The Human Side of Science: Edison and Tesla, Watson and Crick, and Other Personal Stories behind Science's Big Ideas (2016)

Notes

PREFACE

1. “Craig Venter Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/c/craigvente554125.html.

2. “Francis Collins Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/f/franciscol555127.html.

INTRODUCTION

1. “Albert Einstein Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins100017.html.

2Wikipedia, s.v. “George Francis FitzGerald,” last modified December 3, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Francis_FitzGerald.

3. Edward Neville Da Costa Andrade, Rutherford and the Nature of the Atom (New York: Doubleday, 1964), p. 111.

CHAPTER 1: DEMOCRITUS AND ARISTOTLE PONDER THE EXISTENCE OF ATOMS

1. Democritus, as quoted by Diogenes Laërtius, “Democritus Quotes,” Quotes, Your Dictionary, accessed November 2015, http://quotes.yourdictionary.com/author/democritus/154834.

2. Democritus, as quoted by Diogenes Laërtius in Alan L. Mackay, A Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1992, 1994), p. 71.

3. Aristotle, Physics, book 2, part 3, trans. P. Hardie and R. K. Gaye, Internet Classics Archive, accessed September 2015, http://classics.mit.edu/aristotle/history_anim.2.ii.html.

4. Simplicius, commenting on Aristotle's Physics in G. S. Kirk, J. E. Raven, and M. Schofield, eds., The Pre-Socratic Philosophers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 472.

5. Aristotle, The Works of Aristotle, trans. Sir David Ross (Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1952), vol. 12, Archive.org, accessed September 2015, https://archive.org/stream/worksofaristotle12arisuoft/worksofaristotle12arisuoft_djvu.txt.

CHAPTER 2: ARISTOTLE, ARISTARCHUS, COPERNICUS, AND GALILEO SEEK TO DETERMINE EARTH'S PLACE IN THE COSMOS

1. “Carl Sagan Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/c/carlsagan133582.html.

2. Archimedes, The Sand Reckoner in T. L. Heath, Aristarchus of Samos, the Ancient Copernicus: A History of Greek Astronomy to Aristarchus Together with Aristarchus’ Treatise on the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon, a New Greek Text with Translation and Notes (Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1913), p. 302.

3Wikipedia, s.v. “Tycho Brahe,” last modified December 13, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tycho_Brahe#Tycho.27s_nose.

4. Stephen Webb, Measuring the Universe: The Cosmological Distance Ladder (Berlin: Springer Praxis, 1999), p. 38.

5Wikipedia, s.v. “Tycho Brahe.”

6. Johannes Kepler, Astronomia Nova, chap. 149 (Heidelberg, Germany, 1609), pp. 113–14.

7. Anton Postl, “Correspondence between Kepler and Galileo,” Vistas in Astronomy 21 (1977): 325–30, ScienceDirect, accessed September 2015, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0083665677900204.

8. Galileo Galilei, Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems, transl. Stillman Drake (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1953; rev., 1967).

9Wikipedia, s.v. “And Yet It Moves,” last modified December 28, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/And_yet_it_moves.

CHAPTER 3: ISAAC NEWTON, ROBERT HOOKE, AND GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ ARGUE ABOUT MOTION AND CALCULUS

1Wikipedia, s.v. “Early Life of Isaac Newton,” last modified December 1, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_life_of_Isaac_Newton.

2. Ibid.

3Wikiquote, s.v. “Isaac Newton,” last modified December 1, 2015, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton.

4Wikipedia, s.v. “Robert Hooke,” last modified November 16, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hooke.

5. Lisa Jardine, The Curious Life of Robert Hooke: The Man Who Measured London (New York: HarperCollins, 2005), pp. 5–10.

6. Tim Sharp, “Edmond Halley Biography: Facts, Discoveries, and Quotes,” Space.com, February 12, 2014, accessed September 2015, http://www.space.com/24682-edmond-halley-biography.html.

7Wikipedia, s.v. “Robert Hooke.”

8. “Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton,” Archive.org, accessed September 2015, http://archive.org/stream/aat0604.0001.001.umich.edu/aat0604.0001.001.umich.edu_djvu.txt.

9. Jardine, The Curious Life of Robert Hooke, pp. 15–18.

10. “Flamsteed, John,” in Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons, Encyclopedia.com, accessed November 2015, http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/John_Flamsteed.aspx.

11Wikipedia, s.v. “Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz,” last modified December 20, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz.

12Wikipedia, s.v. “Leibniz–Newton Calculus Controversy,” last modified December 21, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leibniz–Newton_calculus_controversy.

13Wikiquote, s.v. “Isaac Newton.”

CHAPTER 4: THE BATTLING BERNOULLIS AND BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE

1. “Daniel Bernoulli Quotes,” Wise-Quote.com, accessed November 2015, http://wise-quote.com/Daniel-Bernoulli-8317.

2Wikipedia, s.v. “Brachistochrone Curve,” last modified July 25, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brachistochrone_curve.

3. Richard S. Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 582.

4. Ibid., p. 583.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Carl B. Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York: Wiley, 1968).

CHAPTER 5: ANTOINE LAVOISIER AND BENJAMIN THOMPSON (COUNT RUMFORD) HAVE RIVAL THEORIES OF HEAT

1. “Harry S. Truman Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/h/harrystrum162028.html.

2Science Newsletter 14 (1928): 52.

3Wikiquote, s.v. “Joseph Louis Lagrange,” last modified October 29, 2015, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Joseph_Louis_Lagrange.

4. Robert T. Grimm, Notable American Philanthropists: Biographies of Giving and Volunteering (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002), p. 320.

5. Christa Jungnickel and Russell McCommach, Cavendish (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1996), p. 351.

6. Ioan James, Remarkable Physicists from Galileo to Yukawa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 85.

7. William Gurstelle, The Practical Pyromaniac (Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2011), p. 55.

CHAPTER 6: MENDELEEV, MEYER, MOSELEY AND THE BIRTH OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

1Wikiquote, s.v. “Harlan Ellison,” last modified December 20, 2015, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Harlan_Ellison.

2Wikipedia, s.v. “The Sceptical Chymist,” last modified December 25, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist.

3. “Antoine Lavoisier,” Chemistry Explained, accessed January 6, 2016, http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Kr-Ma/Lavoisier-Antoine.html.

4. Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev, Principles of Chemistry (Minneapolis: Filiquarian Legacy, 2012).

5. “Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev,” in Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons, Encyclopedia.com, accessed January 6, 2016, http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Dmitrii_Ivanovich_Mendeleev.aspx.

6. “Henry Moseley,” Famous Scientists, December 29, 2014, accessed January 6, 2016, http://www.famousscientists.org/henry-moseley/.

7. Ibid.

CHAPTER 7: WESTINGHOUSE AND TESLA VERSUS EDISON—AC/DC TITANS CLASH

1. “Nikola Tesla Quits Working for Edison,” World History Project, accessed September 2015, https://worldhistoryproject.org/1885/nikola-tesla-quits-working-for-edison.

2Wikiquote, s.v. “Thomas Edison,” last modified December 10, 2015, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison.

3Wikiquote, s.v. “Nikola Tesla,” last modified December 5, 2015, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla.

4Wikipedia, s.v. “War of Currents,” last modified December 24, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Currents.

5. Mark Essig, Edison and the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death (New York: Bloomsbury, 2009), p. 136.

6Wikipedia, s.v. “Edison Ore-Milling Company,” last modified October 18, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edison_Ore-Milling_Company.

CHAPTER 8: ALFRED WEGENER STANDS HIS GROUND ABOUT CONTINENTAL DRIFT

1. “Mary Roach Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/m/maryroach694698.html.

2Wikipedia, s.v. “Continental Drift,” last modified December 28, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_drift.

3. Ibid.

4. “Excerpts and Readings on Alfred Wegener (1880–1930),” Pangaea, accessed January 6, 2016, http://pangaea.org/wegener.htm.

CHAPTER 9: PART 1: ALBERT EINSTEIN, MARCEL GROSSMANN, MILEVA MARIĆ, AND MICHELE BESSO STRUGGLE WITH RELATIVITY

1Wikipedia, s.v. “Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century,” accessed December 11, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_100:_The_Most_Important_People_of_the_Century.

2. Ibid.

3. Albert Einstein, Anna Beck, and Peter Havas, The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Volume 1: The Early Years, 1879–1902 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987), p. xviii.

4. Ibid.

5. Dennis Overbye, Einstein in Love: A Scientific Romance (New York: Penguin, 2000).

6. “Albert Einstein Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed December 1, 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins121678.html.

7. Jürgen Neffe, Einstein: A Biography (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2005), p. 31.

8. Ibid.

9. Jürgen Renn and Robert Schulmann, eds., Albert Einstein/Mileva Maric: The Love Letters, trans. Shawn Smith (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 41.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Overbye, Einstein in Love, p. 43.

13. “The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein; Volume 1, The Early Years, 1879–1902, no. 49,” accessed September 2015, http://www.einsteinpapers.press.princeton.eduhttp://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol1-trans/150.

14. Overbye, Einstein in Love.

15. Barry R. Parker, Creation: The Story of the Origin and Evolution of the Universe (Berlin: Springer, 2013), p. 132.

16. Einstein, Beck, and Havas, The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Volume 1, p. xxii.

17. Karen C. Fox and Aries Keck, Einstein A to Z (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004), p. 19.

18. Albert Einstein, Anna Beck, and Peter Havas, The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Volume 2: The Swiss Years: Writings, 1900–1909 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), p. 171.

CHAPTER 10: PART 2: ALBERT EINSTEIN'S STRUGGLES CONTINUE

1. Barry R. Parker, Creation: The Story of the Origin and Evolution of the Universe (Berlin: Springer, 2013), p. 172.

2. Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007).

3. Dennis Overbye, Einstein in Love: A Scientific Romance (New York: Penguin, 2000).

4. Galina Weinstein, “From the Berlin ‘Entwurf’ Field Equations to the Einstein Tensor I: October 1914 until Beginning of November 1915,” p. 6, accessed January 7, 2016, http://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.5352.pdf.

5. Overbye, Einstein in Love, p. 252.

6. Ibid.

7Wikipedia, s.v. “Emmy Noether,” last modified January 1, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmy_Noether.

8. Overbye, Einstein in Love.

9. Abraham Pais, Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 250.

10. “Albert Einstein and Zionism,” Zionism & Israel Information Center, accessed July 2015, http://www.zionism-israel.com/Albert_Einstein/Albert_Einstein_zionism.htm.

11. Overbye, Einstein in Love, p. 353.

12. Manjit Kumar, Quantum: Einstein, Bohr, and the Great Debate about the Nature of Reality (New York: Norton, 2011).

13. Parker, Creation, p. 210.

14. Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe.

15Wikiquote, s.v. “Albert Einstein,” last modified January 6, 2016, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein.

16Wikiquote, s.v. “Niels Bohr,” last modified January 1, 2016, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Niels_Bohr.

17. Karen C. Fox and Aries Keck, Einstein A to Z (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

18. “Einstein's Quest for a Unified Theory,” APS News 14, no. 11 (December 2005), accessed January 7, 2016, https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200512/history.cfm.

19. Jürgen Neffe, Einstein: A Biography (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2005), p. 104.

20. Parker, Creation, p. 231.

21. “Albert Einstein in Caputh,” Albert Einstein in the World Wide Web, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.einstein-website.de/z_biography/caputh-e.html.

22. “Albert Einstein Quotes,”ThinkExist.com, accessed January 7, 2016, http://thinkexist.com/quotation/the_world_needs_heroes_and_it-s_better_they_be/15616.html.

23. Fox and Keck, Einstein A to Z, pp. 52–53.

24. Ibid., p. 129.

25. “Einstein's Quest for a Unified Theory.”

CHAPTER 11: EDWIN HUBBLE AND HARLOW SHAPLEY CLASH/COOPERATE OVER THE UNIVERSE'S SIZE

1Wikiquote, s.v. “J. B. S. Haldane,” last modified December 19, 2015, https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/J._B._S._Haldane.

2. HubbleSite, accessed December 31, 2015, http://hubblesite.org.

3. Gale E. Christianson, Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), p. 25.

4. Ibid., p. 78.

5. Ibid., p. 82.

6. Ibid., p. 87.

7. Ibid., p. 109.

8. Ibid., p. 110.

9. SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, accessed January 7, 2016, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1954MNRAS.114..291. P. 291.

10. Christianson, Edwin Hubble, p. 122.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid., p. 132.

13. Carl C. Gaither and Alma E. Cavazos-Gaither, Gaither's Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012), p. 200.

14. Christianson, Edwin Hubble, p. 158.

15. Edwin Hubble and Milton L. Humason, “The Velocity-Distance Relation among Extra-Galactic Nebulae,” SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, accessed January 7, 2016, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1931CMWCI.427….1H.

16. Ronald Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times (London: A&C Black, 2011).

17. Christianson, Edwin Hubble, p. 211.

18Wikipedia, s.v. “Edwin Hubble,” last modified December 29, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Hubble.

CHAPTER 12: DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES OF LISE MEITNER AND OTTO HAHN'S DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FISSION

1. “Enrico Fermi,” Radio Chemistry Society, accessed July 2015, http://www.radiochemistry.org/nuclearmedicine/pioneers/fermi_e.shtml.

2Wikipedia, s.v. “Ida Noddack,” last modified January 6, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Noddack.

3. Laura Fermi, Atoms in the Family: My Life with Enrico Fermi (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), p. 139.

4. Dietrich Hahn, ed., Otto Hahn—Leben und Werk in Texten und Bildern (Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp Insel, 1988), p. 59.

5. Ruth Lewin Sime, Lise Meitner, A Life in Physics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), p. 17.

6. Philipp Frank, Einstein: His Life and Times (London: Jonathan Cape, 1948), p. 139.

7. Sime, Lise Meitner, p. 233.

8. Lise Meitner and O. R. Frisch, “Products of the Fission of the Uranium Nucleus,” Nature 143 (March 1939): 471–72.

9. “Niels Bohr Announces the Discovery of Fission,” Atomic Heritage Foundation, January 28, 2015, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.atomicheritage.org/article/niels-bohr-announces-discovery-fission.

10. William Lanouette, Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, the Man behind the Bomb (New York: Skyhorse, 2015).

11. Cynthia C. Kelly, ed., Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians (New York: Hachette, 2009), p. 39.

12. Lanouette, Genius in the Shadows.

13Wikipedia, s.v. “Chicago Pile-1,” last modified January 1, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Pile-1.

14. “Leo Szilard Facts,” Your Dictionary, accessed January 7, 2016, http://biography.yourdictionary.com/leo-szilard.

15. John Amacher, “The Nazi Bomb: Failures of the German Nuclear Program,” UCSB Oral History Project, June 2002, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.history.ucsb.edu/projects/holocaust/Research/Proseminar/johnamacher.htm.

16Wikipedia, s.v. “Operation Epsilon,” last modified December 1, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Epsilon.

17. E. Amaldi, ed., “Reminiscences by Leo Szilard,” in Perspectives in American History 2 (1968): 122–23.

18. Bernard T. Feld, “Einstein and the Politics of Nuclear Weapons,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1979, p. 8.

19. Robert James Maddox, Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), p. 67.

20. Kelly, Manhattan Project, p. 287.

21. Harry S. Truman and Robert H. Ferrell, Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S. Truman (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997), p. 55.

22. Lawrence M. Krauss, “70 Years of Speaking Knowledge to Power,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November 24, 2015, accessed January 7, 2016, http://thebulletin.org/70-years-speaking-knowledge-power8913.

23. Lansing Lamont, Day of Trinity (New York: Atheneum, 1985), pp. 332–33.

24. David B. Green, “This Day in Jewish History the Woman Who Discovered Nuclear Fission Dies,” Haaretz, October 27, 2014, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/features/.premium-1.622862.

25Wikipedia, s.v. “Lise Meitner,” last modified January 7, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lise_Meitner.

26Wikipedia, s.v. “Einstein-Szilárd Letter,” last modified November 18, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein%E2%80%93Szil%C3%A1rd_letter.

27. S. R. Weart and G. W. Szilárd, Leo Szilard: His Version of the Facts (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978).

28. William Lanouette, “The Many Worlds of Leo Szilard: Physicist, Peacemaker, Provocateur,” SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, March 2014, accessed January 7, 2016, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..APRR17001L.

CHAPTER 13: MAURICE WILKINS, ROSALIND FRANKLIN, JAMES WATSON, AND FRANCIS CRICK DETERMINE THE STRUCTURE OF DNA

1. “Lewis Thomas Quotes,” QuoteAddicts, accessed September 2015, http://quoteaddicts.com/844095.

2Wikipedia, s.v. “Maurice Wilkins,” last modified December 31, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Wilkins.

3Wikipedia, s.v. “Francis Crick,” last modified December 9, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Crick.

4. James D. Watson, A Passion for DNA Genes, Genomes, and Society (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2000), p. 4.

5. Ibid.

6. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick, “A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid,” Nature 171 (April 25, 1953): 171, 737–38, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.exploratorium.edu/origins/coldspring/ideas/printit.html.

7. “The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962,” Nobelprize.org, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/.

8. “Nobel Prizes 1962,” Nobeprize.org, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/year/?year=1962.

9Wikipedia, s.v. “Rosalind Franklin,” last modified January 2, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalind_Franklin.

10. Anne Sayre, Rosalind Franklin and DNA (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000).

11. Jenifer Glynn, My Sister Rosalind Franklin: A Family Memoir (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 158.

12. “The Culture in Maurice Wilkins’ Lab, Raymond Gosling,” DNA Learning Center, accessed August 2015, https://www.dnalc.org/view/15261-The-culture-in-Maurice-Wilkins-lab-Raymond-Gosling.html.

13. James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA (New York: Touchstone, 1968).

14. Ira H. Carmen, Politics in the Laboratory: The Constitution of Human Genomics (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004), p. 31.

15Wikipedia, s.v. “James Watson,” last modified December 31, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Watson.

16. Ibid.

17. “Russia's Usmanov to Give Back Watson's Auctioned Nobel Medal,” BBC.com, December 9, 2014, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-30406322.

18. Keith Perry, “James Watson Selling Nobel Prize ‘Because No-One Wants to Admit I Exist,’” Telegraph, November 28, 2014, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/11261872/James-Watson-selling-Nobel-prize-because-no-one-wants-to-admit-I-exist.html.

CHAPTER 14: J. CRAIG VENTER, JAMES WATSON, AND MICHAEL HUNKAPILLER RACE FOR THE HUMAN GENOME

1. Robert M. Cook-Deegan, The Gene Wars: Science, Politics, and the Human Genome (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997), p. 88.

2. J. Craig Venter, A Life Decoded: My Genome: My Life (New York: Penguin, 2007), p. 110.

3. “A Brief History of the Human Genome Project,” National Human Genome Research Institute, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.genome.gov/12011239.

4. Ibid.

5. Kevin Davies, Cracking the Genome: Inside the Race to Unlock Human DNA (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), p. 60.

6. Ibid.

7. Venter, A Life Decoded, p. 137.

8. Cook-Deegan, The Gene Wars, p. 328.

9. Venter, A Life Decoded, p. 127.

10. Ibid., p. 173.

11. Shannon O'Lear, Environmental Politics: Scale and Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 55.

12. Venter, A Life Decoded, p. 207.

13. Ibid., p. 228.

14. Ed Regis, “Other People's Molecules,” March 16, 2003, New York Times, accessed September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/16/books/other-people-s-molecules.html.

15. Venter, A Life Decoded, p. 278.

16. Davies, Cracking the Genome, p. 275.

17. Ibid., p. 236.

18. Ibid., p. 242.

CHAPTER 15: TEN HONORABLE MENTION MINI-CHAPTERS

1. Jennifer Latson, “The Shy Scientist Who Could See through Skin,” Time, January 5, 2015, accessed September 2015, http://time.com/3649842/x-ray/.

2Wikipedia, s.v. “Wilhelm Röntgen,” last modified January 2, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_R%C3%B6ntgen.

3. F. Zwicky, “Die Rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen Nebeln,” Helvetica Physica Acta 6 (1933): 110.

4Wikipedia, s.v. “Superconducting Super Collider,” last modified January 3, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superconducting_Super_Collider.

5. “C. V. Raman Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/c/cvraman664315.html.

6Wikipedia, s.v. “Satyendra Nath Bose,” last modified January 3, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyendra_Nath_Bose.

7. “Early SETI: Project Ozma, Arecibo Message,” SETI Institute, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.seti.org/seti-institute/project/details/early-seti-project-ozma-arecibo-message.

8. “Stephen Hawking Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/s/stephenhaw447580.html.

9Wikipedia, s.v. “Stephen Hawking,” last modified January 5, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Steve Connor, “Higgs v Hawking: A Battle of the Heavyweights That Has Shaken the World of Theoretical Physics,” Independent, September 2, 2002, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/higgs-v-hawking-a-battle-of-the-heavyweights-that-has-shaken-the-world-of-theoretical-physics-175705.html.

14Wikipedia, s.v. “Stephen Hawking.”

15. Eliana Dockterman, “The True Story behind The Theory of Everything,” Time, November 7, 2014, accessed January 7, 2016, http://time.com/3571702/theory-of-everything-true-story/.

16Wikipedia, s.v. “Yuri Milner,” last modified December 24, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Milner.

17Wikipedia, s.v. “Breakthrough Initiatives,” last modified October 20, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breakthrough_Initiatives.

18. Rachel Feltman, “Stephen Hawking Announces $100 Million Hunt for Alien Life,” Washington Post, July 20, 2015, accessed January 7, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2015/07/20/stephen-hawking-announces-100-million-hunt-for-alien-life/.

19. “Carl Sagan Quotes,” BrainyQuote.com, accessed September 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/c/carlsagan133582.html.

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24. Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan, foreword to The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (New York: Ballantine, 1996).

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28Wikipedia, s.v. “Carl Sagan,” last modified, January 4, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan.

29Wikipedia, s.v. “Neil deGrasse Tyson,” last modified January 7, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_deGrasse_Tyson.

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31Wikipedia, s.v. “Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey,” last modified December 30, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmos:_A_Spacetime_Odyssey.

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33Wikipedia, s.v. “George Washington Carver,” last modified January 4, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington_Carver.

34Wikipedia, s.v. “Booker T. Washington,” last modified December 30, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booker_T._Washington.

35. Ibid.

36. Gary R. Kremer, George Washington Carver: A Biography (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO, 2011).

37Wikipedia, s.v. “George Washington Carver.”

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40. Richard Rhodes, Hedy's Folly: The Life and Breakthrough Inventions of Hedy Lamarr, the Most Beautiful Woman in the World (New York: Vintage, 2011), p. 15.

41. “Patents, Secret Communication System US 2292387 A.”

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44Wikipedia, s.v. “James Randi,” last modified December 20, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Randi.

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46. James Randi Educational Foundation, accessed August 2015, http://web.randi.org/about.html.

AFTERWORD

1Wiktionary, s.v. “The more things change, the more they stay the same,” accessed January 7, 2016, https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/the_more_things_change,_the_more_they_stay_the_same.