Take a Diagnostic Exam
IN THIS CHAPTER
Summary: In the following pages, you will find a diagnostic exam whose content and structure closely matches the “real” AP U.S. History exam. Use this test to familiarize yourself with the actual test and to assess your strengths and weaknesses.
How to Use the Diagnostic Exam
Section I of the AP U.S. History exam contains a multiple-choice section and a short-answer section. The test is now set:
Section II contains the document-based question (DBQ) and an essay question—you will need to pick one question to answer out of the two questions you are given.
55 minutes for 55 multiple-choice questions
50 minutes for 4 short-answer questions
55 minutes for one document-based question
35 minutes for one long essay question
The purpose of this chapter is to allow you to familiarize yourself with the test and to assess your test readiness in terms of both the skills and the content understanding needed. Try to take this test under testlike conditions; in other words, time yourself and do the test—or at least each section of the test—uninterrupted. Note that in Chapter 5 you will find strategies for each type of question that will allow you to more effectively and efficiently tackle the questions.
When to Use the Diagnostic Exam
This diagnostic test can be helpful to you regardless of whether you are following Plan A, B, or C. Those who chose Plan A should study this exam early in the year so that you will thoroughly understand the format of the test. Look for the types of multiple-choice and short-answer questions early and carefully study the format of the essay questions. Go back and look at this exam throughout the year: Many successful test-takers maintain that knowing how to tackle the questions that will be asked on any exam is just as important as knowledge of the subject matter.
Plan B students (who are using one semester to prepare) should also analyze the format of the exam. Plan B folks: as you begin using this book you might also want to actually answer the multiple-choice and short-answer questions dealing with content you have already studied in class and answer the document-based question and the free-response question and evaluate your results. This will help you analyze the success of your previous preparation for the test.
Plan C students should take this diagnostic exam as soon as they begin working with this manual to analyze the success of their previous preparation for the actual exam.
Conclusion (After the Exam)
After you have studied or taken the diagnostic exam, you will continue to Step 3 of your 5 Steps to a 5. Chapter 5 will provide you with tips and strategies for answering all of the types of questions that you found on the diagnostic exam.
Don’t be discouraged and if you answered a lot of questions on the diagnostic exam incorrectly. At this point, the main thing is that you get a feel for the types of questions that you will encounter on the real AP U.S. History exam.
AP U.S. HISTORY DIAGNOSTIC EXAM
Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Questions
AP U.S. HISTORY DIAGNOSTIC EXAM
Time: 1 hour, 45 minutes
Part A (Multiple Choice)
Part A recommended time: 55 minutes
Directions: Each of the following questions refers to a historical source. These questions will test your knowledge about the historical source and require you to make use of your historical analytical skills and your familiarity with historical themes. For each question select the best response and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer sheet.
Questions 1–4 refer to the following cartoon.
Political cartoon from 1807
1. This cartoon criticizes which policy of President Thomas Jefferson?
A. The Louisiana purchase
B. The Embargo Act
C. The War with Tripoli
D. Reductions in government spending
2. Jefferson was responding to what situation?
A. British interference with American shipping and trade
B. British support for Indians in the West
C. Aggressive actions by the French Emperor Napoleon
D. Electoral losses to domestic opponents
3. Which of the following reflects how many Americans responded to Jefferson’s policy?
A. Emigrating to other countries
B. Advocating military involvement in the Napoleonic Wars
C. Engaging in illicit trade with foreign countries
D. Moving to the Western frontier
4. Which of the following most closely resembles Jefferson’s policy?
A. The Open Door in China
B. The Good Neighbor Policy with South America
C. Manifest Destiny of the 1840s
D. Neutrality Laws of the 1930s
Questions 5–8 refer to the following quotation.
Yes, let us pray for the salvation of all those who live in that totalitarian darkness—pray that they will discover the joy of knowing God. But until they do, let us be aware that while they preach the supremacy of the State, declare its omnipotence over individual man, and predict its eventual domination of all peoples on the earth, they are the focus of evil in the modern world.… But if history teaches anything, it teaches that simpleminded appeasement or wishful thinking about our adversaries is folly. It means the betrayal of our past, the squandering of our freedom. So, I urge you to speak out against those who would place the United States in a position of military and moral inferiority.… So, in your discussions of the nuclear freeze proposals, I urge you to beware the temptation of pride—the temptation of blithely … declaring yourselves above it all and label both sides equally at fault, to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire, to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself from the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil.
—Ronald Reagan, Address to the National Association of Evangelicals, March 8, 1983
5. The sentiments in the passage above most directly reflect which of the following?
A. A religious revival in the 1980s
B. An intensification of the cold war in the early 1980s
C. A desire to limit the size of government
D. A distrust of the American military
6. Which of the following would have been most likely to approve the sentiments expressed in the passage?
A. An antinuclear activist
B. An atheist
C. A Democrat
D. A Republican
7. The sentiments expressed in the passage are most closely linked to which of the following policies?
A. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
B. Business deregulation
C. Encouraging prayer in the public schools
D. Military cutbacks
8. The sentiments in the passage best reflect which long-standing concern of American presidents?
A. Support for civil rights
B. Promoting the separation of church and state
C. Containment of communism
D. Expanding the welfare state
Questions 9–12 refer to the following quotation.
They were smart and sophisticated, with an air of independence about them, and so casual about their looks and manners as to be almost slapdash. I don’t know if I realized as soon as I began seeing them that they represented the wave of the future, but I do know I was drawn to them. I shared their restlessness, understood their determination to free themselves of the Victorian shackles of the pre-World War I era and find out for themselves what life was all about.
—Colleen Moore, movie star, writing about the 1920s
9. In this passage, Moore is writing about which of the following?
A. The Ku Klux Klan
D. The Model T
10. Many young women of the 1920s expressed their freedom through which of the following?
A. Political activism
B. “Mannish” haircuts, new clothing styles, and cosmetics
C. Living amongst the poor in settlement houses
D. Rejection of marriage and child-rearing
11. The new freedoms for women in the 1920s were supported by which of the following?
A. Widespread economic prosperity
B. Growth in fundamentalist Christianity
C. A massive movement of women into political offices
D. Moral reforms like the temperance movement
12. The passage by Moore most directly reflects which of the following continuities in United States history?
A. Concerns about economic inequality
B. Efforts to expand civil rights
C. Worries about political radicalism
D. Concerns for individual liberty and self-expression
Questions 13–16 refer to the following quotation.
I am for doing good to the poor, but … I think the best way of doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it. I observed … that the more public provisions were made for the poor, the less they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer. And, on the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and became richer.
—Benjamin Franklin, Autobiography
13. In this passage, Franklin takes a position similar to which of the following?
A. Advocates of a market-driven economy like Adam Smith
B. Supporters of the First Great Awakening
C. Opponents of British rule in America
D. Believers in an extensive social welfare system
14. The idea that Franklin expresses in this passage most directly reflects which of the following continuities in U.S. history?
A. Concern about a religious foundation for society
B. Belief in individual self-reliance
C. A distrust of politicians
D. A desire to expand Social Security
15. Which of the following helped Franklin justify his position?
A. Strong class distinctions in colonial America
B. British efforts to tax Americans
C. A decline in religious beliefs
D. Social mobility in colonial America
16. Which of the following presidents would be most likely to share Franklin’s position?
A. Barack Obama
B. Lyndon Baines Johnson
C. Calvin Coolidge
D. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Questions 17–20 refer to the following cartoon.
Thomas Nast, Harper’s Weekly, June 10, 1871
17. Which of the following best expresses Nast’s perspective in this cartoon?
A. New York City is benefiting from the leadership of Tammany Hall boss William M. Tweed
B. New Jersey is unfairly exploiting New York City
C. The federal government is oppressing New York City
D. Tammany Hall boss William M. Tweed wields too much power in New York City
18. Urban political machines like Tammany Hall derived most of their support from which of the following?
A. Immigrants and lower-class voters
B. The wealthier classes of society
C. Patronage from the federal government
D. Rural voters from outside the city
19. Urban political machines endured for many years because they provided which of the following?
A. Honest and efficient government
B. Help and services for the poor
C. Rights and privileges unavailable outside the city
D. Opposition to the encroachments of the federal government
20. Nast’s journalistic perspective can best be compared to which of the following?
A. Progressive muckrakers exposing the business practices of the Standard Oil Company
B. Yellow journalists during the period of the Spanish-American War
C. Reporters investigating President Richard M. Nixon during the Watergate scandal
D. Newspaper coverage of World War II
Questions 21–24 refer to the following quotation.
At last they brought him [John Smith] to Werowocomoco, where was Powhatan, their emperor. Here more than two hundred of those grim courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had been a monster; till Powhatan and his train had put themselves in their greatest braveries. Before a fire upon a seat like a bedstead, he sat covered with a great robe, made of raccoon skins, and all the tails hanging by. On the other hand did sit a young wench of sixteen or eighteen years, and along on each side of the house, two rows of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red, many of their heads bedecked with the white down of birds, but every one with something, and a great chain of white beads about their necks. At his entrance before the king, all the people gave a great shout.… Having feasted him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan; then as many as could laid hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the king’s dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms, and laid her own upon his to save his from death; whereat the emperor was contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all occupations as themselves. For the king himself will make his own robes, shoes, bows, arrows, pots; plant, hunt, or do anything so well as the rest.
—John Smith, The General Historie of Virginia, 1624
21. Which of the following best describes the perspective of Captain John Smith?
A. Powhatan and his followers were a backward people.
B. Europeans unfairly looked down on Indians.
C. Indians lacked the vices of the more technologically advanced Europeans.
D. Indian women were the dominant force in their society.
22. Smith’s account makes clear which of the following?
A. The people of Powhatan’s Confederacy were divided by strong class distinctions.
B. Powhatan’s people made important decisions by consensus.
C. Powhatan enjoyed the same sorts of power as a European king.
D. Powhatan’s people lived in poverty.
23. Smith’s story best illustrates which of the following?
A. Indians were unusually cruel.
B. Europeans were usually deceitful in dealing with Indians.
C. The English were foolish to venture into the American wilderness.
D. Indian-European relations often suffered from misunderstanding and suspicion.
24. In the context of this story, Pocahontas can best be compared to which of the following women?
A. Susan B. Anthony
B. Sally Ride
C. Jane Addams
D. Amelia Earhart
Questions 25–28 refer to the following quotation.
Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.
And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today!
—Martin Luther King, Jr., “I Have a Dream” speech, Lincoln Memorial, August 28, 1963
25. Martin Luther King, Jr., in this passage is calling for which of the following?
A. Economic justice for the poor
B. Renewed commitment to the cold war struggle against communism
C. Equal rights for African Americans
D. Special privileges for African Americans
26. In this passage, King points out which of the following?
A. A contradiction between American ideals and American practice
B. A need to create new American ideals
C. The superiority of African American values
D. The futility of hoping for change
27. At the time of King’s speech, which of the following would be likely to oppose King’s message?
A. A Midwestern Republican Senator
B. A Southern Democratic Senator
C. A Northern liberal
D. A member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
28. In this passage, King is addressing which continuity in U.S. history?
A. The struggle for greater economic opportunity
B. A fear of sectionalism in the United States
C. Concerns about moral decline
D. The struggle for individual liberty
Questions 29–32 refer to the following cartoon.
War Department cartoon, 1943
Credit: U.S. Army
29. The message of the cartoon can be best described by which of the following?
A. The invasion of Europe is endangered by inferior weapons.
B. The war is being lost.
C. Too many American supplies have been given to allied nations.
D. Civilians play a vital role in the war effort.
30. Viewing this cartoon would encourage Americans to do which of the following?
A. Avoid the wasteful use of metal products
B. Plant a victory garden
C. Volunteer for military service
D. Build fewer ships and construct more tanks
31. This cartoon most directly refers to which aspect of the American war effort during World War II?
A. American efforts to launch a second front in Europe as early as possible
B. Military operations in the Mediterranean in 1942 and 1943
C. American industrial production
D. Efforts to create new and improved weapons systems
32. The message of the cartoon for Americans can best be compared to which of the following?
A. The environmental movement of the 1970s
B. The boycotts of British goods in the 1760s and 1770s
C. Abolitionism in the nineteenth century
D. Consumerism in the 1950s
Questions 33–36 refer to the following quotation.
That whereas your poor and humble Petition(er) being condemned to die, do humbly beg of you to take it into your Judicious and pious considerations that your poor and humble petitioner knowing my own innocence Blessed be the Lord for it and seeing plainly the wiles and subtlety of my accusers by my self can not but Judge charitably of Others that are going the same way of my self if the Lord steps not mightily in I was confined a whole month upon the same account that I am condemned now for and then cleared by the afflicted persons as some of your honors know and in two days time I was cried out upon by them and have been confined and now am condemned to die the Lord above knows my innocence then and likewise does now at the great day will be known to men and Angels I petition your honors not for my own life for I know I must die and my appointed time is set but the Lord he knows it is that if be possible no more Innocent blood may be shed which undoubtedly cannot be avoided In the way and course you go in I Question not but your honors does to the utmost of your Powers in the discovery and detecting of witchcraft and witches and would not be guilty of Innocent blood but for the world but by my own innocence I know you are in the wrong way the Lord in his infinite mercy direct you in this great work if it be his blessed will that no more innocent blood be shed.
—Mary Easty, petition to her judges, Salem, Massachusetts, 1692
33. Mary Easty in this passage is asking her judges to do which of the following?
A. Stop condemning innocent persons to death for witchcraft
B. Redouble their efforts to find the real witches in Salem
C. Separate church from state in their deliberations
D. Stop their oppression of women
34. Most historians believe that the Salem Witch Trials were the result of which of the following?
A. The activities of a coven of witches in Salem
B. Social tensions in Salem
C. English efforts to enforce religious conformity in Massachusetts
D. The ideas of the English political philosopher John Locke
35. The religious convictions of Mary Easty and the rest of Salem were shaped by which of the following?
A. Roman Catholicism
36. Writers and intellectuals have often compared the Salem Witch Trials to which of the following?
A. The mistreatment of slaves in the South
B. Anti-immigrant rioting in the nineteenth century
C. Government actions in the Red Scares of the twentieth century
D. The suppression of strikers in the late nineteenth century
Questions 37–40 refer to the following quotation.
Companions in Arms!! These remains which we have the honor of carrying on our shoulders are those of the valiant heroes who died in the Alamo. Yes, my friends, they preferred to die a thousand times rather than submit themselves to the tyrant’s yoke. What a brilliant example! Deserving of being noted in the pages of history. The spirit of liberty appears to be looking out from its elevated throne with its pleasing mien and pointing to us saying: “These are your brothers, Travis, Bowie, Crockett, and others whose valor places them in the rank of my heroes.” Yes soldiers and fellow citizens, these are the worthy beings who, by the twists of fate, during the present campaign delivered their bodies to the ferocity of their enemies; who barbarously treated as beasts, were bound by their feet and dragged to this spot, where they were reduced to ashes. The venerable remains of our worthy companions as witnesses, I invite you to declare to the entire world, “Texas shall be free and independent or we shall perish in glorious combat.”
—Colonel Juan N. Seguin, Alamo Defenders’ Burial Oration, Columbia Telegraph and Texas Register, April 4, 1837
37. Colonel Juan N. Seguin honored the memory of the defenders of the Alamo because
A. they fought to the death for their cause
B. they defeated an invading Mexican army
C. they saved New Orleans from the British
D. they saved San Antonio from a large war band of Comanche
38. Colonel Seguin’s oration makes it clear that
A. he thought the defense of the Alamo was a strategic mistake
B. many Tejanos (Texans of Mexican descent) favored Texan independence
C. he thought the United States was imposing a tyranny on Texas
D. he opposed the movement of American settlers into Texas
39. The defenders of the Alamo gave their lives for what continuity in American history?
A. The quest for racial justice
B. The desire for political liberty
C. The search for social security
D. Opposition to gun control
40. A dispute over the boundary of Texas led to which of the following conflicts?
A. The War of Jenkins’ Ear
B. The Quasi-War with France
C. The Spanish–American War
D. The Mexican War
Questions 41–44 refer to the following quotation.
When we stormed the Pentagon, my wife and I we leaped over this fence, see. We were really stoned, I mean I was on acid flying away, which of course is an antirevolutionary drug you know, you can’t do a thing on it. I’ve been on acid ever since I came to Chicago. It’s in the form of honey. We got a lab guy doin’ his thing. I think he might have got assassinated, I ain’t seen him today. Well, so we jumped this here fence, see, we were sneaking through the woods and people were out to get the Pentagon. We had this flag, it said NOW with a big wing on it, I don’t know. The right-wingers said there was definitely evidence of Communist conspiracy ’cause of that flag.… So we had Uncle Sam hats on, you know, and we jumped over the fence and we’re surrounded by marshals, you know, just closin’ us in, about 30 marshals around us. And I plant the . . . flag and I said, “I claim this land in the name of free America. We are Mr. and Mrs. America. Mrs. America’s pregnant.” And we sit down and they’re goin’ . . . crazy. I mean we got arrested and unarrested like six or seven times.
—Abbie Hoffman, Yippie Workshop Speech, 1968
41. Abbie Hoffman and the Yippies were protesting which of the following?
B. The Great Society
C. Legal acid
D. The Vietnam War
42. Which of the following most directly influenced the ideas of Hoffman and the Yippies?
B. The New Deal
C. The New Left
D. The New Conservatism
43. Which of the following most directly influenced the tactics of Hoffman and the Yippies?
A. The Civil Rights Movement
B. The House Un-American Activities Committee
C. The Tea Party Movement
D. The Social Gospel
44. The counterculture of the 1960s sought which of the following?
A. Economic security for the Baby Boom generation
B. Political and military security against the threat of Communism
C. Greater freedom for personal self-expression
D. A return to traditional religious and family values
Questions 45–48 refer to the following image.
Amos Doolittle, “The Battle of Lexington,” 1775
45. The British decision to fire on American militiamen at Lexington, Massachusetts, on April 19, 1775, led to which of the following?
A. A controversial court case
B. A series of uprisings against the British government across the colonies
C. A collapse in the support for the Sons of Liberty
D. An invasion by the French in Canada
46. British military commanders always assumed that they would benefit from which of the following?
A. Command of the sea
B. The support of the other European powers
C. Superior air power
D. The support of a majority of Americans for Parliament’s legislation
47. When the Americans rebelled against Great Britain, they benefitted from which of the following?
A. The enormous industrial productivity of the United States
B. Weapons that were technologically superior to those of the British
C. The support of most Native American peoples
D. The great geographical extent of the country
48. Militiamen played a key role during the American Revolutionary War by
A. repeatedly routing British Regulars in battle
B. waging a spectacular campaign of sabotage and commando raids
C. controlling populations not under the direct supervision of the British Army
D. buying out the contracts of Britain’s Hessian mercenaries
Questions 49–52 refer to the following quotation.
I arrived at Wichita the 28th, the raid was postponed until the 29th. I took hatchets with me and we also supplied ourselves with rocks, meeting at the M. E. church, where the W. C. T. U. Convention was being held. I announced to them what we intended doing and asked them to join us. Sister Lucy Wilhoite, Myra McHenry, Miss Lydia Muntz, and Miss Blanch Boies, started for Mahan’s wholesale liquor store. Three men were on the watch for us, we asked to go in to hold gospel services as was our intention before destroying this den of vice, for we wanted God to save their souls, and to give us ability and opportunity to destroy this soul damning business. They refused to let us come near the door. I said, “Women, we will have to use our hatchets,” with this I threw a rock through the front, then we were all seized, and a call for the police was made. There was of course, a big crowd. Mrs. Myra McHenry was in the hands of a ruffian who shook her almost to pieces. One raised a piece of a gas pipe to strike her, but was prevented from doing so. We were hustled into the hoodlum wagon, and driven through the streets amid the yell, execrations and grimaces of the liquor element.
—Carry A. Nation, The Use and Need of the Life of Carry A. Nation, Written by Herself, 1905
49. For which of the following causes was Carry A. Nation famous as an activist?
B. Women’s suffrage
C. Trust busting
50. Nation can be compared most directly to which of the following?
B. Abraham Lincoln
C. Rosa Parks
D. Hillary Clinton
51. Nation’s cause would attain a great victory with the enactment of
A. the Nineteenth Amendment, giving women the vote
B. the Sherman Antitrust Ac
C. the Social Security Act
52. The major event that helped pave the way for the triumph of Nation’s cause was
A. the assassination of William McKinley
B. World War I
C. The Great Depression
D. World War II
Questions 53–55 refer to the following quotation.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there be granted to the several States, for the purposes hereinafter mentioned, an amount of public land, to be apportioned to each State a quantity equal to thirty thousand acres for each senator and representative in Congress to which the States are respectively entitled under the census of eighteen hundred and sixty.… And be it further enacted, That all moneys derived from the sale of the lands aforesaid . . . and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life.
—Morrill Land-Grant Act, July 2, 1862
53. Which of the following was a major purpose of the Morrill Land-Grant Act?
A. To stimulate the excellence of American literature
B. To provide higher education to women
C. To provide support to farmers and working men
D. To address worries about the low educational level of soldiers in the Union Army
54. The Morrill Land-Grant Act reflected the governing philosophy of which political party?
A. The Federalist Party
B. The Republican Party
C. The Democratic Party
D. The Populist Party
55. The Morrill Land-Grant Act can be compared most directly to which of the following?
A. The Homestead Act
B. The Kansas–Nebraska Act
C. The Pure Food and Drug Act
D. The Agricultural Adjustment Act
Part B (Short Answer)
Part B recommended time: 50 minutes
Directions: Answer the following four questions. Carefully read and follow the directions for each question. Some will refer to historical sources. These questions will require you to make use of your historical analytical skills and your familiarity with historical themes. These questions do not require you to develop a thesis in your responses.
Question 1 is based on the following two passages:
I think, and shall try to show, that it is wrong; wrong in its direct effect, letting slavery into Kansas and Nebraska and wrong in its prospective principle, allowing it to spread to every other part of the wide world where men can be found inclined to take it.
This declared indifference, but, as I must think, covert real zeal for the spread of slavery, I cannot but hate. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world; enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites; causes real friends of freedom to doubt our sincerity, and especially because it forces so many really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil liberty—criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.
I will stand by that great principle of States’ rights, no matter who may desert it. I intend to stand by it for the purpose of preserving peace between the North and South, the free and slave States. If each State will only agree to mind its own business, and let its neighbors alone, there will be peace forever between us.… I hold that the people of the slaveholding States are civilized men as well as ourselves; that they bear consciences as well as we, and that they are accountable to God and their posterity, and not to us. It is for them to decide, therefore, the moral and religious right of the slavery question for themselves within their own limits. I assert that they had as much right under the Constitution to adopt the system of policy which they have as we had to adopt ours. So it is with every other State in this Union. Let each State stand firmly by that great Constitutional right, let each State mind its own business and let its neighbors alone, and there will be no trouble on this question. If we will stand by that principle, then Mr. Lincoln will find that this Republic can exist forever divided into free and slave States, as our fathers made it and the people of each State have decided.
1. Using the excerpts, answer A, B, and C.
A. Briefly explain ONE example of the political position supported by Abraham Lincoln.
B. Briefly explain ONE example of the political position supported by Stephen Douglas.
C. Briefly explain ONE example of a way one of these perspectives influenced American politics in the 1850s.
2. Answer A, B, and C.
A. Briefly explain how ONE of the following reflected American expansionism.
The French and Indian War
The Louisiana Purchase
The Mexican War
B. Briefly explain how a SECOND of these options reflected American expansionism.
C. Briefly explain the perspective of someone opposed to ONE of the examples that you chose.
3. Answer A, B, and C.
A. Briefly explain how ONE of the following was important in the formation of a distinctly American identity in the colonies.
The Great Awakening
The French and Indian War
Resistance to the Stamp Act and other examples of British taxation
B. Briefly explain how a SECOND of these options was important in the formation of a distinctly American identity in the colonies.
C. Briefly explain how ONE of these events influenced the American Revolution.
Question 4 is based on the following image:
Clifford Berryman, 1936
4. Using the 1936 image, answer A, B, and C.
A. Briefly explain the subject matter of the image.
B. Briefly explain the political point of view of the image.
C. Briefly explain ONE example of a political perspective opposed to the political point of view of the image.
STOP. End of Section I.
Time: 90 minutes
Part A (Document-Based Question)
Part A recommended time: 55 minutes
Directions: Use the documents to answer the question. You may want to spend up to 15 minutes outlining your response and 40 minutes writing the essay that answers the question.
Be sure to provide a thesis that addresses all elements of the question.
Be sure to support your argument with evidence from at least six of the seven documents.
Be sure to support your argument by recognizing and explaining historical complexity, connecting different kinds of historical evidence in a coherent way.
Be sure to base your analysis of each document on at least one of the following: the point of view of the author, the purpose of the author, the intended audience of the document, the historical context of the document.
Be sure to support your argument by analyzing historical evidence that comes from outside the documents.
Be sure to connect historical evidence supporting your argument to broader historical events or processes.
Be sure to synthesize all the tasks above into a persuasive history essay.
1. To what extent did the Federalist administrations of George Washington and John Adams promote national unity and advance the authority of the federal government?
Source: George Washington’s First Inaugural Address, April 30, 1789
I behold the surest pledges that as on one side no local prejudices or attachments, no separate views or party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye which ought to watch over [Congress] so … that the foundation of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality, and the preeminence of free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens and command the respect of the world.
Source: Virginia Resolutions on the Assumption of State Debts, December 16, 1790
The General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia … represent [that] … in an agricultural country like this … to perpetuate a large monied interest, is a measure which … must in the course of human events produce … the prostration of agriculture at the feet of commerce, or a change in the present form of federal government, fatal to the existence of American liberty.
Source: Thomas Jefferson’s Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank, February 15, 1791
I consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground—that all powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states, or to the people. To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the powers of Congress, is to take possession of a boundless field of power.
Source: Alexander Hamilton’s Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank, February 23, 1791
This restrictive interpretation of the word necessary is also contrary to this sound maxim of construction; namely, that the powers contained in a constitution of government, especially those which concern the general administration of the affairs of a country, its finances, trade, defense, etc., ought to be construed liberally in advancement of the public good.
Source: George Washington’s Proclamation on the Whiskey Rebellion, August 7, 1794
Whereas combinations to defeat the execution of the laws laying duties upon spirits distilled within the United States … have … existed in some of the western parts of Pennsylvania; and whereas the said combinations, proceeding in a manner subversive equally of the just authority of government and the rights of individuals; … it is in my judgement necessary under the circumstances to take measures for calling forth the militia in order to suppress the combinations aforesaid, and to cause the laws to be duly executed.
Source: The Sedition Act, July 14, 1798
That if any person shall write, print, utter, or publish, any false, scandalous, and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States … with the intent to defame the said government, … then such person, being convicted before any court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars, and by imprisonment not exceeding two years.
Source: Kentucky Resolutions, November 16, 1798
Resolved, that the several States composing the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; … that [the States] retain to themselves the right of judging how far the licentiousness of speech and press may be abridged without lessening their useful freedom … therefore [the Sedition Act], which does abridge the freedom of the press, is not law but is altogether void.
Part B (Long Essay)
Part B recommended time: 35 minutes
Directions: Answer one of the following questions. Develop a thesis and support it with appropriate historical evidence. This question will require you to make use of your historical analytical skills and your familiarity with historical themes.
1. Some historians have argued that mobilization for total war during World War I and World War II influenced American political and social development in the twentieth century. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence.
2. Some historians have argued that the role of the United States as a world power changed dramatically between the Spanish-American War and the coming of the cold war. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence.
STOP. End of Section II.
ANSWERS TO THE DIAGNOSTIC EXAM
Explanations for the Multiple-Choice Questions
1. B. The cartoon criticizes President Thomas Jefferson’s 1807 Embargo Act. Following a British naval attack on the American frigate U.S.S. Chesapeake that forced the ship to surrender and resulted in removal of four alleged British deserters, many Americans called for war. President Jefferson wanted to avoid war with Great Britain and believed that economic pressure could force the British to change their policy of interfering with American trade and ships. Jefferson persuaded Congress to pass the Embargo Act, which cut off the export of American goods to Europe. The embargo devastated American trade and was very unpopular with many Americans.
2. A. President Jefferson was responding to British interference with American shipping and trade. The British were at war with Napoleonic France and were trying to cut off trade with French-controlled parts of Europe. The British seized American ships that they thought were trading with their enemy, and also impressed American sailors to serve in their navy. Americans deeply resented these policies, which showed no respect for American rights or the flag of the United States.
3. C. Many Americans responded to Jefferson’s Embargo Act by ignoring it and engaging in illicit trade, especially with Canada. Jefferson convinced Congress to pass legislation rigorously enforcing the embargo. This made it even more unpopular.
4. D. The Neutrality Laws of the 1930s most closely resemble Jefferson’s policy. These laws also regulated American trade to achieve foreign policy objectives. The authors of the Neutrality Laws hoped to keep the United States out of another war by avoiding the conditions that led to American involvement in World War I. The Neutrality Laws stated that once the president recognized the existence of a foreign war, Americans could not make loans to or sell munitions to warring powers, or take passage on belligerent ships.
5. B. President Ronald Reagan’s “Evil Empire” speech reflected an intensification of the cold war in the early 1980s. Concerned about Soviet actions in the 1970s, such as the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, Reagan intensified an arms buildup begun by President Jimmy Carter. Convinced of the essential criminality of the Soviet Union’s totalitarian system, Reagan believed that the United States needed to wage the cold war from a position of strength.
6. D. A Republican would have been most likely to support President Reagan’s position. Ronald Reagan was a champion of conservative Republican ideas in both domestic and foreign policy.
7. A. The sentiments of the passage are most closely linked to the passage of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), popularly known as the “Star Wars” program. The SDI was a missile defense program proposed by President Reagan and intended to defend the United States by shooting down incoming nuclear missiles. Many critics thought the plan impractical, expensive, and too provocative to the Soviets. President Reagan believed that it offered a way out of the menace of nuclear annihilation. The SDI program, along with Reagan’s military buildup, put more pressure on the Soviet Union.
8. C. The sentiments in the passage best reflect the long-standing concern of American presidents to contain communism. The containment of communism had been a cornerstone of American foreign policy since the late 1940s. President Reagan was determined to halt and reverse what he believed was an expansion of Communist influence in the 1970s.
9. C. In this passage Colleen Moore is writing about flappers. Flappers were young women in the 1920s who cut their hair short in a bobbed style, wore shorter dresses, and often experimented with makeup and cigarettes. The flappers represented the growing freedom of women in the United States in the years after World War I and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment giving women the vote.
10. B. Many young women of the 1920s expressed their freedom through “mannish” haircuts, new clothing styles, and cosmetics. Rather than focusing on politics and social reform, many young women of this period explored their growing independence through an emphasis on social freedoms and self-expression.
11. A. The new freedoms for women in the 1920s were supported by widespread economic prosperity. Growing economic security gave many people more leisure time and the opportunity to explore greater personal freedoms. The general prosperity stimulated a vibrant cultural life that opened up new ways for women to express themselves.
12. D. The passage by Moore most directly reflects concerns for individual liberty and self-expression. Women in the 1920s took advantage of new opportunities to expand their personal freedoms and express themselves more openly.
13. A. In this passage, Benjamin Franklin takes a position similar to advocates of a market-driven economy like Adam Smith. The author of The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith defended the principles of modern capitalism. Like Smith, Franklin believed that individuals operating freely in the market can accomplish more than paternalistic government policies can. Franklin believed that the best way to help the poor is to encourage them to help themselves.
14. B. The idea that Franklin expresses in this passage most directly reflects a belief in individual self-reliance. Franklin was himself a self-made man. He articulated the self-reliant ethos that became a long-standing American value.
15. D. A high degree of social mobility in colonial America helped Franklin justify his position. Most Americans were farmers, or in the few cities businesspeople or artisans. The ready availability of land and a prospering economy opened up many avenues for social advancement. The absence of a privileged aristocracy, along with plentiful avenues to accumulate wealth, made America a land of opportunity.
16. C. The president most likely to share Franklin’s position was Calvin Coolidge. A man who rose from modest circumstances to the presidency, Coolidge was a believer in hard work and thrift. He insisted on reducing government expenses and resisted interfering with business and the markets.
17. D. In this cartoon, Thomas Nast expresses his conviction that Tammany Hall boss William M. Tweed wields too much power in New York City. As the leader of the Tammany Hall political machine that dominated politics in New York City, Boss Tweed used his power to enrich himself and his cronies. Nast was a longtime opponent of Tweed and helped publicize the political boss’s misdeeds through his cartoons. Tweed eventually was sentenced to prison because of his crimes.
18. A. Urban political machines like Tammany Hall derived most of their support from immigrants and lower-class voters. When they controlled the political structure of a city, machines prospered through the control of city contracts for improvements like sewers and streets. Machine politicians would pocket kickbacks from contractors eager for the work. This money, in turn, funded a hierarchical machine structure that reached into every neighborhood. Local precinct captains would help turn out the vote on election day, keeping the machine in power.
19. B. Urban political machines endured for many years because they provided help and services for the poor. In an era before extensive social services and welfare, urban political machines assisted the poor with gifts of food and shelter, and sometimes jobs. In return, the machines expected these people to vote in their favor.
20. C. Nast’s journalistic perspective can best be compared to reporters investigating President Richard M. Nixon during the Watergate scandal. Nixon, like Tweed, was accused of misusing his office. As with Nast, reporters like Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post played a key role in exposing a political leader’s wrongdoing.
21. A. From the perspective of Captain John Smith, Powhatan and his followers were a backward people. Smith sees the Indians as “barbarous.” They wear animal skins and paint, and are cruelly ready to execute Smith. The fact that Powhatan makes his own clothes and tools would also lead Smith to see this as a primitive society.
22. B. Smith’s account makes clear that Powhatan’s people made decisions by consensus. After a feast, Powhatan consults with his people and there is a long discussion about what to do with Smith. When the decision is made to kill Smith, only the determined intervention of Pocahontas saves him.
23. D. Smith’s story illustrates that Indian-European relations often suffered from misunderstanding and suspicion. Smith did not appreciate the concerns of Powhatan’s people, and the Indians clearly were hostile to the newly arrived English. Only Pocahontas in this story attempts to bridge the divide between the Indians and English.
24. C. In the context of this story, the peace-making Pocahontas can best be compared to Jane Addams. In addition to being a founder of Hull House in Chicago and a pioneering social worker, Addams was also a vocal peace activist. Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
25. C. Martin Luther King, Jr., in this passage is calling for equal rights for African Americans. King gave his “I Have a Dream” speech during the August 28, 1963, march on Washington, when 250,000 people congregated in the nation’s capital to express their support for proposed civil rights legislation.
26. A. In this passage, King points out a contradiction between American ideals and American practice caused by racial discrimination. Invoking the Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States, King in this speech called for all Americans, regardless of their color, to enjoy the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
27. B. A Southern Democratic Senator would be likely to oppose the message of King’s speech. The Democratic party in the South had dominated the region for over a century, and for the most part strongly supported the Jim Crow laws upholding racial segregation. The civil rights laws of the 1950s and 1960s were passed with the overwhelming support of Northern Democrats and Republicans.
28. D. In this passage, King is addressing the struggle for greater individual liberty in American history. As King pointed out in his “I Have a Dream” speech, Americans since the founding of the United States have been striving to achieve greater individual liberty for themselves and their families. King saw the civil rights movement as a continuation of that struggle.
29. D. The message of the cartoon can be best described as civilians playing a vital role in the war effort. Americans on the home front during World War II were encouraged to see themselves as active participants in the conflict. Food products like meat and sugar and consumer goods like gasoline were rationed. People raised victory gardens and bought war bonds. Many women and African Americans took jobs in war industries. What people did at home was seen as crucial to supporting the fighting men overseas.
30. A. Viewing this cartoon would encourage Americans to avoid the wasteful use of metal products. Metals were vital for the manufacture of weapons and ammunition. Civilians collected scrap metal that could be melted down and used for the war effort. Many consumer goods made of metal, most notably new automobiles, were not available during the war as industries focused on war production.
31. C. The cartoon most directly refers to American industrial production during World War II. The United States became what President Franklin D. Roosevelt called the “arsenal of democracy” during the war, producing enough weapons and military supplies to equip Americans fighting a global war, while also providing great quantities of Lend-Lease aid to American allies. American industrial output was a major factor in winning World War II.
32. B. The message of the cartoon can be best compared to the boycotts of British goods in the 1760s and 1770s. In both cases, Americans were asked to give up goods and make sacrifices to help further a larger cause. In the 1760s and 1770s Americans gave up British goods to exert pressure on British policymakers. In World War II, Americans made sure most metals went to war production to ensure the defeat of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan.
33. A. Mary Easty in this passage is asking her judges to stop condemning innocent people to death for witchcraft. In 1692, a group of girls in Salem, Massachusetts, began acting as if they were possessed. They claimed that they were bewitched. This led to a witch-hunting hysteria that resulted in 20 executions, including the death of Mary Easty. Eventually, the governor of Massachusetts put an end to the witchcraft prosecutions. Years later, the convictions of the people executed and imprisoned during this hysteria were officially overturned.
34. B. Most historians believe that the Salem Witch Trials were the result of social tensions in Salem. Massachusetts was undergoing rapid political and social change in the early 1690s. Most of those accused of being witches came from more prosperous families associated with business and trade, while the accusers came from less well-off farming families. Fears about witchcraft probably also reflected anxieties about the shifting social and economic status of people in Salem.
35. D. The religious convictions of Mary Easty and the rest of Salem were shaped by Puritanism. Massachusetts was settled in the 1630s by Calvinist Puritans escaping the religious domination of the Anglican Church in England. They saw their new colony as an opportunity to create a truly godly community. Initially only members of Puritan congregations could vote. Concern that people were falling away from strict Puritan belief probably played a part in the Salem witch hysteria.
36. C. Writers and intellectuals have often compared the Salem Witch Trials to government actions in the Red Scares of the twentieth century. The investigations of Senator Joseph McCarthy in the early 1950s were often compared to witch hunts. Arthur Miller’s play about the events in Salem, The Crucible (1953), was a critique of McCarthyism.
37. A. Colonel Juan N. Seguin honored the memory of the defenders of the Alamo because they had died for their cause. Seguin had served with Lieutenant Colonel William B. Travis at the Alamo. Seguin was sent with a message asking for help and so was not present when the Alamo garrison was overwhelmed on March 6, 1836.
38. B. Colonel Seguin’s oration makes it clear that many Tejanos favored Texan independence. Seguin was a native of San Antonio and had been active in politics. He favored a federal structure for Mexico and opposed the centralizing policies of Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Federalist Tejanos joined with American settlers to resist the Mexican government. After the Battle of the Alamo, Seguin organized a company of Tejano cavalry that helped protect the Texan army of Sam Houston and fought at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, which secured Texan independence.
39. B. The defenders of the Alamo gave their lives for the desire for political liberty. They were opposed to the efforts of Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to impose a stronger central government on the country. They wanted a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824, which granted more powers to the Mexican states.
40. D. A dispute over the boundary of Texas led to the Mexican War. The Mexican government refused to recognize Texan independence and was deeply angered when the United States annexed Texas as a state in 1845. The Texans claimed that their southern boundary was the Rio Grande river; Mexico vehemently disputed this. In early 1846, President James K. Polk ordered an American army, under General Zachary Taylor, to the Rio Grande. Mexican troops attacked a detachment of American dragoons on April 25, 1846. The United States responded with a declaration of war.
41. D. Abbie Hoffman and the Yippies were protesting the Vietnam War. Hoffman helped lead the October 21, 1967, March on the Pentagon that drew some 50,000 protesters. Hoffman’s actions there were described in Norman Mailer’s book The Armies of the Night (1968). In August 1968, Hoffman and his Youth International Party (the Yippies) played a prominent role in protests at the Democratic National Convention. When police attacked protesters, riots broke out. Hoffman was one of seven protest leaders, known collectively as the Chicago Seven, who were subsequently indicted for conspiracy and incitement to riot. Hoffman’s conviction for incitement to riot was later overturned.
42. C. The New Left most directly influenced the ideas of Hoffman and the Yippies. Central to the formation of the New Left in the United States was the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) movement organized in 1962. The SDS rejected the old-style authoritarian leftism of the Communist Party. In the 1962 Port Huron Statement, the SDS called for “participatory democracy” that would build a broad social movement for change. Over time, the New Left in the United States would grow increasingly receptive to the countercultural ideals of personal self-expression.
43. A. The Civil Rights Movement most directly influenced the tactics of Hoffman and the Yippies. Civil rights protesters directly challenged racial discrimination by taking nonviolent actions, such as staging sit-ins at segregated drugstore lunch counters. Hoffman and the Yippies engaged in protest theater, such as tossing fake money from a balcony onto the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. What distinguished the Yippies from other protesters was their off-beat sense of humor, which involved such actions as nominating a pig for president in 1968.
44. C. The counterculture of the 1960s sought greater freedom for personal self-expression. Fueled by the great number of young people resulting from the Baby Boom and the disillusionment with authority born of the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War, the counterculture of the 1960s emphasized anti-establishment attitudes. People influenced by the counterculture looked for new ways to live a fulfilling life. Famously, the “hippies” rejected conventional middle class mores, growing their hair long, dressing differently, and experimenting with drugs to expand their consciousness. Books that influenced the counterculture were Jack Kerouac’s On the Road (1957) and Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1962).
45. B. The British decision to fire on American militiamen on April 19, 1775, led to a series of uprisings against the British government across the colonies. As word of the fighting at Lexington and Concord spread across the colonies, British authority collapsed, and American rebels took control of governments, forcing out royal officials. The Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in May and in June appointed George Washington commander of the newly created Continental Army.
46. A. British commanders always assumed that they would benefit from command of the sea. The British Navy was the most powerful in the world. Command of the sea gave the British the strategic flexibility to range up and down the Atlantic coast of the colonies. Until near the end of the war, this was a great advantage. The successful intervention of a French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake on September 5, 1781, made possible the isolation and defeat of Lord Charles Cornwallis’s British Army at the Battle of Yorktown. Cornwallis’s surrender on October 19, 1781, was decisive in convincing the British government to end the war.
47. D. When the Americans rebelled against Great Britain, they benefitted from the great geographical extent of the country. By European standards, the American colonies covered an enormous territory. Much of it was underdeveloped or wilderness. The British did not have the troops to cover all this ground. The British could control some major cities, but they often were isolated and defeated when they ventured into the countryside. A good example of this is the isolation and defeat of General John Burgoyne’s army at Saratoga on October 17, 1777.
48. C. Militiamen played a key role during the American Revolutionary War by controlling populations not under the direct supervision of the British Army. While the battlefield performance of militias could be spotty, the militias were very important in maintaining the authority of the American government wherever the British were not present, which meant most of the country. The militias intimidated Loyalists and ensured support for American policies.
49. A. Carry A. Nation was famous as an activist for temperance. After her first husband died of alcoholism, she became a supporter of temperance. Eventually, her methods became more direct and violent as she attacked saloons and their stocks of liquor with rocks and her trademark hatchet.
50. C. Nation can be compared most directly to Rosa Parks. They both took direct action to further their beliefs. While Parks did not act violently, as Nation did, she did sit in the whites-only section of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, sparking a famous civil rights struggle.
51. D. Nation’s cause would attain a great victory with the enactment of Prohibition. A resolution calling for a constitutional amendment prohibiting intoxicating liquor in the United States passed Congress in December 1917 and was ratified by the states in January 1919. Congress passed the Volstead Act in October 1919, which provided an enforcement mechanism for the new amendment. The Eighteenth Amendment went into effect in January 1920.
52. B. The major event that helped pave the way for the triumph of Nation’s cause was World War I. The use of grain for alcoholic beverages was restricted by Congress as a war measure because the grain was needed for food. Thus, the consumption of intoxicating liquors was reduced through government action during the war. The spirit of wartime idealism and self-sacrifice also helped spur support for the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment.
53. C. A desire to provide support to farmers and working men was a major purpose of the Morrill Land-Grant Act. The act was the culmination of an effort to give practical assistance to farmers and various types of workers by giving them the most advanced technical education. Most land-grant universities sponsored programs in agriculture and engineering. Examples include Cornell University, Iowa State University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
54. B. The Morrill Land-Grant Act reflected the governing philosophy of the Republican Party. The Republican Party, with its slogan of “free labor, free land, and free men,” not only opposed the extension of slavery but also inherited the Whig Party’s willingness to use the government to stimulate economic opportunities. An earlier version of the Morrill Act was vetoed by Democratic President James Buchanan. In the absence of many Southern Democrats during the Civil War, the Republican-dominated Congress passed the Morrill Act. President Abraham Lincoln willingly signed the measure into law.
55. A. The Morrill Land-Grant Act can be compared most directly to the Homestead Act. Republicans supported the Homestead Act, which gave 160 acres of land in the west to Americans willing to settle on it and work it for five years as a way of offering opportunity to “free men.” Southern Democrats opposed the Homestead Act because they feared it would block the expansion of slavery. Like the Morrill Act, an early version of the Homestead Act was vetoed by Democratic President James Buchanan. Also like the Morrill Act, the Homestead Act was passed in 1862 and signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.
Explanations for the Short-Answer Questions
1. A. Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate from Illinois for the U.S. Senate in 1858, opposed the extension of slavery into the western territories. He referred to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, sponsored by Senator Stephen Douglas, that repudiated the 1820 Missouri Compromise and allowed settlers to exercise popular sovereignty on whether or not they wanted slavery in the Kansas and Nebraska territories. This led to bloody fighting between pro- and antislavery settlers in Kansas. Lincoln was also implicitly criticizing the 1857 Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which ruled that African Americans could not be citizens, and also stated that Congress could not bar slavery in the territories, another blow to the Missouri Compromise. Lincoln argues that slavery hurts the reputation of the United States in the world and forces people to repudiate American ideals, such as the rights listed in the Declaration of Independence.
B. Stephen Douglas, the Democratic candidate for reelection as U.S. senator from Illinois, stands by the principle of states’ rights. During the 1850s, he was a leading proponent of popular sovereignty, letting the people in a territory decide whether they would organize a free or slave state. Douglas believed that if the agitation over slavery ceased, the Union would flourish with a mix of free and slave states. This position was a repudiation of Lincoln’s argument that “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”
C. Stephen Douglas’s perspective influenced politics in the 1850s in a variety of ways. Douglas was the author of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act, which by overturning the Missouri Compromise inflamed sectional disputes over slavery. This act also led to fighting in Kansas between pro and antislavery forces. “Bleeding Kansas” accentuated the growing divide between the North and South over slavery. The Dred Scott decision by the Supreme Court angered many Northerners because it seemed to make constitutional the importation of slaves into any part of the country. The sectional discord that followed the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the dissolution of the Whig party. The Republican party emerged in the North and West. The Republicans opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. They argued that slaves would constitute unfair competition for white farmers and laborers. A Republican slogan was “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men.” The Republicans were organized enough to nominate the western explorer John C. Fremont for president in 1856. Fremont lost, but carried 11 Northern states. Lincoln did not win his Senate race in 1858 because the Democrats won more districts in the Illinois legislature, and senators were still elected by state legislatures. Despite this, his strong performance in the debates with Douglas brought him to national prominence and helped win him the Republican nomination for president in 1860.
2. A, B. The French and Indian War began because of British and colonial concerns about French activity in the Ohio Valley and, in particular, the construction of Fort Duquesne on the site of what is now Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The British claimed this territory, and many American colonists wanted to develop lands there. Once the French and Indian War was underway, the British leader William Pitt decided to commit resources to the eradication once and for all of French claims in North America. The French in Canada were decisively defeated outside Quebec at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, on September 13, 1759. At the 1763 Treaty of Paris, France signed away all of its North American lands. The British took control of Canada and all the lands east of the Mississippi River. The British also acquired Florida from Spain. The French and Indian War opened up vast lands for possible American settlement and removed the major military obstacle to moving westward.
The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 greatly expanded the United States. President Thomas Jefferson was very interested in western lands. He envisioned a great republic of independent yeoman farmers. To make this possible, he needed land. When Jefferson learned that the weak government of Spain had transferred the Louisiana Territory to the control of Napoleon’s France, Jefferson grew concerned that the French might try to reconstitute a strong empire in America. This disquietude was intensified when Spanish officials closed New Orleans to American trade, threatening the economic well-being of Americans living in the west. Jefferson sent James Monroe to join the American minister in France, Robert Livingston. They were to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. By this time, Napoleon had decided that Louisiana was a liability. He had lost an army to disease trying to reconquer Haiti, and he assumed that he would be cut off from Louisiana by the British navy once war resumed with Great Britain. Napoleon offered to sell the whole Louisiana Territory to the startled American diplomats. For a purchase price of $15 million dollars, the size of the United States was doubled. Jefferson had some constitutional scruples about the purchase because there was nothing in the Constitution about acquiring territory. He swallowed his scruples, and the Senate quickly ratified the purchase.
The Mexican War took place at a time when many Americans were embracing the ideology of Manifest Destiny and arguing that it was inevitable that American settlements and free institutions would spread throughout North America. President James Polk was elected in 1844 on a platform of American expansionism in Texas and Oregon. Polk negotiated with the British on the Oregon border. Texas was annexed to the United States just before he became president. Mexico broke off diplomatic relations in protest. Polk sent the diplomat John Slidell to Mexico to resolve issues with the Mexicans. He also sent troops under General Zachary Taylor to the disputed border between Texas and Mexico along the Rio Grande. On April 24, 1846, Mexican forces attacked a troop of American soldiers. This began fighting between the United States and Mexico. Congress declared war on May 13. During the Mexican War, the United States won a series of victories that culminated in General Winfield Scott’s occupation of Mexico City. In the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded over 500,000 square miles of territory to the United States in return for a payment of $15 million dollars. This included California, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona and set the border of Texas at the Rio Grande.
C. In the French and Indian War the expansionism of American colonists was obviously opposed by the French. Many Indians also opposed this expansionism, which came at their expense. Many Indians allied with the French realized that the defeat of the French would eliminate one of the great restraints on western settlement by the Americans. Following the conclusion of the French and Indian War, the Ottawa leader Pontiac led a brief war against the British, driving them from a number of western outposts. Some opposition to the Louisiana Purchase came from Federalist politicians, unenthusiastic about acquiring more western lands likely disposed to send Democratic Republicans to Congress. Some people, including for a time Jefferson himself, had doubts about the Louisiana Purchase for constitutional reasons, seeing it as an example of federal overreach. The American acquisition of Mexican territory was opposed by the Mexicans, including many settlers in places like California, who did not like seeing their lands overrun by American invaders. There was strong opposition to the Mexican War in the United States. Many Americans believed that the war was unjust and was an excuse to acquire territories for the expansion of slavery. Among the opponents of the war were Congressman Abraham Lincoln and writer Henry David Thoreau, who refused to pay his poll tax, was briefly arrested, and then wrote his essay “Civil Disobedience.”
3. A, B. The Great Awakening that began in the 1730s set off several decades of religious revivals in the American colonies. The preachers of the Great Awakening, such as Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, and Gilbert Tennent, emphasized the dependence of individuals upon God’s grace and the need for the individual to develop a personal relationship with God. Many religious congregations split between the “New Lights” who embraced the revival and “Old Lights” who preferred the traditional religious authorities. The Great Awakening was a phenomenon that united all the colonies. Many Americans contrasted the new religious fervor around them with the less godly state of affairs back in Britain. The French and Indian War saw the American colonies mobilize large forces to assist the British in the war effort. By the end of the war, 20,000 Americans had served in the military. The Americans cooperated in a joint effort that gave many young men like George Washington a more continental sense of American affairs. Following the conflict, Americans saw themselves as an important part of the growing British Empire. The resistance to the Stamp Act and other examples of British taxation was widespread throughout the American colonies. Opposition to the Stamp Act and other actions by Parliament forced the colonies to cooperate as never before. The 1765 Stamp Act Congress saw representatives from nine colonies meet to coordinate measures against the Stamp Act. Over time, organizations like the Sons of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence appeared across the colonies. In the crisis that followed the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the passage of the British Coercive Acts, the First Continental Congress met in 1774, bringing together such leaders as Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, John Adams, and George Washington. Americans were increasingly thinking of themselves as a united people.
C. The Great Awakening weakened Americans’ attachment to traditional religious authorities, making them also more inclined to question British political authority. The sense that Americans were a more religious people than the British also made them more inclined to strike out on their own. The French and Indian War helped prepare the way for the American Revolution by leading to the British financial crisis that led Parliament to attempt to tax the colonies. The defeat of the French removed the major threat to the Americans and made British military protection less important. The political and military lessons learned in the war would be important in shaping the decisions of many American leaders during the War for Independence. George Washington and a number of other American military commanders were veterans of the French and Indian War and used the experience they gained there against the British. The acts of resistance to British taxation led directly to the American Revolution. Between the Stamp Act Congress and the First Continental Congress, Americans across the colonies grew used to coordinating their actions. The First Continental Congress created the “Association,” an agreement to cease trading with Great Britain until the Coercive Acts were repealed. It also paved the way for the Second Continental Congress, which began meeting in May 1775. By then, fighting had begun outside Boston. The Second Continental Congress coordinated the American war effort and in July 1776 declared American Independence.
4. A. This cartoon concerns the “alphabet soup” of agencies that emerged during President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal. Early in the New Deal Roosevelt and Congress launched a number of new programs and agencies to promote economic recovery from the Great Depression and provide relief to jobless Americans. Pictured in the cartoon are the AAA, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which attempted to raise farm prices by paying farmers to take land out of production, the PWA, the Public Works Administration, which launched a series of public works to provide jobs, and the WPA, the Works Progress Administration, which directly hired unemployed workers and set them to work on projects ranging from construction to the creation of murals and plays.
B. The cartoon is sympathetic to Roosevelt and the New Deal, showing the various “alphabet soup” agencies as happy children dancing around a smiling father-figure president. The early New Deal was popular, leading to Roosevelt’s Democratic party winning a victory in the 1934 congressional elections. Despite this, challenges to the New Deal came from both the right and the left in American politics. In 1935, the Supreme Court struck down as unconstitutional the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which had attempted to get industries to cooperate in setting standards on such things as prices and wages. Roosevelt responded with the Second New Deal and the passage of such laws as the Social Security Act (1935), which set up a system to provide pensions to the elderly, and the National Labor Relations Act (1935), which made it easier for workers to organize unions.
C. There were a number of critics of the New Deal. The Supreme Court invalidated some of the legislation of the First New Deal. Only after a bruising political battle in Roosevelt’s second term, during which he lost a lot of political support attempting to pass legislation that would have “packed” the court with his supporters, did the Supreme Court begin upholding New Deal legislation. Many conservatives opposed the New Deal. Former Democratic New York governor Al Smith was a member of the Liberty League, which believed that the New Deal undermined property rights. From the left, Louisiana Senator Huey Long did not believe that the New Deal was going far enough. He promoted a “Share the Wealth” plan that would give every American a home and a $2,500 income. The money from this would come from confiscating wealth from millionaires.
Explanation for the Document-Based Question
The thesis should focus on a historical analytical skill, in this case Identifying cause and effect. Support your thesis with evidence drawn from at least six of the seven documents. Analyze more fully at least four of the documents, discussing one or more of the following: the point of view of the author, the purpose of the author, the intended audience of the document, the historical context of the document. As you construct your argument, make connections between the documents. Note differences and agreements between them that help you strengthen your analysis. Be sure to bring in outside knowledge that you can relate to your analysis of the documents and that contributes to your argument. Simply dropping names is not enough. Demonstrate an understanding of the wider context of the subject of the question. With this question such context could include constitutional debates over the limits of federal power, the rise of American nationalism, and the development of the American two-party political system.
Although the Federalists intended to unify the nation and strengthen the federal government, their political and economic policies split the nation into rival partisan factions. Students might note that debates over ratification of the Constitution set the stage for the emergence of political parties by the end of the 1790s. They could briefly discuss the supporters and opponents of ratification, the anti-Federalists, and The Federalist Papers, particularly The Federalist, no. 10. Students should examine the ideological conflict between loose and strict interpretations of the Constitution, as well as federal versus state authority. They should identify the leading Federalists (Washington, Adams, Hamilton) and Republicans (Jefferson, Madison, Randolph). Document A indicates Washington’s desire that Congress may set policy without party division. Students may note, however, that friction stemmed from Hamilton’s financial program. They should examine his intention to establish a sound financial foundation for the new nation by creating a national bank, addressing the public debt (Assumption Act, Funding Bill), and raising revenue (excise taxes, tariffs). While Hamilton’s program strengthened the federal government, it fostered dissent among the Republicans. Document B reflects Virginia’s opposition to the assumption of state debts. Students will note that the conflict over the Bank of the United States in Documents C and D reflects Jefferson and Hamilton’s interpretations of the “necessary and proper clause” of the Constitution. Students may also contrast the Republican view of an agricultural economy in Document B, with Federalist support for the Tariff of 1789 and Hamilton’s Report on Manufactures. They may note that opposition to the excise tax led to the Whiskey Rebellion. In Document E, Washington states his intention to enforce federal law and implement powers granted under the Constitution. Washington demonstrated federal authority by calling forth the militias from three states to suppress the rebellion. Some students may refer to Shays’s Rebellion. Students may begin a discussion of diplomatic policy with Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation (1793) and Neutrality Act (1794). They may explain how the neutrality policy survived the challenge of “Citizen Genet.” However, Great Britain challenged the policy by seizing American ships. Students should discuss partisan perceptions of Jay’s Treaty. They may note that it achieved some of its nationalistic goals regarding the Northwest Territory and promoting commerce with Great Britain. However, they should also address Republican views of its shortcomings. Some students may address Pinckney’s Treaty. Students should discuss Washington’s views on parties in his Farewell Address. They will note how the election of 1796 yielded a Federalist president (Adams) and a Republican vice president (Jefferson). Students will note how the strife in the executive office reflected party differences in the United States. A discussion of the undeclared naval war with France will reveal the pro-British views of Federalists and pro-French sympathies of the Republicans. Students will discuss how opposing perceptions of the war and the XYZ Affair led to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (Document F). Students will observe how Madison and Jefferson penned the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (Document G), which asserted the theory of nullification. They might conclude how the problems of the Adams’s administration led to the election of Jefferson in 1800.
Explanations for the Long-Essay Questions
1. You can construct an argument making use of information that can include the following:
The First World War saw the culmination of the Progressive Era’s movement toward greater government regulation of the economy. The federal government took unprecedented steps as it mobilized the American people and the American economy for total war against Imperial Germany. The administration of President Woodrow Wilson and Congress financed the war through the sale of Liberty Bonds to the American people and through steep rises in income taxes and taxes on corporate profits. A War Industries Board (WIB) coordinated the production of war materials, setting prices and allocating resources. A series of war boards supervised different aspects of the economy, such as fuel and railroads, which had come under federal control. Herbert Hoover headed the food board, encouraging Americans to conserve different types of foodstuffs. This organization of the economy had mixed results. Initially there was some confusion and missteps as the government sorted out its programs. The United States was still not producing all the military supplies and weapons that it needed when the war ended in November 1918, but during the brief period of its involvement in the war the United States had made impressive gains in organizing its enormous economic potential. Very important for the future, businessmen and government officials had learned the advantages of working together, establishing a longstanding cooperative relationship between big business and government.
In addition to organizing the economy, President Wilson attempted to mobilize public opinion during the war. He created the Committee on Public Information (CPI), headed by the journalist George Creel. The CPI worked to educate Americans about the war through books, pamphlets, posters, and movies. Although the original intent was to provide largely factual material, the CPI ended up producing a lot of overt propaganda. The government also acted to repress dissent. The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 essentially criminalized public opposition to the war. The Socialist leader Eugene Debs was one of many who went to prison for criticizing the war. The government fomented an atmosphere of hysteria that stigmatized all things German, leading to such phenomena as the renaming of sauerkraut as “liberty cabbage,” and also promoted the suppression of radical groups like the International Workers of the World (IWW). This search for internal enemies eventually branched into the postwar First Red Scare.
In large part because of the excesses of this attempt to regiment American opinion, there was a reaction against the wartime policies of Woodrow Wilson that resulted in the election of Warren G. Harding to the presidency in 1920 with his promise of a return to “normalcy.” Despite this reaction, elements of the wartime mobilization persisted, especially in the relationship between government and business, fostered in the 1920s by Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover.
The New Deal was influenced by the example of World War I. Once again the federal government intervened heavily in the economy. President Franklin Roosevelt and a number of his subordinates, such as General Hugh Johnson, the head of the National Recovery Administration (NRA), were veterans of the First World War mobilization. The NRA, with its attempt to set up industry codes, echoed aspects of the WIB.
The mobilization of the United States for total war again in World War II unsurprisingly echoed that of World War I. The war was financed through a combination of loans and high taxes. The Office of Price Administration (OPA) worked to prevent inflation by controlling prices and wages. It also supervised an elaborate system of rationing resources and goods important to the war effort such as sugar, meat, rubber, and gasoline. A succession of federal agencies worked to coordinate industrial production. The War Production Board (WPB) was eventually replaced by the Office of War Mobilization (OWM). Despite this bureaucratic experimentation, the government successfully organized the American industrial base to produce massive amounts of war material, becoming the “arsenal of democracy” during the war. Though Roosevelt created the Office of War Information (OWI) to coordinate war information and propaganda, it never took on the importance of Creel’s CPI, and the Roosevelt administration studiously avoided launching the sort of political repression seen during World War I. The Roosevelt administration did make one notorious concession to wartime hysteria. In 1942, it rounded up Japanese and Japanese-American people living on the West Coast and sent them to internment camps.
By the end of World War II, after years of expanding federal power, Americans had become used to the government playing an important role in their lives and in the economy. The overall success of the American war effort in World War II would foster a confidence in the abilities of government to meet challenges that would undergird the policies of later presidents such as John F. Kennedy and his New Frontier and Lyndon B. Johnson and his Great Society.
2. Before the Spanish-American War, the United States did not play a prominent role as a great power, despite its burgeoning economic strength. Beginning in the 1880s the United States began building up a modern navy, leading to an interest in coaling stations in places like Pearl Harbor in Hawaii and Pago Pago in Samoa. Despite this, as late as 1893, President Grover Cleveland would refuse an opportunity to annex the Hawaiian Islands. The Spanish-American War of 1898 ushered the United States onto the world stage. After rapidly defeating the obsolescent naval forces of Spain, the United States became an imperial power. Though Cuba, the occasion of the war with Spain, would be given a measure of independence, the United States retained control of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. The Philippines, with the magnificent harbor at Manila Bay, were seen as a way station to China, which many Americans hoped would become a major market for American goods. This interest in China led the United States in 1900 to join in the suppression of the antiforeigner Boxer Rebellion. The United States through its “Open Door” notes attempted to keep the Chinese market from being closed by colonial powers. This would be the keystone of American foreign policy in China through World War II.
In the early twentieth century the United States exerted its power in the Western Hemisphere, building the Panama Canal, and, through President Theodore Roosevelt’s corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, asserting a right to police the small republics of the Caribbean and Central America. American troops would be repeatedly sent to restore order in countries like Haiti and Nicaragua through the early 1930s.
Under Theodore Roosevelt, the United States was accepted into the club of great powers. Roosevelt won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for helping negotiate an end to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, and American delegates took part in the 1906 Algeciras Conference. The United States attempted to remain neutral during World War I, while maintaining a profitable trading relationship with Britain and France. Germany’s unrestricted submarine campaign brought the United States into the war in 1917. American troops helped turn the tide against Germany on the Western Front.
President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points became for many people around the world a blueprint for a better postwar world, for when the Treaty of Versailles was being negotiated at Paris in 1919, Woodrow Wilson seemed to be the most influential figure in the world. This power evaporated quickly. Wilson did not prevent the imposition of harsh peace terms on the Germans. His League of Nations failed to win ratification in the United States Senate.
The United States did not become isolationist in the 1920s. President Warren Harding hosted the 1921–1922 Washington Disarmament Conference. The 1924 Dawes Plan helped stabilize German and European finances. However, the Great Depression turned the United States inward. President Hoover did little to oppose Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931. President Franklin Roosevelt “torpedoed” the London Economic Conference attempting to stabilize the international economy so he could focus on fighting the depression in the United States. Both Hoover and Roosevelt improved relations with Latin America through the Good Neighbor policy, which rejected the role of the United States as “policeman” of the Western Hemisphere. The mid-1930s saw the height of American isolationism with the passage of the 1935, 1936, and 1937 Neutrality Laws, essentially designed to prevent another World War I by forbidding Americans to trade with warring countries or travel on belligerent ships.
During the late 1930s, President Roosevelt became increasingly alarmed at the aggressions of Japan, Italy, and Germany. Following the outbreak of World War II in 1939, he took steps to allow trade with Britain and France and began a major rearming program. This military buildup intensified after the defeat of France in 1940. Roosevelt assisted Britain with the Destroyers for Bases Deal, giving Britain old American destroyers in exchange for leases on British bases in the Western Hemisphere. In 1941, Roosevelt persuaded Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act, allowing him to give military supplies to Britain and other countries fighting Germany. By late 1941, the United States was waging an undeclared naval war on the Atlantic Ocean, as the United States Navy helped protect British convoys from German submarines.
In the Pacific, Japan launched an all-out war on China in 1937. Following the defeat of France in 1940, the Japanese moved into French Indochina. In 1941, the Japanese established fuller control over Indochina. The United States finally halted its trade in metals and oil with Japan and demanded that the Japanese end the war in China. The Japanese preferred to fight, hoping to conquer the resources they needed in the British and Dutch colonies of Malaysia and Indonesia. To do this safely, they had to neutralize the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. The December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into the Second World War. American military and industrial power proved crucial in defeating Japan and Germany.
American policymakers, remembering the failure of Woodrow Wilson at the end of World War I, were determined that the United States would play a constructive role in the postwar world. The United States hosted the new United Nations. The United States played a key role in the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference that laid the foundations of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the postwar international economic order.
Complicating a postwar settlement was a growing conflict with the Soviet Union, an ally during World War II but a Communist totalitarian state run by the dictator Josef Stalin. At the end of World War II, the Soviets brutally established their control in Eastern Europe. There was fear that they might try to subvert the pro-American governments of Western Europe. The American policy of containment began to take shape. In 1947, President Harry Truman used a bill to provide support to Greece and Turkey to announce what became known as the Truman Doctrine: the United States would assist any nation threatened by communism, either by external attack or internal subversion. In 1949, after an abortive Soviet attempt to blockade West Berlin, the United States and 11 other countries formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). NATO gave the signatories collective security against a Soviet attack. The United States for the first time since the end of the French alliance in 1800 had entered into an alliance with other countries. The United States was now committed to the defense of Western Europe. This would be a cornerstone of American policy for decades to come.