the nearest yard, must he throw in order to achieve the minimum required distance of 68.58 meters to qualify for the Olympics? (Disregard units when gridding your answer.)


If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not turn to any other section in the test.

SAT Essay



The essay gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can read and comprehend a passage and write an essay analyzing the passage. In your essay you should demonstrate that you have read the passage carefully, present a clear and logical analysis, and use language precisely.

Your essay must be written on the lines provided in your answer sheet booklet; except for the planning page of the answer booklet, you will receive no other paper on which to write. You will have enough space if you write on every line, avoid wide margins, and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size. Remember that people who are not familiar with your handwriting will read what you write. Try to write in print so that what you are writing is legible to those readers.

You have 50 minutes to read the passage and write an essay in response to the prompt provided inside this booklet.


— Do not write your essay in this booklet. Only what you write on the lined pages of your answer booklet will be evaluated.

— An off-topic essay will not be evaluated.

As you read the passage below, consider how the author uses

•evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.

•reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.

•stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.

Speech of Alexander the Great, from The Campaigns of Alexander by Arrian.

1.I observe, gentlemen, that when I would lead you on a new venture you no longer follow me with your old spirit. I have asked you to meet me that we may come to a decision together: are we, upon my advice, to go forward, or, upon yours, to turn back?

2.If you have any complaint to make about the results of your efforts hitherto, or about myself as your commander, there is no more to say. But let me remind you: through your courage and endurance you have gained possession of Ionia, the Hellespont, both Phrygias, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia, Phoenicia, and Egypt; the Greek part of Libya is now yours, together with much of Arabia, lowland Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylon, and Susia; Persia and Media with all the territories either formerly controlled by them or not are in your hands; you have made yourselves masters of the lands beyond the Caspian Gates, beyond the Caucasus, beyond the Tanais, of Bactria, Hyrcania, and the Hyrcanian sea; we have driven the Scythians back into the desert; and Indus and Hydaspes, Acesines and Hydraotes flow now through country which is ours. With all that accomplished, why do you hesitate to extend the power of Macedon—your power—to the Hyphasis and the tribes on the other side? Are you afraid that a few natives who may still be left will offer opposition? Come, come! These natives either surrender without a blow or are caught on the run—or leave their country undefended for your taking; and when we take it, we make a present of it to those who have joined us of their own free will and fight on our side.

3.For a man who is a man, work, in my belief, if it is directed to noble ends, has no object beyond itself; none the less, if any of you wish to know what limit may be set to this particular campaign, let me tell you that the area of country still ahead of us, from here to the Ganges and the Eastern ocean, is comparatively small…Our ships will sail round from the Persian Gulf to Libya as far as the Pillars of Hercules, whence all Libya to the eastward will soon be ours, and all Asia too, and to this empire there will be no boundaries but what God Himself has made for the whole world.

4.But if you turn back now, there will remain unconquered many warlike peoples between the Hyphasis and the Eastern Ocean, and many more to the northward and the Hyrcanian Sea, with the Scythians, too, not far away; so that if we withdraw now there is a danger that the territory which we do not yet securely hold may be stirred to revolt by some nation or other we have not yet forced into submission. Should that happen, all that we have done and suffered will have proved fruitless—or we shall be faced with the task of doing it over again from the beginning. Gentlemen of Macedon, and you, my friends and allies, this must not be. Stand firm; for well you know that hardship and danger are the price of glory, and that sweet is the savour of a life of courage and of deathless renown beyond the grave…

5.I could not have blamed you for being the first to lose heart if I, your commander, had not shared in your exhausting marches and your perilous campaigns; it would have been natural enough if you had done all the work merely for others to reap the reward. But it is not so. You and I, gentlemen, have shared the labour and shared the danger, and the rewards are for us all. The conquered territory belongs to you; from your ranks the governors of it are chosen; already the greater part of its treasure passes into your hands, and when all Asia is overrun, then indeed I will go further than the mere satisfaction of our ambitions: the utmost hopes of riches or power which each one of you cherishes will be far surpassed, and whoever wishes to return home will be allowed to go, either with me or without me. I will make those who stay the envy of those who return.

Write an essay in which you explain how Alexander the Great builds an argument to persuade his exhausted troops to continue their advances into India. In your essay, analyze how Alexander the Great uses one or more of the features listed above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant aspects of the passage.

Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Alexander the Great’s claims, but rather explain how he builds an argument to persuade his audience.