Barron's AP Psychology, 7th Edition (2016)
Practice Test 2
PART I—100 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
TIME: 1 HOUR AND 10 MINUTES
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case.
1.Which of the following is the most important detail of Wundt’s early research that established the psychology as a science?
(A)Wundt was a member of the upper class, which helped his credibility.
(B)Wundt wrote well and communicated results to large numbers of people effectively.
(C)Wundt set up a laboratory and focused on empirical evidence that could be replicated.
(D)Wundt worked outside the university system and was seen as an independent thinker.
(E)Wundt focused exclusively on observable behavior, not unobservable events like thinking and consciousness.
2.Which of the following psychologists would most likely agree with the following statement: Behavior is a result of the combination of reinforcers and punishers?
(C)B. F. Skinner
3.Choosing 20 people at random from a large lecture class of 400 people is an example of which of the following?
(E)assignment to conditions
4.Which technique controls for both experimenter and subject bias?
(B)double blind study
(C)single blind study
5.Damage to the occipital lobes of the brain would most likely affect which of the senses?
6.A medication prescribed by a psychiatrist for major depressive disorder would most likely influence the balance of which of the following neurotransmitters?
7.A doctor examining a car crash victim in order to determine whether the crash caused structural damage to the brain would use what kind of brain scan?
8.Physiological reactions to surprise or shocks are most controlled by which of the following parts of the nervous system?
(A)somatic nervous system
(B)sympathetic nervous system
9.Children who suffer brain damage may be able to regain their physical and mental abilities more quickly than older brain damage patients due to which of the following properties of the brain?
(C)effective psychological environment
10.Which of the following kinds of brain scans would be most useful in disproving the statement: “Most people only use 10 percent of their brains”?
11.Which of the following structures in the eye is most specifically responsible for color vision?
12.Human senses can be divided into which two major categories based on what the senses gather from the outside world?
(A)sensation and perception
(B)conduction and transduction
(C)energy and chemical
(D)bichromatic and trichromatic
(E)opponent and process
13.Turning up the volume on a music player changes which aspect of sound?
(A)amplitude of the wave
(B)frequency of the wave
(C)pitch of the tone
(D)transduction of the tone
(E)energy of the sound
14.A research study establishes that most people can taste one gram of salt in one quart of water. Which of the following concepts is most closely related to the goal of this study?
15.A musician’s ability to make a distinction between two very similar pitches depends on which of the following concepts?
(B)signal detection theory
16.Our ability to perceive depth depends primarily on what other perceptual abilities?
(A)proximity and similarity
(B)top-down processing and bottom-up processing
(C)binocular and monocular cues
(D)size and shape constancy
(E)vestibular and kinesthic senses
17.REM sleep deprivation generally causes what kinds of side effects?
(A)Intense, prolonged periods of stage 3 and 4 sleep
(B)Interference with memory tasks
(C)Decreased sleep onset episodes
(D)Sleep apnea and night terrors
(E)Heightened manifest dream content
18.Which two competing theories explain the effects of hypnosis?
(A)manifest content and latent content
(B)role theory and dissociation theory
(C)circadian rhythm and paradoxical sleep
(D)conscious level and nonconscious level
(E)priming and blind sight
19.What is the first step in any example of classical conditioning?
(A)Following a response with a reinforcement or a punishment
(B)Reinforcing an organism for a behavior similar to the desired behavior
(C)Pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus
(D)Rewarding a behavior with an unconditioned stimulus, such as food
(E)Punishing behaviors other than the target behavior
20.An “A+” course grade is which kind of reinforcer?
21.A researcher who concludes that “people who watch graphic violence in films are more likely to behave in violent ways than people who don’t” is probably researching which kind of learning?
22.In the three-box information processing model, what is the first place memories are stored?
23.Memory research indicates that memories may be physically stored in the brain through strengthened connections between brain neurons. What is this process called?
24.Most mnemonic devices (like learning the notes on the staff by memorizing the sentence “Every Good Boy Does Fine” and using the first letter of each word) are examples of which memory enhancement technique?
25.Seeing someone in line at the grocery store and remembering her or his name is an example of which kind of retrieval?
26.Which of the following is most likely to lead to a constructed memory?
(B)serial position effect
27.Abraham Maslow’s hierarachy of needs theorizes that each person is motivated by what?
(A)desire to achieve in the eyes of others
(B)satisfying needs from the next step in the hierarchy
(C)primary (physical) and secondary (emotional) needs
(D)homeostasis needs determined by our inner self
(E)sex, thirst, hunger, and safety, in that order
28.Which of the following brain structures is most centrally involved in hunger motivation?
29.Which kinds of motivations best encourage positive behaviors to persist over long periods of time?
30.A researcher tests the problem solving skills of twenty 10-year-old, twenty 20-year-old, and twenty 30-year-old participants for a study on age and problem solving. What research method is this researcher using?
31.Which of the following newborn reflexes help infants find and eat food?
32.Mary Ainsworth placed babies into a strange situation and observed the babies’ reactions when the parents left and then returned. What developmental concept was Ainsworth studying?
33.Which developmental stage theory explained how experiences in infancy, childhood, adolscence, adulthood, and old age influence later personality characteristics?
(A)Piaget’s cognitive development theory
(B)Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory
(C)Kohlberg’s moral development theory
(D)Ainsworth’s social attachment theory
(E)Harlow’s social attachment theory
34.What would Piaget test in order to determine whether a child is in the pre-operational or concrete operational stage of cognitive development?
(C)concepts of conservation
(E)universal ethical principles
35.According to Sigmund Freud, what is the dominant factor determining our personality traits?
(A)secondary drives and needs
(B)genetic and nutritional factors
(E)positive and negative reinforcements
36.Which of the following is a common way to categorize personality traits?
(A)the Big Five
(B)Erikson’s 8 traits
(C)Piaget’s 4 stages
(D)the Nine Defense Mechanisms
(E)the Top Two
37.A pencil and paper personality test that places a person in one of several personality categories (such as extrovert/introvert, etc.) is based on which personality theory?
38.Which of the following was an important technique used by Abraham Maslow and the humanistic psychologists during therapy?
(C)unconditional positive regard
(E)secondary central dispositions
39.Which of the following kinds of personality theorists is the most likely to use a projective test?
40.Which of the following kinds of tests is most likely to be an achievement test?
(A)an IQ test
(B)a classroom test over a chapter in a textbook
(C)an entrance exam for law school
(D)a personality test based on the Big Five personality traits
(E)a projective test
41.The ability to solve a new computer game based on logical puzzles probably depends on which kind of intelligence?
42.Which of the following terms applies to IQ tests?
43.A person who experiences flashbacks and nightmares after being involved in a serious car accident is likely to be diagnosed with which psychological disorder?
(A)dissociative identity disorder
(D)post-traumatic stress disorder
44.What kind of symptom is common among all the somatoform disorders?
(B)disconnection from reality and delusions related to personal identity
(C)maladaptive ways of behaving that prevent a person from accomplishing goals
(E)experiencing a physical problem without a physical cause
45.Psychogenic amnesia is an indication of which kind of psychological disorder?
46.People who suffer from major depression often have very low levels of which neurotransmitter?
47.In what way would a person diagnosed with schizophrenia most likely differ from a person diagnosed with a dissociative disorder?
(A)A person with schizophrenia is likely to have more than one personality.
(B)A person diagnosed with a dissociative disorder is likely to have delusions.
(C)A person diagnosed with schizophrenia is likely to experience hallucinations.
(D)A person diagnosed with a dissociative disorder may have difficulty keeping a job.
(E)A person with schizophrenia is likely to be split from reality.
48.What is the principal tool used in all forms of psychotherapy?
(A)talking to a patient
49.Why are psychoanalysts sometimes interested in talking with a patient about dreams?
(A)Psychoanalysts discovered that neurotransmitter abnormalities sometimes cause dream disturbances.
(B)Since all people are striving for self-actualization, psychoanalysts look at the cognitive obstacles in dreams.
(C)Nonproductive counterconditioning behaviors are sometimes revealed in dreams.
(D)Some psychoanalysts believe that dream symbols represent unconscious conflicts.
(E)Dreams reflect variations in brain waves during REM sleep.
50.Which of the following kinds of therapies would most likely be used by a somatic therapist?
(C)rational emotive behavior therapies
(D)in vivo desensitization
51.Which of the therapies listed below is no longer used to treat patients?
(A)electro-convulsive shock therapy
52.Which of the following kinds of therapists is most likely to prescribe lithium for a patient diagnosed with bipolar disorder?
53.A nonprofit environmental group includes a free gift of address labels in a letter asking for contributions. Which social psychological principle is the nonprofit group trying to use to increase contributions?
(D)fundamental attribution error
54.A math teacher refuses to look at the grades her students received in the past in math classes. The teacher is worried that looking at their past grades might influence the ways she reacts to her students. What effect is the teacher trying to avoid?
(C)fundamental attribution error
55.What kinds of factors are ignored or de-emphasized when people commit the fundamental attribution error?
56.Which social psychological principle best explains prejudice?
57.Sherif’s Robbers Cave study indicated that which of the following principles best helps reduce tensions between groups?
(B)diffusion of responsibility
58.Milgram’s obedience study was criticized based on what ethical grounds?
(A)lack of informed consent
(B)nonrandom sampling procedures
(C)violation of anonymity
(D)risk of psychological harm
(E)lack of debriefing
59.What makes the psychoanalytic perspective different from the other psychological perspectives?
(A)Psychoanalysts focus on the unconscious mind.
(B)Psychoanalysis relies on the scientific method.
(C)The process of psychoanalysis takes a long time and is focused on individuals, not groups.
(D)The research psychoanalysis is based on primarily involves people with psychological disorders.
(E)Psychoanalysis is the only perspective to involve treatment of psychological disorders.
60.If a distribution of scores includes one or more outliers, which of the following measures of central tendency should be used?
61.Which of the following would a researcher need to use to determine if the difference between the mean scores of experimental and control groups was significant?
62.Which sentence most accurately describes how neurons communicate?
(A)Neurons communicate through physical contact between dendrites of one cell and the next cell.
(B)Electricity passes between neurons, which carries messages between one neuron and another.
(C)Chemicals travel from one neuron to another, influencing whether a neuron will fire or not.
(D)Neurons send messages up the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex through neural reflexes.
(E)Axons of neurons wrap around each other and communicate messages through hormones.
63.Someone with brain damage who has difficulty making the muscle movements needed to produce accurate speech might have damage to which area of the brain?
64.Which of the following structures is located at the most central and protected part of the brain?
65.The case study of Phineas Gage’s brain injury was significant for which of the following reasons?
(A)Gage’s accident was one of the first to be treated with drugs that alter the neurotransmitters in the brain.
(B)It was one of the first well-documented examples of a specific brain area being associated with a set of physical and emotional changes.
(C)This accident provided psychiatrists with one of the first opportunities to treat a brain-damaged patient with psychotherapeutic techniques.
(D)The CAT scan was used for the first time in the Phineas Gage case to document the extent of brain injury.
(E)The case of Phineas Gage demonstrated that brain injury primarily affects physical abilities, not mood or our emotions.
66.An artist doing a pencil drawing could use which of the following techniques to add depth to her or his drawing?
67.Which classical conditioning term best describes the following scenario: Later in his classical conditioning experiments, Ivan Pavlov’s dogs began to salivate whenever they heard any sound similar to a bell, such as a doorbell or someone accidentally clinking a water glass.
68.Garcia and Koelling’s research regarding learned aversions established that which of the following UCS and CS pairs are the most powerful and learned most quickly?
(A)performing a task and receiving a food reward
(B)nausea and food or drink
(C)movement and shock
(D)punishments and rewards
(E)administration of a punishment and aversion
69.Why might a researcher use a variable ratio of reinforcement rather than a fixed ratio?
(A)Fixed ratio schedules of reinforcements are more time intensive.
(B)Variable ratio schedules of reinforcements produce results more quickly.
(C)Variable ratio schedules of reinforcements avoid problems such as generalization and the Premack principle.
(D)Variable ratio schedules of reinforcements allow researchers to use both classical and operant conditioning.
(E)Variable ratio schedules of reinforcement are more resistant to extinction than fixed schedules.
70.Knowledge of different categories of trees and where they grow best is an example of what kind of long-term memory?
71.Which of the following is an example of an implicit memory?
(A)describing the taste of the cake at your last birthday party
(B)remembering how to tie a tie
(C)recalling the name of your junior high school shop teacher
(D)recognizing a celebrity
(E)repeating the name of your first pet
72.Research indicates that which of the following factors most influence a person’s sexual orientation?
(B)masculine/feminine personality traits
(C)hormones released in the womb
(D)sexual orientation of parents
(E)traumatic childhood experiences
73.A psychology teacher who believes that all students want to learn and creates a classroom culture that encourages this intrinsic motivation is using which kind of management style?
74.Which of the following factors impacts the speed of motor development the most?
(A)early gross motor practice and experiences
(B)concrete operational exercises soon after birth
(C)myelination of brain neurons
(D)secure attachments with parents
(E)secure parenting styles
75.Which of the following statements best describes an important difference between authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles?
(A)Authoritarian parents use clear rules and enforce those rules consistently.
(B)Parents using the authoritative style allow children to set and enforce their own rules in order to encourage independence.
(C)Authoritative parents set and enforce rules, but explain and emphasize the rationale behind the rules.
(D)Children who grow up in authoritative households are likely to be less independent as adults because they are not used to making decisions.
(E)Authoritative parents set fewer rules than Authoritarian parents do, but they are more likely to enforce the rules with stricter punishments and more extensive rewards.
76.What kind of question would be most useful in a study testing Lawrence Kohlberg’s concepts of pre- and post-conventional stages?
(A)How many objects remain if 3 objects are taken away from a group of 12 objects?
(B)Should someone tell a small lie in order to prevent someone’s feelings from being hurt?
(C)What is the most effective way to respond to a child crying in her or his crib?
(D)Which type of parenting style most quickly establishes a parenting style that encourages secure attachment?
(E)At what age can children reason abstractly and think about different hypotheses?
77.Which of the following is a common criticism of Freud’s personality theory?
(A)Freud’s research was based mainly on students in his classes and wasn’t representative.
(B)The theory was focused on the psychologically healthy and did not apply well to people with psychological disorders.
(C)Personality is too complex to be studied using the scientific experiments Freud used.
(D)Genetics theory was not advanced enough in Freud’s time to be used as he tried to.
(E)The evidence for Freud’s method was based only on his therapy sessions and was not tested scientifically.
78.Someone who fails an important exam and reacts by spending more time studying in the library and less time socializing probably has which kind of locus of control?
79.How would a psychometrician interpret an IQ score of 145?
(A)This score is slightly above the average score on most IQ tests.
(B)This score is well below the standard average of 200 on IQ tests.
(C)This score indicates that the person has high verbal intelligence but low logical intelligence.
(D)This score is three standard deviations above the average score of 100.
(E)This score is high for a child, but is considered average or low for an adult.
80.Which of the following is the most complete list of the common characteristics of psychological disorders?
(A)humanistic, behavioral, cognitive, biomedical
(B)maladaptive, disturbing, unusual, irrational
(C)anxiety, dissociative, affective, schizophrenic
(D)disorganized, paranoid, catatonic, undifferentiated
(E)dependent, narcissistic, histrionic, obsessive
81.Which of the following is one of the key factors that differentiate major depressive disorder from periods of sadness that everyone experiences?
(A)Major depression is indicated by specific changes in the brain.
(B)People who experience major depression are sad for longer than two weeks without an obvious cause.
(C)Individuals diagnosed with major depression experience sadness along with episodes of heightened emotions and mania.
(D)All mood disorders, like major depression, involve tolerance and withdrawal of controlled substances.
(E)Normal periods of sadness are much less intense than the sadness associated with major depression.
82.Which of the following techniques would be most helpful in avoiding the problems associated with groupthink?
(A)responding to deindividuation among group members
(B)encouraging contrary opinions within the group
(C)increasing group polarization within different groups
(D)identifying approach-avoidance conflicts
(E)promoting similarity, proximity, and reciprocal liking
83.Which of the following was one of the factors that increased conformity in Asch’s studies?
(A)presence of the authority figure
(B)level of shock administered
(D)size of the group
(E)expectations about conformity
84.A psychologist who advises a patient to write about his depressed thoughts and prescribes an antidepressant medication is using a combination of which of the following perspectives?
(A)therapeutic and psychoanalytic
(B)behavioral and socio-cultural
(C)humanist and evolutionary
(D)cognitive and biopsychology
(E)structuralist and empiricist
85.Why can experiments determine causal relationships when no other research method can?
(A)Experiments are more precise than the other research methods.
(B)Experiments isolate the effects of independent variables on dependent variables.
(C)Experiments typically involve more participants than other research methods do.
(D)Experiments take place in more realistic, real-life settings.
(E)Experiments involve precise descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
86.Which research method would most likely be used to test the following hypothesis: People who conserve energy by buying hybrid cars are more likely to spend more money on organic foods.
87.Professor Ek is interested in studying online bullying behaviors of middle school students. Which of the following research method choices (and the rationale for the choice) is the most appropriate?
(A)Experiment—the most convenient and ethical way to study online bullying is to randomly assign half of the participants to a group who experiences the independent variable (online bullying).
(B)Correlation—it would be unethical to purposefully expose middle school students to bullying behaviors, so Professor Ek should examine variables that correlate with existing instances of online bullying.
(C)Naturalistic observation—observing instances of online bullying by monitoring middle school students’ social networking behavior would provide the most accurate data and not raise important privacy concerns, because social networks are considered “public” space.
(D)Survey—self-reports about online bullying behaviors and responses to these behaviors would likely provide the most accurate descriptions of bullying and its impact.
(E)Case study—Professor Ek should examine one real example of online bullying in detail because data and conclusions from this single case would generalize best to the general population.
88.A person suffering from a skin rash finds her pain is temporarily relieved by vigorous scratching. She does not perceive the pain from the rash while she is scratching, but the pain returns soon after she stops scratching. Which concept best explains this temporary pain relief?
(B)amplitude and frequency theories
89.Withdrawal symptoms are most directly caused by which of the following processes?
90.What is the major difference between classical and operant conditioning?
(A)Operant conditioning was established well before classical conditioning.
(B)Classical conditioning involves pairing stimuli, and operant conditioning involves pairing a response with a stimulus.
(C)Operant conditioning is used to train organisms to perform specific acts, and classical conditioning is used to get organisms to stop performing specific acts.
(D)Classical conditioning is more difficult to use but more effective than operant conditioning.
(E)Operant conditioning involves biological responses, and classical conditioning involves rewards and punishments.
91.What is the major difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
(A)Punishments are used with nonhuman animals, and negative reinforcements are used with humans.
(B)Negative reinforcements are used in classical conditioning, and punishments are used in operant conditioning.
(C)Punishments are primarily used when training an organism to perform a behavior and negative reinforcements are used to train an organism to stop performing a behavior.
(D)Negative reinforcements are more effective than punishments but take longer to use.
(E)Punishments decrease the frequency of a behavior and negative reinforcements increase the frequency of a behavior.
92.Noam Chomsky and B. F. Skinner disagreed about how children acquire language. Which of the following concepts is most relevant to the differences between their theories?
(C)linguistic relativity hypothesis
(D)language acquisition device
(E)serial position effect
93.A research participant eats half a bowl of M&M candies, and then stops eating. How would a motivation researcher using drive reduction theory explain this participant’s behavior?
(A)Humans are instinctively driven to eat sugar and fat when presented to them.
(B)The Yerkes-Dodson law explains that people will eat food when presented to them, but usually in moderate amounts in order to avoid being perceived as selfish.
(C)The primary drive of hunger motivated the person to eat, and then stop when she/he regained homeostasis.
(D)The research participant was satisfying the second step on the hierarchy of needs: Food needs.
(E)Each person uses incentives in order to determine what to be motivated to do. This person decided on a hunger incentive and ate half the candies.
94.Which of the following is the best summary of Stanley Schacter’s two-factor theory of emotion?
(A)An external event causes us to experience a specific emotion, and this emotion triggers certain physiological changes to occur.
(B)When our body responds to an external event, our brain interprets the biological changes as a specific emotion.
(C)Each person follows a predictable pattern of changes in response to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
(D)Perceived control over life events reduces stress, which in turn cause specific emotions.
(E)A combination of psychological changes and our cognitive interpretations combine to produce our emotional experiences.
95.How would Piaget describe the process of learning something new using terminology from his cognitive development theory?
(A)When we can’t assimilate new information, we change our schemas through accommodation.
(B)As we encounter new social situations, we either develop healthy or unhealthy personality characteristics in order to cope with social demands.
(C)Humans develop increasing abilities to think about moral choices, and our ability to think about the rights of others develops over time.
(D)Rewards and punishments for behaviors are the major influence on learning in humans.
(E)The interaction between nature and nurture determines that genetic influences are a major cause of the pace of learning and learning difficulties.
96.Albert Bandura and the social-cognitive personality theorists believe that personality results from the interaction of which factors?
(A)genetics, the unconscious, and social
(B)id, ego, and superego
(C)rewards, punishments, and reinforcements
(D)traits, the environment, and behavior
(E)humanism, behaviorism, and cognition
97.What would a psychometrician conclude about a personality test that tells a person she is an extreme extrovert the first time she takes the test and an extreme introvert the next time she takes it?
(A)This personality test has low reliability but high validity.
(B)The test is probably high in construct validity but isn’t very predictive.
(C)These test norms and standardization probably need improvement.
(D)The results indicate that the test has low test-retest reliability.
(E)Like most personality tests, this test is most likely an aptitude rather than an achievement test.
98.Which of the following statements is true about the relationship between reliability and validity?
(A)Reliability and validity are mutually exclusive: a test can be reliable or valid, but it can’t be both.
(B)If a test is reliable, then it is valid, but if a test is not reliable, it cannot be valid.
(C)Validity is a concept related to achievement tests, and reliability is the corresponding concept related to aptitude tests.
(D)A test can be valid but not reliable.
(E)A test can be reliable but not valid.
99.What is the purpose of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
(A)to describe the causes of psychological disorders
(B)to explain the biomedical symptoms, causes, and cures related to psychological disorders
(C)to list diagnoses and symptoms so that psychologists and others can help diagnose psychological disorders
(D)to summarize research studies regarding psychological disorders and how these diagnoses relate to one another
(E)to discuss theories related to the causes of psychological disorders and how the theories lead to cures
100.What kind of therapy involves both behavioral and cognitive interventions?
(D)rational emotive behavior therapy
If there is still time remaining, you may review your answers.
PART II—FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
TIME: 50 MINUTES
Directions: You have 50 minutes to answer the TWO questions that follow. Your answer should present an argument rather than a list of facts. Make sure to incorporate psychological terminology into your answers whenever possible.
1.Many different kinds of psychological researchers spend their careers studying the process of attitude formation.
(A)Explain how the following psychological principles influence attitudes:
■Locus of control
■Fundamental attribution error
(B)Describe two interventions a psychologist might use to change a prejudiced attitude. One intervention should be based on the behaviorist perspective and one intervention should use the cognitive perspective.
2.Professor Kester, a developmental psychologist, is investigating the long-term effects of different parenting styles. Her hypothesis is: Children of parents who use the permissive parenting style will be more independent as adults than children of authoritarian or authoritative parents.
(A)Describe how Professor Kester could test this hypothesis. Include the following elements in your description:
■Identify the two key variables in this hypothesis and explain a possible operational definition for each variable.
■Briefly describe two studies that could test this hypothesis, one using the cross-sectional method and one using the longitudinal method.
■Explain how Professor Kester could ensure that her study will meet at least 3 of the 5 ethical requirements for research involving human participants.
(B)Predict what Professor Kester might discover based on your knowledge of parenting style research.
Multiple-Choice Error Analysis Sheet
After checking your answers on the practice test, you might want to gauge your areas of relative strength and weakness. This sheet will help you to classify your errors by topic area. By circling the numbers of the questions you answered incorrectly, you can get a picture of which areas you need to study the most.
Question 1 Scoring Rubric
This is an 8-point question. Each application of a term in part A is worth one point (6 points possible) and each description of an intervention in part B is worth 1 point (2 points possible).
Many different kinds of psychological researchers spend their careers studying the process of attitude formation.
(A)Explain how the following psychological principles influence attitudes.
Students should explain how the motivation to have consistent attitudes and behaviors influences attitudes. Students can describe this general influence or use a specific example. Students could describe how an action that is inconsistent with a specific attitude causes dissonance that is reduced when the attitude is changed.
Students should explain how the internal cognitive rules we use to understand the world influences attitudes. Students can describe this general influence or use a specific example. The student essay could describe how one of the mental rules we use establishes or changes an attitude, such as a stereotype about a specific type of person.
Students should explain how the process of reciprocal determinism impacts attitude. Students can describe this general influence or use a specific example. This explanation or example should explain the reciprocal relationship between personality, environment, and behavior, and how these interactions relate to attitude.
Students should explain how the concept of locus of control describes types of attitudes. Students can describe this general influence or use a specific example. The explanation should include the attitude that our actions determine what happens to us (internal locus of control) and/or the attitude that influences outside our control determines what happens to us (external locus of control). Students could go on to describe how internal or external locus of controls might lead to other attitudes (e.g., optimism or pessimism).
Students should explain how belief bias influences attitude. Students can describe this general influence or use a specific example. This explanation or example should include the idea that we might not change our attitudes in the face of contradictory evidence, and some attitudes might represent an illogical conclusion in order to confirm our preexisting beliefs.
Students should explain how the fundamental attribution error contributes to attitude formation. Students can describe this general influence or use a specific example. The explanation or example should describe how the mental act of attributing a person’s behavior to their internal disposition rather than to the situation reflects and establishes an attitude toward that person.
(B)Describe two interventions a psychologist might use to change a prejudiced attitude. One intervention should be based on the behaviorist perspective and one intervention should use the cognitive perspective.
In part B, students need to describe two interventions a psychologist might use to change an attitude. In order to earn point 7, students need to describe an intervention based on the behavioral perspective. This intervention needs to clearly use either an operant or classical conditioning technique in order to change an attitude.
In order to earn point 8, students need to describe an intervention based on the cognitive perspective. This intervention needs to clearly involve how we interpret, process, or remember events. Using the perspective, the psychologist would try to intervene in the ways a person mentally interprets or remembers an event and this change results in a change in attitude.
Question 2 Scoring Rubric
This is an 8-point question. Part A is worth a total of 7 points and part B is worth 1 point. Students need to describe how Professor Kester could test her hypothesis in part A and make a clear prediction about the results in part B.
POINTS 1 AND 2
Students should identify parenting style and “independence” as the key variables in this hypothesis. Students can refer to “parenting style” in general as the variable or can specifically refer to authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive styles as variables. In order to receive points 1 and 2, students need to both identify these variables and provide a possible operational definition for each. Possible operational definitions are listed below (not an exhaustive list—students may score these points for other reasonable operational definitions).
Students need to briefly describe a cross-sectional study that tests the hypothesis. In this brief description, students need to include the idea that people of different ages are being tested at the same time (a cross-sectional study). Students could describe a study in which groups of children, young adults, older adults, and the elderly are given measures of independence, and these results are compared with self-report inventories that measure parenting style in order to test the hypothesis.
Students need to briefly describe a longitudinal study that tests the hypothesis. In this brief description, students need to include the idea that one group of children is being tested over a long period of time (a longitudinal study). Students could describe a study in which a group of children is observed interacting with their parents, and a dominant parenting style is established for each child. Then the independence of these children is tested over a number of years in order to establish a relationship between parenting style and independence.
Observational studies of parents measuring relevant factors, such as rule setting, rule enforcement, and levels of communication
Self-reports of parenting style
Instruments that measure parenting styles
Self-reports of perceived independence
Observational checklists of independent and dependent behaviors
Other data describing independent/dependent behaviors, such as living independent from parents, economic independence, etc.
Students need to describe how Professor Kester described the goals of the study to participants and received their consent (either through signatures on a consent form or consent of parents for the participation of children).
Students need to indicate that the participants were involved in the study voluntarily and no coercive methods were used to ensure continued participation.
Students need to describe how Professor Kester ensured participants’ anonymity, through the use of codes for participants or the use of fictional names when results were communicated to others.
Students need to describe how Professor Kester made sure none of the participants experienced mental or physical risk as a result of participation in the study.
Students need to describe how Professor Kester informed the participants of all the research procedures after the study was completed and how to obtain results of the study when they are available.
POINTS 5, 6, AND 7
In order to earn points 5, 6, and 7 students need to describe how Professor Kester’s study meets at least three of the five ethical criteria for research involving human participants. Students can describe more than three of the criteria, but only 3 points maximum are awarded.
In order to earn point 8, students need to predict that Professor Kester’s results will indicate that children raised in permissive households will be LESS (not more) independent than children raised in households where other parenting styles are the norm. Past parenting style research indicates that the permissive parenting style generally results in more dependence among children and young adults. The authoritative parenting style is generally associated with higher levels of independence.
Sample Student Response Essay 2
Professor Kester needs to identify the right variables in her hypothesis. Two of the more important variables are parenting styles and age. Then the professor needs to go on and operationalize these variables. The operational definition of parenting styles are how parenting styles affects the independence of children who grow up in households where different parenting styles are used. The operational definition of age is obvious: how old people are.
There are at least two studies that Professor Kester could do to test this hypothesis. One study might use the cross-sectional method: this is when you take a cross-section of people, in this case people of different ages, and you test them all at once. You could figure out which people grew up with permissive parents and which didn’t, then look at the people in different age groups and figure out if the “permissive” groups were more independent than the other groups or not. Or Professor Kester could use the longitudinal method. This one would take longer: Professor Kester would have to find one group of people as kids, then figure out which ones were growing up with permissive parents and which weren’t. Then the professor would have to wait until the kids grew up a little, then test their independence again. Then wait a few years, and test again. Over the years, the professor might be able to figure out whether being a kid of permissive parents has anything to do with independence.
Ethical considerations are very important to researchers, and Professor Kester might have trouble meeting the ethical requirements for this hypothesis. First, she would have to get the partipants’ permission to even be involved in the study in the first place. This would mean the parents’ permission and their permission for their kids to be involved. Along with this, Professor Kester would have to make sure that no one was going to be hurt because of the study. Independence is a tricky thing to measure, and the professor would have to make sure that no one was making any risky choices with this independence. Finally, Professor Kester would have to make certain that the results of the study are only published in real psychological journals that are reviewed and edited by other psychologists, and not just in popular magazines or newspapers.
If Professor Kester overcomes all these obstacles, she might figure out some interesting results through this study. During the study, I believe that the professor will figure out that kids who grow up with permissive parents will actually be less independent than other kids. Permissive parents don’t teach their kids anything about rules, and this might make it harder for kids to have rules later on in life.
Sample Student Response Essay 2 Scoring Explanation
POINTS 1 AND 2
The student’s essay doesn’t score either point 1 or point 2. The student correctly identifies parenting styles as one of the key variables, but the student’s operational definition of parenting style is not specific (it is basically a restatement of the hypothesis). The student misidentifies age as one of the key variables in the hypothesis. Age is a variable involved in the study, but the other key variable in this hypothesis is independence.
The student scores this point at “the cross-sectional method: this is when you take a cross-section of people, in this case people of different ages, and you test them all at once.” The student clearly establishes that this study would use people of different ages, testing them all at once and comparing groups of different ages.
The student scores this point at “find one group of people as kids, then figure out which ones were growing up with permissive parents and which weren’t. Then the professor would have to wait until the kids grew up a little, then test their independence again.” This indicates that the professor is following one group of participants over a number of years.
POINTS 5, 6, AND 7
The student scores 2 of these 3 points. Point 5 scores at “get the partipants’ permission to even be involved in the study in the first place” (informed consent). Point 6 scores at “make sure that no one was going to be hurt because of the study.” (risk). The student does not score point 7 because the last ethical consideration the student discusses (where the study results are published) is not one of the five ethical requirements for research involving human participants.
The student scores this point at: “kids who grow up with permissive parents will actually be less independent than other kids.” This prediction matches the research on parenting styles: children who grow up in households with authoritative parents are more independent than either permissive households or authoritarian households.