The Human Side of Science: Edison and Tesla, Watson and Crick, and Other Personal Stories behind Science's Big Ideas (2016)

To Dig Deeper

If you want to find out more about the people or ideas discussed here, consider the following sources:

GENERAL

Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.

Ball, Philip. Curiosity: How Science Became Interested in Everything. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Bauer, Susan Wise. The Story of Science. New York: W. W. Norton, 2015.

Gribbin, John. The Scientists: A History of Science Told through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors. New York: Random House, 2002.

Hellman, Hal. Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

Levy, Joel. Scientific Feuds: From Galileo to the Human Genome Project. London: New Holland, 2010.

Livio, Mario. Brilliant Blunders. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013.

Myers, Morton A. Prize Fight: The Race and the Rivalry to be the First in Science. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Robinson, Matthew, ed. The Scientists: An Epic of Discovery. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2012.

Simmons, John. The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel, 1996.

INTRODUCTION

“Scientific Method.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 6, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method.

“Understanding and Using the Scientific Method.” Science Made Simple. Accessed May 2015. http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/scientific_method.html.

Wynn Sr., Charles M., and Arthur W. Wiggins. The Five Biggest Ideas in Science. New York: Wiley, 1997.

CHAPTER 1: DEMOCRITUS AND ARISTOTLE PONDER THE EXISTENCE OF ATOMS

“Aristotle.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 4, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle.

“Aristotle (384–322 BCE).” In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed May 2015. http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/.

Berryman, Sylvia. “Democritus.” In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, 2010. Accessed May 2015. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/democritus/.

“Democritus.” European Graduate School. Accessed May 2015. http://www.egs.edu/library/democritus/biography/.

“Democritus.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 2, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democritus.

Shields, Christopher. “Aristotle.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, 2010. Accessed May 2015. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2015/entries/aristotle.

Wynn Sr., Charles M., and Arthur W. Wiggins. The Five Biggest Ideas in Science. New York: Wiley, 1997.

Bonus video interview: “Atoms with Democritus and Aristotle.” Vimeo video, 18:01. Posted on June 2015 by Bloomfield Township. Accessed January 4, 2016. http://vimeo.com/125063018.

CHAPTER 2: ARISTOTLE, ARISTARCHUS, COPERNICUS, AND GALILEO SEEK TO DETERMINE EARTH'S PLACE IN THE COSMOS

Gannon, Megan. “Tycho Brahe Died from Pee, Not Poison.” Live Science, November 6, 2012. Accessed May 2015. http://www.livescience.com/24835-astronomer-tycho-brahe-death.html.

“Ptolemy.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 5, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy.

Rubenstein. Richard E. Aristotle's Children: How Christians, Muslims, and Jews Rediscovered Ancient Wisdom and Illuminated the Dark Ages. New York: Harcourt, 2004.

Wiggins, Arthur W., and Charles M. Wynn Sr. The Five Biggest Unsolved Problems in Science. New York: Wiley, 2003.

Bonus Video Interview: “The Solar System with Tycho Brahe and Galileo Galilei.” Vimeo video, 14:45. Posted on July 2015 by Bloomfield Township. http://vimeo.com/129116467.

CHAPTER 3: ISAAC NEWTON, ROBERT HOOKE, AND GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ ARGUE ABOUT MOTION AND CALCULUS

Clark, David H., and Stephen P. H. Clark. Newton's Tyranny: The Suppressed Scientific Discoveries of Stephen Gray and John Flamsteed. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2001.

“Edmond Halley.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 5, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmond_Halley.

“Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 4, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz.

“Isaac Newton.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 4, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton.

“Nicolas Fatio de Duillier.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified June 1, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Fatio_de_Duillier.

McNab, Andrew. “On the Shoulders of Giants.” IsaacNewton.org.uk. Accessed September 2015. http://www.isaacnewton.org.uk/essays/Giants.

“Robert Hooke.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified November 16, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hooke.

Wiggins, Arthur W. The Joy of Physics. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007; 2nd ed., 2011.

Bonus Video Interview: “Newton and Hooke on Gravity.” Vimeo video, 14:47. Posted on July 2015 by Bloomfield Township. http://vimeo.com/130318251.

CHAPTER 4: THE BATTLING BERNOULLIS AND BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE

Bui, Dung (Yom), and Mohamed Allali. “The Bernoulli Family: Their Massive Contributions to Mathematics and Hostility toward Each Other.” Academia 2, no. 2 (2011). Accessed May 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6645678/The_Bernoulli_Family_their_massive_contributions_to_mathematics_and_hostility_toward_each_other.

“18th Century Mathematics—Bernoulli Brothers.” storyofmathematics.com. Accessed May 2015. http://www.storyofmathematics.com/18th_bernoulli.html.

Gonzales, Tina. “Family Squabbles: The Bernoulli Family.” math.wichita.edu. Accessed May 2015. http://www.math.wichita.edu/history/Men/bernoulli.html.

“Guillaume de l'Hôpital.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified November 18, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillaume_de_l%27Hôpital.

“Later Life of Isaac Newton.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 16, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Later_life_of_Isaac_Newton.

O'Connor, J. J., and E. F. Robertson. “Jacob (Jacques) Bernoulli.” MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. Accessed May 2015. http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Bernoulli_Jacob.html.

———. “The Brachistochrone Problem.” MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. Accessed May 2015. http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/HistTopics/Brachistochrone.html.

CHAPTER 5: ANTOINE LAVOISIER AND BENJAMIN THOMPSON (COUNT RUMFORD) HAVE RIVAL THEORIES OF HEAT

“Benjamin Thompson.” Famous Scientists. Accessed June 2015. http://www.famousscientists.org/benjamin-thompson/.

Brown, G. I. Count Rumford: The Extraordinary Life of a Scientific Genius. Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton, 1999.

Brown, Sanborn C. “Count Rumford and the Caloric Theory of Heat.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93, no. 4 (1949): 316–25. Accessed June 2015. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3143157?sid=21105819778481&uid=70&uid=4&uid=2129&uid=3739600&uid=3739256&uid=2.

“Caloric Theory.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 25, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caloric_theory.

“Cannon Boring Experiment.” In Encyclopedia of Human Thermodynamics. Accessed June 2015. http://www.eoht.info/page/Cannon+boring+experiment.

“Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified November 19, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Theodore,_Elector_of_Bavaria.

“The Chemical Revolution of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier.” Historic Chemical Landmarks program of the American Chemical Society International. Accessed June 2015. http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/lavoisier.html.

Gurstelle, William. The Practical Pyromaniac. Chicago:

Hoffmann, Roald. “Mme. Lavoisier.” American Scientist. Accessed June 2015. http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/mme-lavoisier.images

Lienhard, John H. “Marie Lavoisier.” In Engines of Our Ingenuity, University of Houston. Accessed June 2015. http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1673.htm.images

“Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 1, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie-Anne_Paulze_Lavoisier.

Morris, Robert J. “Lavoisier and the Caloric Theory.” NYU Tandon School of Engineering. Accessed June 2015. http://www.faculty.poly.edu/~jbain/heat/readings/72Morris.pdf.

Rumford, Benjamin Count of. “An Inquiry concerning the Source of the Heat Which Is Excited by Friction.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 88 (1798): 80–102. Accessed June 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/106970?seq=7#page_scan_tab_contents.

“Sir Benjamin, Thompson, Count Rumford (1753–1814).” Burgum Family History Society. freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Accessed June 2015. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~bfhs/chap2.html.

Wiggins, Arthur W. The Joy of Physics. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007; 2nd ed., 2011.

Bonus Video Interview: “Lavoisier and Thompson on Heat.” Vimeo video, 11:55. Posted on August 2015 by Bloomfield Township. http://vimeo.com/132827829.

CHAPTER 6: MENDELEEV, MEYER, MOSELEY AND THE BIRTH OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

Aldersey-Williams, Hugh. Periodic Tales: A Cultural History of the Elements from Arsenic to Zinc. New York: HarperCollins, 2011.

“A Brief History of the Development of Periodic Table.” Western Oregon University. Accessed June 2015. https://www.wou.edu/las/physci/ch412/perhist.htm.

“Dmitri Mendeleev.” Famous Scientists. Accessed June 2015. http://www.famousscientists.org/dmitri-mendeleev/.

Gordin, Mishael D. “The Textbook Case of a Priority Dispute: D. I. Mendeleev, Lothar Meyer and the Periodic System.” From Nature Engaged; Science in Practice from the Renaissance to the Present, edited by Mario Biagioli and Jessica Riskin. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Accessed June 2015.

“History of the Periodic Table.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 4, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_periodic_table.

“Julius Lothar Meyer.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 5, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Lothar_Meyer.

“Julius Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev.” Chemical Heritage Foundation. Accessed June 2015. http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-history/themes/the-path-to-the-periodic-table/meyer-and-mendeleev.aspx.

Kean, Sam. The Disappearing Spoon: And Other True Tales of Madness, Love, and the History of the World from the Periodic Table of the Elements. New York: Little Brown, 2010.

“Periodic Table.” Royal Society of Chemistry. Accessed June 2015. http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/history/about.

Van der Krogt, Peter. “Development of the Chemical Symbols and the Periodic Table.” VanderKrogt.net. Accessed June 2015. http://www.vanderkrogt.net/elements/chemical_symbols.php.

Wynn Sr., Charles M., and Arthur W. Wiggins. The Five Biggest Ideas in Science. New York: Wiley, 1997.

CHAPTER 7: WESTINGHOUSE AND TESLA VERSUS EDISON—AC/DC TITANS CLASH

Cheney, Margaret. Tesla: Man Out of Time. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1981.

Clark, Ronald. Edison: The Man Who Made the Future. London: A&C Black, 2012.

Kent, David J. Tesla: The Wizard of Electricity. New York: Fall River, 2015.

“Lighting the 1893 World's Fair: The Race to Light the World.” History Rat. Accessed January 5, 2016. https://historyrat.wordpress.com/2013/01/13/lighting-the-1893-worlds-fair-the-race-to-light-the-world/.

Santoso, Alex. “10 Fascinating Facts about Edison.” Neatorama. February 11, 2008. Accessed January 5, 2016. http://www.neatorama.com/2008/02/11/10-fascinating-facts-about-edison/.

Seifer, Mark J. The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla: Biography of a Genius. New York: Citadel, 1998.

Stewart, Daniel Blair. Tesla: The Modern Sorcerer. Bombay, India: Frog Books, 1999.

Valone, Thomas. Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy.

Wiggins, Arthur W. The Joy of Physics. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007; 2nd ed., 2011.

Bonus Video Interview: “Tesla-Edison Clash over AC/DC.” Vimeo video, 11:54. Posted on September 2015 by Bloomfield Township. http://vimeo.com/135971779.

CHAPTER 8: ALFRED WEGENER STANDS HIS GROUND ABOUT CONTINENTAL DRIFT

“Alfred Wegener.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified November 13, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Wegener.

“Alfred Wegener (1880–1930).” University of California Museum of Paleontology. Accessed June 2015. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html.

Maugh II, Thomas H. “Victor Vacquier Sr. Dies at 101; Geophysicist Was a Master of Magnetics.” Los Angeles Times. January 24, 2009. Accessed January 5, 2016. http://www.latimes.com/science/la-me-vacquier24-2009jan24-story.html.

Sant, Joseph. “Wegener and Continental Drift Theory.” Scientus.org. Accessed June 2015. http://www.scientus.org/Wegener-Continental-Drift.html.

“Victor Vacquier.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified June 5, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Vacquier.

Wynn Sr., Charles M., and Arthur W. Wiggins. The Five Biggest Ideas in Science. New York: Wiley, 1997.

CHAPTER 9: PART 1: ALBERT EINSTEIN, MARCEL GROSSMANN, MILEVA MARIĆ, AND MICHELE BESSO STRUGGLE WITH RELATIVITY

“Einstein Family.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 4, 2016. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_family.

“Heinrich Friedrich Weber.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified April 30, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Friedrich_Weber.

“Heinrich Zangger.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified August 12, 2015. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Zangger.

Lanouette, William, with Bela Silard. Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, the Man behind the Bomb. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992.

“Lenard, Philipp.” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. Encyclopedia.com. Accessed July 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Philipp_Lenard.aspx.

“Marcel Grossmann.” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. Encyclopedia.com. Accessed July 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Marcel_Grossmann.aspx.

“Marcel Grossmann.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified November 24, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Grossmann.

“Mileva Marić.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified November 27, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mileva_Marić.

Neffe, Jürgen. Einstein: A Biography. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2005.

Overbye, Dennis. Einstein in Love: A Scientific Romance. New York: Penguin, 2000.

Parker, Barry. Einstein: The Passions of a Scientist. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2003.

Seelig, Carl. Albert Einstein: A Documentary Biography. Zurich: Staples, 1956.

“Time 100: The Most Influential People of the Century.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 11, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_100:_The_Most_Important_People_of_the_Century.

Weinstein, Galina. Einstein's Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2015.

Wiggins, Arthur W. The Joy of Physics. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007; 2nd ed., 2011.

CHAPTER 10: PART 2: ALBERT EINSTEIN'S STRUGGLES CONTINUE

“Albert Einstein and Zionism.” Zionism & Israel Information Center. Accessed July 2015. http://www.zionism-israel.com/Albert_Einstein/Albert_Einstein_zionism.htm.

Berlinski, David. “Einstein and Gödel.” Discover, March 1, 2002. Accessed July 2015. http://discovermagazine.com/2002/mar/featgodel.

Einstein, Albert, with Paul A. Schilpp, transl. and ed. Albert Einstein: Autobiographical Notes. LaSalle, IL, and Chicago: Open Court, 1979.

“Einstein's Quest for a Unified Theory.” APS News 14, no. 11 (December 2005), American Physical Society. Accessed July 2015. http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200512/history.cfm.

Gewertz, Ken. “Albert Einstein, Civil Rights Activist.” Harvard Gazette, April 12, 2007. Accessed July 2015. http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2007/04/albert-einstein-civil-rights-activist/.

Hillman, Bruce J., Birgit Ertl-Wagner, and Bernd C. Wagner. The Man Who Stalked Einstein: How Nazi Scientist Phillip Lenard Changed the Course of History. Guildford, CT: Lyons, 2015.

Isaacson, Walter. “How Einstein Divided America's Jews.” Atlantic, December 2009. Accessed July 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/12/how-einstein-divided-americas-jews/307763/.

Jerome, Fred, and Rodger Taylor. Einstein on Race and Racism. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

Katz, William Loren. “Albert Einstein, Paul Robeson, and Israel.” William Loren Katz, January 21, 2006. Accessed July 2015. http://williamlkatz.com/einstein-robeson-israel/.

Kumar, Manjit. Quantum: Einstein, Bohr, and the Great Debate about the Nature of Reality. New York: Norton, 2011.

Levenson, Thomas. Einstein in Berlin. New York: Bantam, 2003.

“May 3, 1946—Albert Einstein Spoke at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania.” Rhapsody in Books, May 3, 2010. Accessed July 2015. https://rhapsodyinbooks.wordpress.com/2010/05/03/may-3-1946-%E2%80%93-albert-einstein-spoke-at-lincoln-university-in-pennsylvania/.

“Offering the Presidency of Israel to Albert Einstein.” Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed July 2015. https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Politics/einsteinlet.html.

Pirro, Deirdre. “Maria (Maja) Einstein: A Tuscan Paradise Lost.” Florentine, no. 207 (February 2015). Accessed July 2015. http://www.theflorentine.net/articles/article-view.asp?issuetocId=9814.

Popova, Maria. “Albert Einstein's Little-Known Correspondence with W. E. B. Du Bois on Race and Racial Justice.” Brain Pickings. Accessed July 2015. https://www.brainpickings.org/2015/01/06/albert-einstein-w-e-b-du-bois-racism/.

Rosenkranz, Ze'ev. Einstein before Israel: Zionist Icon or Iconoclast? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Sayen, Jamie. Einstein in America: The Scientist's Conscience in the Age of Hitler and Hiroshima. New York: Crown, 1985.

Singer, Saul Jay. “Weizmann and Einstein: The Succession That Wasn't.” Jewish Press, May 28, 2015. Accessed July 2015. http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/front-page/weizmann-and-einstein-the-succession-that-wasnt/2015/05/28/.

Wiggins, Arthur W. The Joy of Physics. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007; 2nd ed., 2011.

Yourgrau, Palle. A World without Time: The Forgotten Legacy of Godel and Einstein.

Bonus Video Interview: “Bohr and Einstein Differ on the Quantum.” Vimeo video, 19:47. Posted on October 2015 by Bloomfield Township. http://vimeo.com/138738811.

CHAPTER 11: EDWIN HUBBLE AND HARLOW SHAPLEY CLASH/COOPERATE OVER THE UNIVERSE'S SIZE

Christianson, Gale E. Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

“Edwin Powell Hubble—The Man Who Discovered the Cosmos.” Hubble Space Telescope. Accessed July 2015. https://www.spacetelescope.org/about/history/the_man_behind_the_name/.

Fernie, J. D. “The Period-Luminosity Relation: A Historical Review.” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 81, no. 483:707. Accessed July 2015. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1969PASP…81..707F.

“From Our Galaxy to Island Universes.” Ideas of Cosmology. Accessed July 2015. https://www.aip.org/history/cosmology/ideas/island.htm.

Geiling, Natasha. “The Women Who Mapped the Universe and Still Couldn't Get Any Respect.” Smithsonian.com, September 18, 2003. Accessed July 2015. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-women-who-mapped-the-universe-and-still-couldnt-get-any-respect-9287444/.

Glass, Ian S. Revolutionaries of the Cosmos: The Astro-Physicists. London:

“Henrietta Leavitt 1868–1921.” PBS.org. Accessed July 2015. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/baleav.html.

“Henry Draper (1837–1882).” Open Door Web Site. History of Science and Technology. Accessed July 2015. http://www.saburchill.com/HOS/astronomy/033.html.

Johnson, George. Miss Leavitt's Stars. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005.

Levy, David. The Scientific American Book of the Cosmos. New York: St. Martin's, 2000.

“Milton L. Humason.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified May 4, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_L._Humason.

North, John. Cosmos: An Illustrated History of Astronomy and Cosmology. Chicago:

Parker, Barry R. Creation: The Story of the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Berlin: Springer 2013.

Putnam, William Lowell, et al. The Explorers of Mars Hill. Flagstaff, AZ: Lowell Observatory, 1994.

“Shapley, Harlow.” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 2008. Encyclopedia.com. Accessed July 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Harlow_Shapley.aspx.

Shapley, Harlow. Through Rugged Ways to the Stars. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1969.

“Slipher, Vesto Melvin.” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 2008. Encyclopedia.com, December 11, 2015. Accessed July 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Vesto_Melvin_Slipher.aspx#2.

Wiggins, Arthur W., and Charles M. Wynn Sr. The Five Biggest Unsolved Problems in Science. New York: Wiley, 2003.

Bonus Video Interview: “Hubble and Shapley Figure the Universe Size.” Vimeo video, 16:14. Posted on September 2015 by Bloomfield Township. http://vimeo.com/135583736.

CHAPTER 12: DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES OF LISE MEITNER AND OTTO HAHN'S DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FISSION

Barron, Rachel Stiffler. Lise Meitner, Discoverer of Nuclear Fission. Greensboro, NC: Morgan Reynolds, 2000.

“The Bohr-Heisenberg Meeting in September 1941.” American Institute of Physics. Accessed July 2015. https://www.aip.org/history/heisenberg/bohr-heisenberg-meeting.htm.

Bortz, Alfred B. Physics: Decade by Decade. New York: Facts on File, 2007.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Accessed July 2015. http://thebulletin.org.

“Discovery of Nuclear Fission.” APS News 16, no. 11 (December 2007), American Physical Society. Accessed July 2015. http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200712/physicshistory.cfm.

“Enrico Fermi.” Radio Chemistry Society. Accessed July 2015. http://www.radiochemistry.org/nuclearmedicine/pioneers/fermi_e.shtml.

Frisch, Otto. What Little I Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Fromm, James Richard. Harnessing of Nuclear Fission: The Story of the Atomic Bomb. Accessed July 2015. Third Millennium Online. http://www.3rd1000.com/nuclear/cruc18.htm.

“German Nuclear Weapon Project.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 29, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_nuclear_weapon_project.

Hafemeister, David, ed. Physics and Nuclear Arms Today. Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1991.

“James Chadwick.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 16, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Chadwick.

Jungk, Robert. Brighter Than a Thousand Suns. Boston: Mariner, 1970.

Lanouette, William. “Ideas by Szilard, Physics by Fermi.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 48, no. 10 (1992): 16–23.

“Manhattan Project.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 5, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project.

“The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb.” Atomicarchive.com. Accessed July 2015. http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/mp/.

“May 1932: Chadwick Reports the Discovery of the Neutron.” APS News 16, no. 5 (May 2007), American Physical Society. Accessed July 2015. http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200705/physicshistory.cfm.

Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.

Rife, Patricia. “Lise Meitner.” In Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia (2009). Jewish Women's Archive. Accessed July 2015. http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/meitner-lise.

Segré, Emilio. Enrico Fermi, Physicist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Several, James Lewis. World War II. Google Play: Kreactive Editorial, n.d.

Sime, Ruth Lewin. Lise Meitner, A Life in Physics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

“Werner Heisenberg.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 31, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Heisenberg.

Wiggins, Arthur W. The Joy of Physics. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007; 2nd ed., 2011.

CHAPTER 13: MAURICE WILKINS, ROSALIND FRANKLIN, JAMES WATSON, AND FRANCIS CRICK DETERMINE THE STRUCTURE OF DNA

Borell, Brendan. “Watson's Nobel Medal Sells for US$4.1 Million.” Nature (December 4, 2014). Accessed July 2015. http://www.nature.com/news/watson-s-nobel-medal-sells-for-us-4-1-million-1.16500.

Crick, Francis. What Mad Pursuit; A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic, 1990.

“The Culture in Maurice Wilkins’ Lab, Raymond Gosling.” DNA Learning Center. Accessed August 2015. https://www.dnalc.org/view/15261-The-culture-in-Maurice-Wilkins-lab-Raymond-Gosling.html.

“DNA Story at King's: The Hidden DNA Workers.” DNA and Social Responsibility. Accessed August 2015. http://dnaandsocialresponsibility.blogspot.com/2010_09_01_archive.html.

“Francis Crick (1916–2004).” DNA from the Beginning. Accessed August 2015. http://www.dnaftb.org/19/bio-2.html.

Hall, Kersten T. The Man in the Monkeynut Coat: William Astbury and the Forgotten Road to the Double-Helix. Oxford: Oxford University Press, August 2014.

Maddox, Brenda. Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Perry, Keith. “James Watson Selling Nobel Prize ‘Because No-One Wants to Admit I Exist.’” Telegraph, November 28, 2014. Accessed August 2015. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/11261872/James-Watson-selling-Nobel-prize-because-no-one-wants-to-admit-I-exist.html.

Piper, Anne. “Rosalind Franklin.” In Trends in Biochemical Sciences 23 (1998): 151–54. Accessed August 2015. http://cwp.library.ucla.edu/articles/franklin/piper.html#section9.

“Raymond Gosling on Working on DNA with Rosalind Franklin.” Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Oral History Collection, recorded March 3, 2003. Accessed January 7, 2016. http://library.cshl.edu/oralhistory/interview/scientific-experience/molecular-biologists/working-dna-rosalind-franklin/.

Ridley, Matt. Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code. New York: Harper, 2006.

Sayre, Anne. Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.

Watson, James D. A Passion for DNA Genes, Genomes, and Society. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2000.

Watson, James D. The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York: Touchstone, 1968.

Wilkins, Maurice. The Third Man of the Double Helix: The Autobiography of Maurice Wilkins. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

“William Astbury.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 5, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Astbury.

Bonus Video Interview: “Franklin and Wilkins Do DNA.” Vimeo video, 11:49. Posted on October 2015 by Bloomfield Township. http://vimeo.com/138738821.

CHAPTER 14: J. CRAIG VENTER, JAMES WATSON, AND MICHAEL HUNKAPILLER RACE FOR THE HUMAN GENOME

Cook-Deegan. Robert. The Gene Wars: Science, Politics, and the Human Genome. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.

Davies, Kevin. Cracking the Genome: Inside the Race to Unlock Human DNA. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

“Genome Sizes.” users.rcn.com. Accessed August 2015. http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/G/GenomeSizes.html.

Hood, Lee. “Lee Hood: Making the Future Happen.” Scientific American Worldview. Accessed August 2015. http://www.saworldview.com/archive/2012/lee-hood-making-the-future-happen/.

“Leroy Hood.” Wikipedia, s. v. Last modified November 22, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leroy_Hood.

Ridley, Matt. Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters. New York: Harper, 2000.

Venter, J. Craig. A Life Decoded: My Genome: My Life. New York: Viking, 2007.

Wiggins, Arthur W., and Charles M. Wynn Sr. The Five Biggest Unsolved Problems in Science. New York: Wiley, 2003.

CHAPTER 15.1: TEN HONORABLE MENTIONS: WILHELM CONRAD RÖNTGEN

Berger, Harold. The Mystery of a New Kind of Rays: The Story of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen and His Discovery of X-Rays. CreateSpace, 2012.

Markel, Howard. “‘I Have Seen My Death’: How the World Discovered the X-Ray.” PBS NewsHour, December 20, 2012. Accessed August 2015. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/i-have-seen-my-death-how-the-world-discovered-the-x-ray/.

“Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen—Biographical.” Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Accessed August 2015. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/rontgen-bio.html.

“Wilhelm Röntgen.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 2, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Röntgen.

CHAPTER 15.2: TEN HONORABLE MENTIONS: PERLMUTTER, RIESS, AND SCHMIDT

Appell, David. “Dark Forces at Work.” Scientific American. May 1, 2008. Accessed August 2015. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/dark-forces-at-work/?page=2.

“The High-Z SN Search.” Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Accessed August 2015. https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/supernova//HighZ.html.

Panek, Richard. The 4% Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011.

Preuss, Paul. “The Evolving Search for the Nature of Dark Energy.” Berkeley Lab, October 27, 2009. Accessed August 2015. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/2009/10/27/evolving-dark-energy/.

“Saul Perlmutter.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified October 1, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saul_Perlmutter.

CHAPTER 15.3: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: PARTICLE ACCELERATIONS

“The History of CERN.” CERN Timelines. Accessed August 2015. http://timeline.web.cern.ch/timelines/The-history-of-CERN.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Crash Course: Can a Seventeen-Mile-Long Collider Unlock the Universe?” New Yorker, May 14, 2007, Accessed August 2015. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2007/05/14/crash-course.

CHAPTER 15.4: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: BOSE, BOSONS, AND THE HIGGS BOSON

“Satyendranath Bose.” MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. Accessed August 2015. http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Bose.html.

“Satyendra Nath Bose.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 3, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyendra_Nath_Bose.

CHAPTER 15.5: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: ENRICO FERMI, FRANK DRAKE, AND JILL TARTER

“Breakthrough Initiatives.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified October 20, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breakthrough_Initiatives.

Contact (1997 American Film).” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 3, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contact_(1997_American_film).

“Drake Equation.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified, January 4, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation.

“Jill Tarter.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 11, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jill_Tarter.

“Jill Tarter: A Scientist Searching for Alien Life.” NPR, July 23, 2012. Accessed August 2015. http://www.npr.org/2012/07/23/156366055/jill-tarter-a-scientist-searching-for-alien-life.

Shostak, Seth. “Should We Keep a Low Profile in Space?” New York Times, March 25, 2015. Accessed August 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/28/opinion/sunday/messaging-the-stars.html.

“Yuri Milner.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 24, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Milner.

CHAPTER 15.6: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: STEPHEN HAWKING AND BLACK HOLES

Ferguson, Kitty. Stephen Hawking: An Unfettered Mind. New York: Macmillan, 2012.

Mlodinow, Leonard. The Upright Thinkers: The Human Journey from Living in Trees to Understanding the Cosmos. New York: Pantheon, 2015.

“Stephen Hawking.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 6, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking.

Susskind, Leonard. The Black Hole War: My Battle with Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics. New York: Little, Brown, 2008.

CHAPTER 15.7: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: COSMOS

Achenbach, Joel. “Why Carl Sagan Is Truly Irreplaceable.” Smithsonian, March 2014. Accessed August 2015. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-carl-sagan-truly-irreplaceable-180949818/.

“Carl Sagan.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 4, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan.

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified December 30, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmos:_A_Spacetime_Odyssey.

Morrison, David. “Carl Sagan's Life and Legacy as Scientist, Teacher, and Skeptic.” Skeptical Inquirer 31, no. 1 (January/February 2007). Accessed August 2015. http://www.csicop.org/si/show/carl_sagans_life_and_legacy_as_scientist_teacher_and_skeptic.

Sagan, Carl, and Ann Druyan. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. New York: Ballantine, 1996.

CHAPTER 15.8: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER

Bolden, Tanya. George Washington Carver. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2008.

“George Washington Carver.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 4, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington_Carver.

Wormser, Richard. “The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow.” PBS.org. Accessed August 2015. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_people_booker.html.

CHAPTER 15.9: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: HEDY LAMARR AND GEORGE ANTHÉIL

“George Antheil.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 6, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Antheil.

“Hedy Lamarr.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified January 6, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedy_Lamarr.

“Hedy Lamarr: Invention of Spread Spectrum Technology.” Famous Women Inventors. Accessed August 2015. http://www.women-inventors.com/Hedy-Lammar.asp.

Rhodes, Richard. Hedy's Folly: The Life and Breakthrough Inventions of Hedy Lamarr, the Most Beautiful Woman in the World. New York: Vintage, 2011.

Shearer, Stephen M. Beautiful: The Life of Hedy Lamarr. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2013.

CHAPTER 15.10: TEN HONORABLE MENTION: THE AMAZING RANDI

“Billet Reading.” Wikipedia, s.v. Last modified November 24, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billet_reading.

Higginbotham, Adam. “The Unbelievable Skepticism of the Amazing Randi.” New York Times Magazine, November 7, 2014. Accessed August 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/09/magazine/the-unbelievable-skepticism-of-the-amazing-randi.html?r=0.

James Randi Educational Foundation. Accessed August 2015. http://web.randi.org/about.html.