GRE Premier 2017 with 6 Practice Tests


Appendix B. Kaplan’s Root List

Kaplan’s Root List can boost your knowledge of GRE-level words, and that can help you get more questions right. No one can predict exactly which words will show up on your test, but the testmakers favor certain words. The Root List gives you the component parts of many typical GRE words. Knowing these words can help you because you may run across them on your GRE. Also, becoming comfortable with the types of words that pop up will reduce your anxiety about the test.

Knowing roots can help you in two more ways. First, instead of learning one word at a time, you can learn a whole group of words that contain a certain root. They’ll be related in meaning, so if you remember one, it will be easier for you to remember others. Second, roots can often help you decode an unknown GRE word. If you recognize a familiar root, you could get a good enough grasp of the word to answer the question.

This list is a starting point and a quick review, not an exhaustive guide. Roots are given in their most common forms, with their most common or broadest definitions; often, other forms and meanings exist. Similarly, the definitions for the words given as examples may be incomplete, and other senses of those words may exist. Get into the habit of looking up unfamiliar words in a good, current dictionary—whether on paper or on the Internet—and be sure to check their etymologies while you’re there.


·        A/AN: not, without

o   agnostic: one who believes the existence of God is not provable

o   amoral: neither moral nor immoral; having no relation to morality

o   anomaly: an irregularity

o   anonymous: of unknown authorship or origin

o   apathy: lack of interest or emotion

o   atheist: one who does not believe in God

o   atrophy: the wasting away of body tissue

o   atypical: not typical

·        AB: off, away from, apart, down

o   abdicate: to renounce or relinquish a throne

o   abduct: to take away by force

o   abhor: to hate, detest

o   abject: cast down; degraded

o   abnormal: deviating from a standard

o   abolish: to do away with, make void

o   abstinence: forbearance from any indulgence of appetite

o   abstract: conceived apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances

o   abstruse: hard to understand; secret, hidden

·        ABLE/IBLE: capable of, worthy of

o   changeable: able to be changed

o   combustible: capable of being burned; easily inflamed

o   inevitable: impossible to be avoided; certain to happen

o   presentable: suitable for being presented

·        AC/ACR: sharp, bitter, sour

o   acerbic: sour or astringent in taste; harsh in temper

o   acid: something that is sharp, sour, or ill-natured

o   acrimonious: caustic, stinging, or bitter in nature

o   acumen: mental sharpness; quickness of wit

o   acute: sharp at the end; ending in a point

o   exacerbate: to increase bitterness or violence; aggravate

·        ACT/AG: to do, to drive, to force, to lead

o   agile: quick and well-coordinated in movement; active, lively

o   agitate: to move or force into violent, irregular action

o   pedagogue: a teacher

o   prodigal: wastefully or recklessly extravagant

o   synagogue: a gathering or congregation of Jews for the purpose of religious worship

·        ACOU: hearing

o   acoustic: pertaining to hearing; sound made through mechanical, not electronic, means

·        AD: to, toward, near

o   (Often the d is dropped and the first letter to which a is prefixed is doubled.)

o   accede: to yield to a demand; to enter office

o   adapt: adjust or modify fittingly

o   addict: to give oneself over, as to a habit or pursuit

o   address: to direct a speech or written statement to

o   adhere: to stick fast; cleave; cling

o   adjacent: near, close, or contiguous; adjoining

o   adjoin: to be close or in contact with

o   admire: to regard with wonder, pleasure, and approval

o   advocate: to plead in favor of

o   attract: to draw either by physical force or by an appeal to emotions or senses

·        AL/ALI/ALTER: other, another

o   alias: an assumed name; another name

o   alibi: the defense by an accused person that he was verifiably elsewhere at the time of the crime with which he is charged

o   alien: one born in another country; a foreigner

o   allegory: figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another

o   alter ego: the second self; a substitute or deputy

o   alternative: a possible choice

o   altruist: a person unselfishly concerned for the welfare of others

·        AM: love

o   amateur: a person who engages in an activity for pleasure rather than financial or professional gain

o   amatory: of or pertaining to lovers or lovemaking

o   amiable: having or showing agreeable personal qualities

o   amicable: characterized by exhibiting good will

o   amity: friendship; peaceful harmony

o   amorous: inclined to love, esp. sexual love

o   enamored: inflamed with love; charmed; captivated

o   inamorata: a female lover

·        AMBI/AMPHI: both, on both sides, around

o   ambidextrous: able to use both hands equally well

o   ambient: moving around freely; circulating

o   ambiguous: open to various interpretations

o   amphibian: any cold-blooded vertebrate, the larva of which is aquatic and the adult of which is terrestrial; a person or thing having a twofold nature

·        AMBL/AMBUL: to go, to walk

o   ambulance: a vehicle equipped for carrying sick people (from a phrase meaning “walking hospital”)

o   ambulatory: of, pertaining to, or capable of walking

o   perambulator: one who makes a tour of inspection on foot

o   preamble: an introductory statement (originally: to walk in front)

·        ANIM: of the life, mind, soul, breath

o   animal: a living being

o   animosity: a feeling of ill will or enmity

o   equanimity: mental or emotional stability, especially under tension

o   magnanimous: generous in forgiving an insult or injury

o   unanimous: of one mind; in complete accord

·        ANNUI/ENNI: year

o   annals: a record of events, esp. a yearly record

o   anniversary: the yearly recurrence of the date of a past event

o   annual: of, for, or pertaining to a year; yearly

o   annuity: a specified income payable at stated intervals

o   perennial: lasting for an indefinite amount of time

·        ANT/ANTE: before

o   antebellum: before the war (especially the American Civil War)

o   antecedent: existing, being, or going before

o   antedate: precede in time

o   antediluvian: belonging to the period before the biblical flood; very old or old-fashioned

o   anterior: placed before

·        ANTHRO/ANDR: man, human

o   androgen: any substance that promotes masculine characteristics

o   androgynous: being both male and female

o   android: a robot; mechanical man

o   anthropocentric: regarding humanity as the central fact of the universe

o   anthropology: the science that deals with the origins of humankind

o   misanthrope: one who hates humans or humanity

o   philanderer: one who carries on flirtations

·        ANTI: against, opposite

o   antibody: a protein naturally existing in blood serum that reacts to overcome the toxic effects of an antigen

o   antidote: a remedy for counteracting the effects of poison, disease, etc.

o   antipathy: aversion

o   antipodal: on the opposite side of the globe

o   antiseptic: free from germs; particularly clean or neat

·        APO: away

o   apocalypse: revelation; discovery; disclosure

o   apocryphal: of doubtful authorship or authenticity

o   apogee: the highest or most distant point

o   apology: an expression of one’s regret or sorrow for having wronged another

o   apostasy: a total desertion of one’s religion, principles, party, cause, etc.

o   apostle: one of the 12 disciples sent forth by Jesus to preach the Gospel

·        AQUA/AQUE: water

o   aquamarine: a bluish-green color

o   aquarium: a tank for keeping fish and other underwater creatures

o   aquatic: having to do with water

o   aqueduct: a channel for transporting water

o   subaqueous: underwater

·        ARCH/ARCHI/ARCHY: chief, principal, ruler

o   anarchy: a state or society without government or law

o   archenemy: chief enemy

o   architect: the devisor, maker, or planner of anything

o   monarchy: a government in which the supreme power is lodged in a sovereign

o   oligarchy: a state or society ruled by a select group

·        ARD: to burn

o   ardent: burning; fierce; passionate

o   ardor: flame; passion

o   arson: the crime of setting property on fire

·        AUTO: self

o   autocrat: an absolute ruler

o   automatic: self-moving or self-acting

o   autonomy: independence or freedom


·        BE: about, to make, to surround, to affect (often used to transform words into transitive verbs)

o   belie: to misrepresent; to contradict

o   belittle: to make small; to make something appear smaller

o   bemoan: to moan for; to lament

o   bewilder: to confuse completely (that is, to make one mentally wander)

·        BEL/BELL: beautiful

o   belle: a beautiful woman

o   embellish: to make beautiful; to ornament

·        BELL: war

o   antebellum: before the war (especially the American Civil War)

o   belligerent: warlike, given to waging war

o   rebel: a person who resists authority, control, or tradition

·        BEN/BENE: good

o   benediction: act of uttering a blessing

o   benefit: anything advantageous to a person or thing

o   benevolent: desiring to do good to others

o   benign: having a kindly disposition

·        BI/BIN: two

o   biennial: happening every two years

o   bilateral: pertaining to or affecting two or both sides

o   bilingual: able to speak one’s native language and another with equal facility

o   binocular: involving two eyes

o   bipartisan: representing two parties

o   combination: the joining of two or more things into a whole

·        BON/BOUN: good, generous

o   bona fide: in good faith; without fraud

o   bonus: something given over and above what is due

o   bountiful: generous

·        BREV/BRID: short, small

o   abbreviate: to shorten

o   abridge: to shorten

o   brevet: an honorary promotion with no additional pay

o   breviloquent: laconic; concise in one’s speech

o   brevity: shortness

o   brief: short

·        BURS: purse, money

o   bursar: treasurer

o   bursary: treasury

o   disburse: to pay

o   reimburse: to pay back


·        CAD/CID: to fall, to happen by chance

o   accident: happening by chance; unexpected

o   cascade: a waterfall descending over a steep surface

o   coincidence: a striking occurrence of two or more events at one time, apparently by chance

o   decadent: decaying; deteriorating

o   recidivist: one who repeatedly relapses, as into crime

·        CANT/CENT/CHANT: to sing

o   accent: prominence of a syllable in terms of pronunciation

o   chant: a song; singing

o   enchant: to subject to magical influence; bewitch

o   incantation: the chanting of words purporting to have magical power

o   incentive: that which incites action

o   recant: to withdraw or disavow a statement

·        CAP/CIP/CEPT: to take, to get

o   anticipate: to realize beforehand; foretaste or foresee

o   capture: to take by force or stratagem

o   emancipate: to free from restraint

o   percipient: having perception; discerning; discriminating

o   precept: a commandment or direction given as a rule of conduct

o   susceptible: capable of receiving, admitting, undergoing, or being affected by something

·        CAP/CAPIT/CIPIT: head, headlong

o   capital: the city or town that is the official seat of government

o   capitulate: to surrender unconditionally or on stipulated terms

o   caption: a heading or title

o   disciple: one who is a pupil of the doctrines of another

o   precipice: a cliff with a vertical face

o   precipitate: to hasten the occurrence of; to bring about prematurely

·        CARD/CORD/COUR: heart

o   cardiac: pertaining to the heart

o   concord: agreement; peace, amity

o   concordance: agreement, concord, harmony

o   discord: lack of harmony between persons or things

o   encourage: to inspire with spirit or confidence

·        CARN: flesh

o   carnage: the slaughter of a great number of people

o   carnival: a traveling amusement show

o   carnivorous: eating flesh

o   incarnation: a being invested with a bodily form

o   reincarnation: rebirth of a soul in a new body

·        CAST/CHAST: to cut

o   cast: to throw or hurl; fling

o   caste: a hereditary social group, limited to people of the same rank

o   castigate: to punish in order to correct

o   chaste: free from obscenity; decent

o   chastise: to discipline, esp. by corporal punishment

·        CAUS/CAUT: to burn

o   caustic: burning or corrosive

o   cauterize: to burn or deaden

o   cautery: an instrument used for branding; branding

o   holocaust: a burnt offering; complete destruction by fire or other means

·        CED/CEED/CESS: to go, to yield, to stop

o   accede: to yield to a demand; to enter office

o   antecedent: existing, being, or going before

o   cessation: a temporary or complete discontinuance

o   concede: to acknowledge as true, just, or proper; admit

o   incessant: without stop

o   predecessor: one who comes before another in an office, position, etc.

·        CELER: speed

o   accelerant: something used to speed up a process

o   accelerate: to increase in speed

o   celerity: speed; quickness

o   decelerate: to decrease in speed

·        CENT: hundred, hundredth

o   bicentennial: two-hundredth anniversary

o   cent: a hundredth of a dollar

o   centigrade: a temperature system with one hundred degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water

o   centimeter: one-hundredth of a meter

o   centipede: a creature with many legs

o   century: one hundred years

o   percent: in every hundred

·        CENTR: center

o   centrifuge: an apparatus that rotates at high speed and separates substances of different densities using centrifugal force

o   centrist: of or pertaining to moderate political or social ideas

o   concentrate: to bring to a common center; to converge, to direct toward one point

o   concentric: having a common center, as in circles or spheres

o   eccentric: off-center

·        CERN/CERT/CRET/CRIM/CRIT: to separate, to judge, to distinguish, to decide

o   ascertain: to make sure of; to determine

o   certitude: freedom from doubt

o   criterion: a standard of judgment or criticism

o   discreet: judicious in one’s conduct of speech, esp. with regard to maintaining silence about something of a delicate nature

o   discrete: detached from others, separate

o   hypocrite: a person who pretends to have beliefs that she does not

·        CHROM: color

o   chromatic: having to do with color

o   chrome: a metallic element (chromium) used to make vivid colors or something plated with chromium

o   chromosome: genetic material that can be studied by coloring it with dyes

o   monochromatic: having only one color

·        CHRON: time

o   anachronism: something that is out-of-date or belonging to the wrong time

o   chronic: constant, habitual

o   chronology: the sequential order in which past events occurred

o   chronometer: a highly accurate clock or watch

o   synchronize: to occur at the same time or agree in time

·        CIRCU/CIRCUM: around

o   circuit: a line around an area; a racecourse; the path traveled by electrical current

o   circuitous: roundabout, indirect

o   circumference: the outer boundary of a circular area

o   circumspect: cautious; watching all sides

o   circumstances: the existing conditions or state of affairs surrounding and affecting an agent

·        CIS: to cut

o   exorcise: to seek to expel an evil spirit by ceremony

o   incision: a cut, gash, or notch

o   incisive: penetrating, cutting

o   precise: definitely stated or defined

o   scissors: cutting instrument for paper

·        CLA/CLO/CLU: to shut, to close

o   claustrophobia: an abnormal fear of enclosed places

o   cloister: a courtyard bordered with covered walks, esp. in a religious institution

o   conclude: to bring to an end; finish; to terminate

o   disclose: to make known, reveal, or uncover

o   exclusive: not admitting of something else; shutting out others

o   preclude: to prevent the presence, existence, or occurrence of

·        CLAIM/CLAM: to shout, to cry out

o   clamor: a loud uproar

o   disclaim: to deny interest in or connection with

o   exclaim: to cry out or speak suddenly and vehemently

o   proclaim: to announce or declare in an official way

o   reclaim: to claim or demand the return of a right or possession

·        CLI: to lean toward

o   climax: the most intense point in the development of something

o   decline: to cause to slope or incline downward

o   disinclination: aversion, distaste

o   proclivity: inclination, bias

o   recline: to lean back

·        CO/COL/COM/CON: with, together

o   coerce: to compel by force, intimidation, or authority

o   collaborate: to work with another, cooperate

o   collide: to strike one another with a forceful impact

o   commensurate: suitable in measure, proportionate

o   compatible: capable of existing together in harmony

o   conciliate: to placate, win over

o   connect: to bind or fasten together

·        COGN/CONN: to know

o   cognition: the process of knowing

o   incognito: with one’s name or identity concealed

o   recognize: to identify as already known

·        CONTRA/CONTRO/COUNTER: against

o   contradict: to oppose; to speak against

o   contrary: opposed to; opposite

o   controversy: a disputation; a quarrel

o   counterfeit: fake; a false imitation

o   countermand: to retract an order

o   encounter: a meeting, often with an opponent

·        CORP/CORS: body

o   corporation: a company legally treated as an individual

o   corps: a body (an organized group) of troops

o   corpse: a dead body

o   corpulent: obese; having a lot of flesh

o   corset: a garment used to give shape and support to the body

o   incorporation: combining into a single body

·        COSM: order, universe, world

o   cosmetic: improving the appearance (making it look better ordered)

o   cosmic: relating to the universe

o   cosmology: a theory of the universe as a whole

o   cosmonaut: an astronaut; an explorer of outer space

o   cosmopolitan: worldly

o   cosmos: the universe; an orderly system; order

o   microcosm: a small system that reflects a larger whole

·        COUR/CUR: running, a course

o   concur: to accord in opinion, agree

o   courier: a messenger traveling in haste who bears news

o   curriculum: the regular course of study

o   cursive: handwriting in flowing strokes with the letters joined together

o   cursory: going rapidly over something; hasty; superficial

o   excursion: a short journey or trip

o   incursion: a hostile entrance into a place, esp. suddenly

o   recur: to happen again

·        CRE/CRESC/CRET: to grow

o   accretion: an increase by natural growth

o   accrue: to be added as a matter of periodic gain

o   creation: the act of producing or causing to exist

o   excrescence: an outgrowth

o   increase: to make greater in any respect

o   increment: something added or gained; an addition or increase

·        CRED: to believe, to trust

o   credentials: anything that provides the basis for belief

o   credit: trustworthiness

o   credo: any formula of belief

o   credulity: willingness to believe or trust too readily

o   incredible: unbelievable

·        CRYPT: hidden

o   apocryphal: of doubtful authorship or authenticity

o   crypt: a subterranean chamber or vault

o   cryptography: procedures of making and using secret writing

o   cryptology: the science of interpreting secret writings, codes, ciphers, and the like

·        CUB/CUMB: to lie down

o   cubicle: any small space or compartment that is partitioned off

o   incubate: to sit upon for the purpose of hatching

o   incumbent: holding an indicated position

o   recumbent: lying down; reclining; leaning

o   succumb: to give away to superior force; yield

·        CULP: fault, blame

o   culpable: deserving blame or censure

o   culprit: a person guilty of an offense

o   inculpate: to charge with fault

o   mea culpa: through my fault; my fault


·        DAC/DOC: to teach

o   didactic: intended for instruction

o   docile: easily managed or handled; tractable

o   doctor: someone licensed to practice medicine; a learned person

o   doctrine: a particular principle advocated, as of a government or religion

o   indoctrinate: to imbue a person with learning

·        DE: away, off, down, completely, reversal

o   decipher: to make out the meaning; to interpret

o   defame: to attack the good name or reputation of

o   deferential: respectful; to yield to judgment

o   defile: to make foul, dirty, or unclean

o   delineate: to trace the outline of; sketch or trace in outline

o   descend: to move from a higher to a lower place

·        DELE: to erase

o   delete: erase; blot out; remove

o   indelible: impossible to erase; lasting

·        DEM: people

o   democracy: government by the people

o   demographics: vital and social statistics of populations

o   endemic: peculiar to a particular people or locality

o   epidemic: affecting a large number of people at the same time and spreading from person to person

o   pandemic: general, universal

·        DEXT: right hand, right side, deft

o   ambidextrous: equally able to use both hands

o   dexter: on the right

o   dexterity: deftness; adroitness

·        DI: day

o   dial: a device for seeing the hour of the day; a clock face; rotatable discs or knobs used as a control input

o   diary: a record of one’s days

o   dismal: gloomy (from “bad days”)

o   diurnal: daily

o   meridian: a direct line from the North Pole to the South Pole; the highest point reached by the sun; noon

o   quotidian: everyday; ordinary

·        DI/DIA: in two, through, across

o   diagnose: to identify disease or fault from symptoms

o   dialogue: a conversation between two or more persons

o   diameter: a line going through a circle, dividing it in two

o   dichotomy: division into two parts, kinds, etc.

·        DI/DIF/DIS: away from, apart, reversal, not

o   diffuse: to pour out and spread, as in a fluid

o   dilate: to make wider or larger; to cause to expand

o   dilatory: inclined to delay or procrastinate

o   disperse: to drive or send off in various directions

o   disseminate: to scatter or spread widely; promulgate

o   dissipate: to scatter wastefully

o   dissuade: to deter by advice or persuasion

·        DIC/DICT/DIT: to say, to tell, to use words

o   dictionary: a book containing a selection of the words of a language

o   interdict: to forbid; prohibit

o   predict: to tell in advance

o   verdict: a judgment or decision

·        DIGN: worth

o   condign: well deserved; fitting; adequate

o   deign: to think fit or in accordance with one’s dignity

o   dignitary: a person who holds a high rank or office

o   dignity: nobility or elevation of character; worthiness

o   disdain: to look upon or treat with contempt

·        DOG/DOX: opinion

o   dogma: a system of tenets, as of a church

o   orthodox: sound or correct in opinion or doctrine

o   paradox: an opinion or statement contrary to accepted opinion

·        DOL: to suffer, to pain, to grieve

o   condolence: expression of sympathy with one who is suffering

o   doleful: sorrowful, mournful

o   dolorous: full of pain or sorrow, grievous

o   indolence: a state of being lazy or slothful

·        DON/DOT/DOW: to give

o   anecdote: a short narrative about an interesting event

o   antidote: something that prevents or counteracts ill effects

o   donate: to present as a gift or contribution

o   endow: to provide with a permanent fund

o   pardon: kind indulgence, forgiveness

·        DORM: sleep

o   dormant: sleeping; inactive

o   dormitory: a place for sleeping; a residence hall

·        DORS: back

o   dorsal: having to do with the back

o   endorse: to sign on the back; to vouch for

·        DUB: doubt

o   dubiety: doubtfulness

o   dubious: doubtful

o   indubitable: unquestionable

·        DUC/DUCT: to lead

o   abduct: to carry off or lead away

o   conducive: contributive, helpful

o   conduct: personal behavior, way of acting

o   induce: to lead or move by influence

o   induct: to install in a position with formal ceremonies

o   produce: to bring into existence; give cause to

·        DULC: sweet

o   dulcet: sweet; pleasing

o   dulcified: sweetened; softened

o   dulcimer: a musical instrument

·        DUR: hard, lasting

o   dour: sullen, gloomy (originally: hard, obstinate)

o   durable: able to resist decay

o   duration: the length of time something exists

o   duress: compulsion by threat, coercion

o   endure: to hold out against; to sustain without yielding

o   obdurate: stubborn, resistant to persuasion

·        DYS: faulty, abnormal

o   dysfunctional: poorly functioning

o   dyslexia: an impairment of the ability to read due to a brain defect

o   dyspepsia: impaired digestion

o   dystrophy: faulty or inadequate nutrition or development


·        E/EX: out, out of, from, former, completely

o   efface: to rub or wipe out; surpass, eclipse

o   evade: to escape from, avoid

o   exclude: to shut out; to leave out

o   exonerate: to free or declare free from blame

o   expire: to breathe out; to breathe one’s last; to end

o   extricate: to disentangle, release

·        EGO: self

o   ego: oneself; the part of oneself that is self-aware

o   egocentric: focused on oneself

o   egoism/egotism: selfishness; self-absorption

·        EM/EN: in, into

o   embrace: to clasp in the arms; to include or contain

o   enclose: to close in on all sides

·        EPI: upon

o   epidemic: affecting a large number of people at the same time and spreading from person to person

o   epidermis: the outer layer of the skin

o   epigram: a witty or pointed saying tersely expressed

o   epilogue: a concluding part added to a literary work

o   epithet: a word or phrase, used invectively as a term of abuse

·        EQU: equal, even

o   adequate: equal to the requirement or occasion

o   equation: the act of making equal

o   equidistant: equally distant

o   iniquity: gross injustice; wickedness

·        ERR: to wander

o   arrant: notorious; downright (originally: wandering)

o   err: to go astray in thought or belief, to be mistaken

o   erratic: deviating from the proper or usual course in conduct

o   error: a deviation from accuracy or correctness

·        ESCE: becoming

o   adolescent: between childhood and adulthood

o   convalescent: recovering from illness

o   incandescent: glowing with heat, shining

o   obsolescent: becoming obsolete

o   reminiscent: reminding or suggestive of

·        EU: good, well

o   eugenics: improvement of qualities of race by control of inherited characteristics

o   eulogy: speech or writing in praise or commendation

o   euphemism: pleasant-sounding term for something unpleasant

o   euphony: pleasantness of sound

o   euthanasia: killing a person painlessly, usually one who has an incurable, painful disease

·        EXTRA: outside, beyond

o   extract: to take out, obtain against a person’s will

o   extradite: to hand over (person accused of crime) to state where crime was committed

o   extraordinary: beyond the ordinary

o   extrapolate: to estimate (unknown facts or values) from known data

o   extrasensory: derived by means other than known senses


·        FAB/FAM: to speak

o   affable: friendly, courteous

o   defame: to attack the good name of

o   fable: fictional tale, esp. legendary

o   famous: well known, celebrated

o   ineffable: too great for description in words; that which must not be uttered

·        FAC/FIC/FIG/FAIT/FEIT/FY: to do, to make

o   configuration: manner of arrangement, shape

o   counterfeit: imitation, forgery

o   deficient: incomplete or insufficient

o   effigy: sculpture or model of a person

o   faction: small dissenting group within larger one, esp. in politics

o   factory: building for manufacture of goods

o   prolific: producing many offspring or much output

o   ratify: to confirm or accept by formal consent

·        FAL: to err, to deceive

o   default: to fail

o   fail: to be insufficient; to be unsuccessful; to die out

o   fallacy: a flawed argument

o   false: not true; erroneous; lying

o   faux pas: a false step; a social gaffe

o   infallible: incapable of being wrong or being deceived

·        FATU: foolish

o   fatuity: foolishness; stupidity

o   fatuous: foolish; stupid

o   infatuated: swept up in a fit of passion, impairing one’s reason

·        FER: to bring, to carry, to bear

o   confer: to grant, bestow

o   offer: to present for acceptance, refusal, or consideration

o   proffer: to offer

o   proliferate: to reproduce; produce rapidly

o   referendum: a vote on a political question open to the entire electorate

·        FERV: to boil, to bubble

o   effervescent: with the quality of giving off bubbles of gas

o   fervid: ardent, intense

o   fervor: passion, zeal

·        FI/FID: faith, trust

o   affidavit: a written statement on oath

o   confide: to entrust with a secret

o   fidelity: faithfulness, loyalty

o   fiduciary: of a trust; held or given in trust

o   infidel: disbeliever in the supposed true religion

·        FIN: end

o   confine: to keep or restrict within certain limits; imprison

o   definitive: decisive, unconditional, final

o   final: at the end; coming last

o   infinite: boundless; endless

o   infinitesimal: infinitely or very small

·        FLAGR/FLAM: to burn

o   conflagration: a large, destructive fire

o   flagrant: blatant, scandalous

o   flambeau: a lighted torch

o   inflame: to set on fire

·        FLECT/FLEX: to bend, to turn

o   deflect: to bend or turn aside from a purpose

o   flexible: able to bend without breaking

o   genuflect: to bend knee, esp. in worship

o   inflect: to change or vary pitch of

o   reflect: to throw back

·        FLU/FLUX: to flow

o   confluence: merging into one

o   effluence: flowing out of (light, electricity, etc.)

o   fluctuation: something that varies, rising and falling

o   fluid: a substance, esp. gas or liquid, capable of flowing freely

o   mellifluous: pleasing, musical

·        FORE: before

o   foreshadow: be warning or indication of (future event)

o   foresight: care or provision for future

o   forestall: to prevent by advance action

o   forthright: straightforward, outspoken, decisive

·        FORT: chance

o   fortuitous: happening by luck

o   fortunate: lucky, auspicious

o   fortune: chance or luck in human affairs

·        FORT: strength

o   forte: strong point; something a person does well

o   fortify: to provide with fortifications; strengthen

o   fortissimo: very loud

·        FRA/FRAC/FRAG/FRING: to break

o   fractious: irritable, peevish

o   fracture: breakage, esp. of a bone

o   fragment: a part broken off

o   infringe: to break or violate (a law, etc.)

o   refractory: stubborn, unmanageable, rebellious

·        FUG: to flee, to fly

o   centrifugal: flying off from the center

o   fugitive: on the run; someone who flees

o   fugue: a musical composition in which subsequent parts imitate or pursue the first part; a psychological state in which one flies from one’s own identity

o   refuge: a haven for those fleeing

o   refugee: a fleeing person who seeks refuge

o   subterfuge: a deception used to avoid a confrontation

·        FULG: to shine

o   effulgent: shining forth

o   refulgent: radiant; shining

·        FUM: smoke

o   fume: smoke; scented vapor; to emit smoke or vapors

o   fumigate: to treat with smoke or vapors

o   perfume: scents, from burning incense or other sources of fragrance

·        FUS: to pour

o   diffuse: to spread widely or thinly

o   fusillade: continuous discharge of firearms or outburst of criticism

o   infusion: the act of permeating or steeping; liquid extract so obtained

o   profuse: lavish, extravagant, copious

o   suffuse: to spread throughout or over from within


·        GEN: birth, creation, race, kind

o   carcinogenic: producing cancer

o   congenital: existing or as such from birth

o   gender: classification roughly corresponding to the two sexes and sexlessness

o   generous: giving or given freely

o   genetics: the study of heredity and variation among animals and plants

o   progeny: offspring, descendants

·        GN/GNO: to know

o   agnostic: one who believes that the existence of God is not provable

o   diagnose: to identify disease or fault from symptoms

o   ignoramus: a person lacking knowledge, uninformed

o   ignore: to refuse to take notice of

o   prognosis: to forecast, especially of disease

·        GRAD/GRESS: to step

o   aggressive: given to hostile acts or feelings

o   degrade: to humiliate, dishonor, reduce to lower rank

o   digress: to depart from the main subject

o   egress: going out; way out

o   progress: forward movement

o   regress: to move backward, revert to an earlier state

·        GRAM/GRAPH: to write, to draw

o   diagram: a figure made by drawing lines; an illustration

o   epigram: a short poem; a pointed statement

o   grammar: a system of language and its rules

o   graph: a diagram used to convey mathematical information

o   graphite: mineral used for writing, as the “lead” in pencils

o   photograph: a picture, originally made by exposing chemically treated film to light

·        GRAT: pleasing

o   gracious: kindly, esp. to inferiors; merciful

o   grateful: thankful

o   gratuity: money given for good service

o   ingratiate: to bring oneself into favor

·        GREG: flock

o   aggregate: a number of things considered as a collective whole

o   congregate: to come together in a group

o   egregious: remarkably bad; standing out from the crowd

o   gregarious: sociable; enjoying spending time with others

o   segregate: to separate from the crowd


·        HAP: by chance

o   haphazard: at random

o   hapless: without luck

o   happen: occur (originally: to occur by chance)

o   happily: through good fortune

o   happy: pleased, as by good fortune

o   mishap: an unlucky accident

o   perhaps: a qualifier suggesting something might (or might not) take place

·        HEMI: half

o   hemisphere: half a sphere; half of the Earth

o   hemistich: half a line of poetry

·        HER/HES: to stick

o   adherent: able to adhere; believer or advocate of a particular thing

o   adhesive: tending to remain in memory; sticky; an adhesive substance

o   coherent: logically consistent; having waves in phase and of one wavelength

o   inherent: involved in the constitution or essential character of something

·        (H)ETERO: different, other

o   heterodox: different from acknowledged standard; holding unorthodox opinions or doctrines

o   heterogeneous: of other origin; not originating in the body

o   heterosexual: of or pertaining to sexual orientation toward members of the opposite sex; relating to different sexes

·        HOL: whole

o   catholic: universal

o   holocaust: a burnt offering; complete destruction by fire or other means

o   hologram: a sort of three-dimensional image

o   holograph: a document written entirely by the person whose name it’s in

o   holistic: considering something as a unified whole

·        (H)OM: same

o   anomaly: deviation from the common rule

o   homeostasis: a relatively stable state of equilibrium

o   homogeneous: of the same or a similar kind of nature; of uniform structure of composition throughout

o   homonym: one of two or more words spelled and pronounced alike but different in meaning

o   homosexual: of, relating to, or exhibiting sexual desire toward a member of one’s own sex

·        HUM: earth

o   exhume: unearth

o   humble: down-to-earth

o   humility: the state of being humble

·        HYPER: over, excessive

o   hyperactive: excessively active

o   hyperbole: purposeful exaggeration for effect

o   hyperglycemia: an abnormally high concentration of sugar in the blood

·        HYPO: under, beneath, less than

o   hypochondriac: one affected by extreme depression of mind or spirits, often centered on imaginary physical ailments

o   hypocritical: pretending to have beliefs one does not

o   hypodermic: relating to the parts beneath the skin

o   hypothesis: assumption subject to proof


·        ICON: image, idol

o   icon: a symbolic picture; a statue; something seen as representative of a culture or movement

o   iconic: being representative of a culture or movement

o   iconoclast: one who attacks established beliefs; one who tears down images

o   iconology: symbolism

·        IDIO: one’s own

o   idiom: a language, dialect, or style of speaking particular to a people

o   idiosyncrasy: peculiarity of temperament; eccentricity

o   idiot: an utterly stupid person

·        IN/IM: in, into

o   (Often the m is dropped and the first letter to which i is prefixed is doubled.)

o   implicit: not expressly stated; implied

o   incarnate: given a bodily, esp. a human, form

o   indigenous: native; innate, natural

o   influx: the act of flowing in; inflow

o   intrinsic: belonging to a thing by its very nature


·        IN/IM: not, without

o   (Often the m is dropped and the first letter to which i is prefixed is doubled.)

o   immoral: not moral; evil

o   impartial: not partial or biased; just

o   inactive: not active

o   indigent: poor, needy, lacking in what is needed

o   indolence: showing a disposition to avoid exertion; slothful

o   innocuous: not harmful or injurious


·        INTER: between, among

o   interim: a temporary or provisional arrangement; meantime

o   interloper: one who intrudes in the domain of others

o   intermittent: stopping or ceasing for a time

o   intersperse: to scatter here and there

o   interstate: connecting or jointly involving states

·        INTRA: inside, within

o   intramural: within a school; inside a city

o   intrastate: within a state

o   intravenous: inside the veins

·        IT/ITER: way, journey

o   ambition: strong desire to achieve (from “going around” for votes)

o   circuit: a line around an area; a racecourse; the path traveled by electrical current

o   itinerant: traveling

o   itinerary: travel plans

o   reiterate: to repeat

o   transit: traveling; means of transportation


·        JECT: to throw, to throw down

o   abject: utterly hopeless, humiliating, or wretched

o   conjecture: formation of opinion on incomplete information

o   dejected: sad, depressed

o   eject: to throw out, expel

o   inject: to place (quality, etc.) where needed in something

·        JOC: joke

o   jocose: given to joking; playful

o   jocular: in a joking manner; funny

o   jocund: merry; cheerful

o   joke: a witticism; a humorous anecdote; something funny

·        JOIN/JUG/JUNCT: to meet, to join

o   adjoin: to be next to and joined with

o   conjugal: related to marriage

o   conjunction: joining; occurring together; a connecting word

o   injunction: a command; an act of enjoining

o   junction: the act of joining; combining; a place where multiple paths join

o   junta: a group of military officers who join together to run a country; a council

o   rejoinder: to reply, retort

o   subjugate: to make subservient; to place under a yoke

·        JOUR: day

o   adjourn: to close a meeting; to put off further proceedings for another day

o   journal: a record of one’s days

o   journey: a trip (originally: a day’s travel)

·        JUD: to judge

o   adjudicate: to act as a judge

o   judiciary: a system of courts; members of a court system

o   judicious: having good judgment

o   prejudice: a previous or premature judgment; bias

·        JUR: law, to swear

o   abjure: to renounce on oath

o   adjure: to beg or command

o   jurisprudence: a system of law; knowledge of law

o   perjury: willful lying while on oath

·        JUV: young

o   juvenile: young; immature

o   juvenilia: writings or art produced in one’s youth

o   rejuvenate: to refresh; to make young again


·        LANG/LING: tongue

o   bilingual: speaking two languages

o   language: a system of (usually spoken) communication

o   linguistics: the study of language

·        LAUD: praise, honor

o   cum laude: with honors

o   laudable: praiseworthy

o   laudatory: expressing praise

·        LAV/LAU/LU: to wash

o   ablution: act of cleansing

o   antediluvian: before the biblical flood; extremely old

o   deluge: a great flood of water

o   dilute: to make thinner or weaker by the addition of water

o   laundry: items to be, or that have been, washed

o   lavatory: a room with equipment for washing hands and face

·        LAX/LEAS/LES: loose

o   lax: loose; undisciplined

o   laxative: medicine or food that loosens the bowels

o   lease: to rent out (that is, to let something loose for others’ use)

o   leash: a cord used to hold an animal while giving it some freedom to run loose

o   relax: loosen; be less strict; calm down

o   release: let go; to set free

·        LEC/LEG/LEX: to read, to speak

o   dialect: a manner of speaking; a regional variety of a language

o   lectern: a reading desk

o   lecture: an instructional speech

o   legend: a story; a written explanation of a map or illustration

o   legible: readable

o   lesson: instruction (originally: part of a book or oral instruction to be studied and repeated to a teacher)

o   lexicographer: a writer of dictionaries

o   lexicon: a dictionary

·        LECT/LEG: to select, to choose

o   collect: to gather together or assemble

o   eclectic: selecting ideas, etc. from various sources

o   elect: to choose; to decide

o   predilection: preference, liking

o   select: to choose with care

·        LEV: to lift, to rise, light (weight)

o   alleviate: to make easier to endure, lessen

o   levee: an embankment against river flooding

o   levitate: to rise in the air or cause to rise

o   levity: humor, frivolity, gaiety

o   relevant: bearing on or pertinent to information at hand

o   relieve: to mitigate; to free from a burden

·        LI/LIG: to tie, to bind

o   ally: to unite; one in an alliance

o   league: an association; a group of nations, teams, etc. that have agreed to work for a common cause

o   liable: legally responsible; bound by law

o   liaison: a connection; one who serves to connect

o   lien: the right to hold a property due to an outstanding debt

o   ligament: a band holding bones together; a bond

o   ligature: a connection between two letters; a bond

o   oblige: to obligate; to make indebted or form personal bonds by doing a favor

o   rely: to depend upon (originally: to come together; to rally)

·        LIBER: free

o   deliver: to set free; to save; to hand over

o   liberal: generous; giving away freely

o   liberality: generosity

o   liberate: set free

o   libertine: one who follows one’s own path, without regard for morals or other restrictions

o   liberty: freedom

o   livery: a uniform; an emblem indicating an owner or manufacturer (originally: an allowance of food or other provisions given to servants)

·        LITH: stone

o   acrolith: a statue with a stone head and limbs (but a wooden body)

o   lithography: a printing process that originally involved writing on a flat stone

o   lithology: the study of rocks and stones

o   lithotomy: an operation to remove stones from the body

o   megalith: a very big stone

o   monolith: a single block of stone, often shaped into a monument

·        LOC/LOG/LOQU: word, speech, thought

o   colloquial: of ordinary or familiar conversation

o   dialogue: a conversation, esp. in a literary work

o   elocution: art of clear and expressive speaking

o   eulogy: a speech or writing in praise of someone

o   grandiloquent: pompous or inflated in language

o   loquacious: talkative

o   prologue: introduction to a poem, play, etc.

·        LUC/LUM/LUS: light (brightness)

o   illuminate: to supply or brighten with light

o   illustrate: to make intelligible with examples or analogies

o   illustrious: highly distinguished

o   lackluster: lacking brilliance or radiance

o   lucid: easily understood, intelligible

o   luminous: bright, brilliant, glowing

o   translucent: permitting light to pass through

·        LUD/LUS: to play

o   allude: to refer casually or indirectly

o   delude: to mislead the mind or judgment of, deceive

o   elude: to avoid capture or escape defection by

o   illusion: something that deceives by producing a false impression of reality

o   ludicrous: ridiculous, laughable

o   prelude: a preliminary to an action, event, etc.


·        MACRO: great, long

o   macro: broad; large; a single computer command that executes a longer set of commands

o   macrobiotics: a system intended to prolong life

o   macrocephalous: having a large head

o   macrocosm: the universe; a large system that is reflected in at least one of its subsets

o   macroscopic: large enough to be visible to the naked eye

·        MAG/MAJ/MAX: big, great

o   magnanimous: generous in forgiving an insult or injury

o   magnate: a powerful or influential person

o   magnify: to increase the apparent size of

o   magnitude: greatness of size, extent, or dimensions

o   maxim: an expression of general truth or principle

o   maximum: the highest amount, value, or degree attained

·        MAL/MALE: bad, ill, evil, wrong

o   maladroit: clumsy, tactless

o   malady: a disorder or disease of the body

o   malapropism: humorous misuse of a word

o   malediction: a curse

o   malfeasance: misconduct or wrongdoing often committed by a public official

o   malfunction: failure to function properly

o   malicious: full of or showing malice

o   malign: to speak harmful untruths about, to slander

·        MAN/MANU: hand

o   emancipate: to free from bondage

o   manifest: readily perceived by the eye or the understanding

o   manual: operated by hand

o   manufacture: to make by hand or machinery

·        MAND/MEND: to command, to order, to entrust

o   command: to order; an order; control

o   commend: to give something over to the care of another; to praise

o   countermand: to retract an order

o   demand: to strongly ask for; to claim; to require

o   mandatory: commanded; required

o   recommend: to praise and suggest the use of; to advise

o   remand: to send back

·        MEDI: middle

o   immediate: nearest; having nothing in between

o   intermediate: in the middle

o   mean: average; in the middle

o   mediate: to serve as a go-between; to try to settle an argument

o   medieval: related to the Middle Ages

o   mediocre: neither good nor bad; so-so

o   medium: size between small and large; a substance or agency that things travel through (as, for example, light travels through air, and news is conveyed by television and newspapers)

·        MEGA: large, great

o   megalith: a very big stone

o   megalomania: a mental condition involving delusions of greatness; an obsession with doing great things

o   megalopolis: a very large city

o   megaphone: a device for magnifying the sound of one’s voice

o   megaton: explosive power equal to 1,000 tons of T.N.T.

·        MICRO: very small

o   microbe: a very small organism

o   microcosm: a small system that reflects a larger whole

o   micron: a millionth of a meter

o   microorganism: a very small organism

o   microscope: a device that magnifies very small things for viewing

·        MIN: small

o   diminish: to lessen

o   diminution: the act or process of diminishing

o   miniature: a copy or model that represents something in greatly reduced size

o   minute: a unit of time equal to one-sixtieth of an hour

o   minutiae: small or trivial details

·        MIN: to project, to hang over

o   eminent: towering above others; projecting

o   imminent: about to occur; impending

o   preeminent: superior to or notable above all others

o   prominent: projecting outward

·        MIS: bad, wrong, to hate

o   misadventure: bad luck; an unlucky accident

o   misanthrope: one who hates people or humanity

o   misapply: to use something incorrectly

o   mischance: bad luck; an unlucky accident

o   mischief: bad or annoying behavior

o   misconstrue: to take something in a way that wasn’t intended; to understand something incorrectly

o   misfit: somebody or something that doesn’t fit in

·        MIS/MIT: to send

o   emissary: a messenger or agent sent to represent the interests of another

o   intermittent: stopping and starting at intervals

o   remission: a lessening of intensity or degree

o   remit: to send money

o   transmit: to send from one person, thing, or place to another

·        MISC: mixed

o   miscellaneous: made up of a variety of parts or ingredients

o   promiscuous: consisting of diverse and unrelated parts or individuals; indiscriminate

·        MOB/MOM/MOT/MOV: to move

o   automobile: a vehicle that moves under its own power; a motorized car

o   demote: to move downward in an organization

o   immovable: incapable of being moved; unyielding

o   locomotion: moving from place to place; the ability to do so

o   mob: the rabble; a disorderly group of people (from the Latin mobile vulgus, meaning “the fickle crowd”)

o   mobile: movable

o   mobilize: to make ready for movement; to assemble

o   moment: an instant; importance

o   momentous: of great importance (originally: having the power to move)

o   momentum: the force driving a moving object to keep moving; a growing force

o   motion: movement

o   motive: a reason for action; what moves a person to do something

o   motor: a device that makes something move

o   mutiny: rebellion against authority, esp. by sailors

o   promote: to move to a higher rank in an organization

o   remove: to take away; to move away

·        MOLL: soft

o   emollient: something that softens or soothes (e.g., a lotion)

o   mild: gentle; kind

o   mollify: soothe; soften; calm

o   mollusk: a phylum of invertebrate animals—including octopuses, squids, oysters, clams, and slugs—with soft bodies

·        MON/MONIT: to remind, to warn

o   admonish: to counsel against something; caution

o   monitor: one that admonishes, cautions, or reminds

o   monument: a structure, such as a building, tower, or sculpture, erected as a memorial

o   premonition: forewarning, presentiment

o   remonstrate: to say or plead in protest, objection, or reproof

o   summon: to call together; convene

·        MON/MONO: one

o   monarchy: rule by a single person

o   monk: a man in a religious order living apart from society (originally: a religious hermit)

o   monochord: a musical instrument with a single string

o   monogram: a design combining multiple letters into one

o   monograph: a scholarly study of a single subject

o   monologue: a speech or other dramatic composition recited by one person

o   monomania: an obsession with a single subject

o   monotonous: boring; spoken using only one tone

·        MOR/MORT: death

o   immortal: not subject to death

o   morbid: susceptible to preoccupation with unwholesome matters

o   moribund: dying, decaying

·        MORPH: shape

o   amorphous: without definite form; lacking a specific shape

o   anthropomorphism: attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena

o   metamorphosis: a transformation, as by magic or sorcery

·        MULT: many

o   multiple: many, having many parts; a number containing some quantity of a smaller number without remainder

o   multiplex: having many parts; a movie theater or other building with many separate units

o   multiply: to increase; to become many

o   multitudinous: very many; containing very many; having very many forms

·        MUT: to change

o   commute: to substitute; exchange; interchange

o   immutable: unchangeable, invariable

o   mutation: the process of being changed

o   permutation: a complete change; transformation

o   transmute: to change from one form into another


·        NAT/NAS/NAI/GNA: birth

o   cognate: related by blood; having a common ancestor

o   naive: lacking worldliness and sophistication; artless

o   nascent: starting to develop

o   native: belonging to one by nature; inborn; innate

o   natural: present due to nature, not to artificial or man-made means

o   renaissance: rebirth, esp. referring to culture

·        NAU/NAV: ship, sailor

o   astronaut: one who travels in outer space

o   circumnavigate: to sail all the way around

o   cosmonaut: one who travels in outer space

o   nauseous: causing a squeamish feeling (originally: seasickness)

o   nautical: related to sailing or sailors

o   naval: related to the navy

o   nave: the central portion of a church (which resembles the shape of a ship)

o   navy: a military force consisting of ships and sailors

·        NIHIL: nothing, none

o   annihilate: wipe out; reduce to nothing

o   nihilism: denial of all moral beliefs; denial that existence has any meaning

·        NOC/NOX: harm

o   innocent: uncorrupted by evil, malice, or wrongdoing

o   innocuous: not harmful or injurious

o   noxious: injurious or harmful to health or morals

o   obnoxious: highly disagreeable or offensive

·        NOCT/NOX: night

o   equinox: one of two times in a year when day and night are equal in length

o   noctambulant: walking at night; sleepwalking

o   nocturnal: related to the night; active at night

o   nocturne: a dreamlike piece of music; a painting set at night

·        NOM: rule, order

o   astronomy: the scientific study of the universe beyond the Earth

o   autonomy: independence, self-governance

o   economy: the careful or thrifty use of resources, as of income, materials, or labor

o   gastronomy: the art or science of good eating

o   taxonomy: the science, laws, or principles of classification

·        NOM/NYM/NOUN/NOWN: name

o   acronym: a word formed from the initial letters of a name

o   anonymous: having an unknown or unacknowledged name

o   nomenclature: a system of names; systematic naming

o   nominal: existing in name only; negligible

o   nominate: to propose by name as a candidate

o   noun: a word that names a person, place, or thing

o   renown: fame; reputation

o   synonym: a word having a meaning similar to that of another word of the same language

·        NON: not

o   nonconformist: one who does not conform to a church or other societal institution

o   nonentity: something that doesn’t exist; something that is unimportant

o   nonpareil: something with no equal

o   nonpartisan: not affiliated with a political party

·        NOUNC/NUNC: to announce

o   announce: to proclaim

o   pronounce: to articulate

o   renounce: to give up, especially by formal announcement

·        NOV/NEO/NOU: new

o   innovate: to begin or introduce something new

o   neologism: a newly coined word, phrase, or expression

o   neophyte: a beginner; a new convert; a new worker

o   neoplasm: a new growth in the body; a tumor

o   nouveau riche: one who has lately become rich

o   novice: a person new to any field or activity

o   renovate: to restore to an earlier condition

·        NULL: nothing

o   annul: to cancel; to make into nothing

o   nullify: to cancel; to make into nothing

o   nullity: the condition of being nothing


·        OB: toward, to, against, over

o   obese: extremely fat, corpulent

o   obfuscate: to render indistinct or dim; darken

o   oblique: having a slanting or sloping direction

o   obsequious: overly submissive

o   obstinate: stubbornly adhering to an idea, inflexible

o   obstreperous: noisily defiant, unruly

o   obstruct: to block or fill with obstacles

o   obtuse: not sharp, pointed, or acute in any form

·        OMNI: all

o   omnibus: an anthology of the works of one author or of writings on related subjects

o   omnipotent: all powerful

o   omnipresent: everywhere at one time

o   omniscient: having infinite knowledge

·        ONER: burden

o   exonerate: to free from blame (originally: to relieve of a burden)

o   onerous: burdensome; difficult

o   onus: a burden; a responsibility

·        OSS/OSTE: bone

o   ossify: to become bone; to harden; to become callous

o   ossuary: a place where bones are kept; a charnel house

o   osteopathy: a medical system based on the belief that many illnesses can be traced to issues in the skeletal system


·        PAC/PEAC: peace

o   appease: to bring peace to

o   pacifier: something or someone that eases the anger or agitation of

o   pacify: to ease the anger or agitation of

o   pact: a formal agreement, as between nations

·        PALP: to feel

o   palpable: capable of being felt; tangible

o   palpate: to feel; to examine by feeling

o   palpitate: to beat quickly, as the heart; to throb

·        PAN/PANT: all, everyone

o   pandemic: widespread, general, universal

o   panegyric: formal or elaborate praise at an assembly

o   panoply: a wide-ranging and impressive array or display

o   panorama: an unobstructed and wide view of an extensive area

o   pantheon: a public building containing tombs or memorials of the illustrious dead of a nation

·        PAR: equal

o   apartheid: any system or caste that separates people according to race, etc.

o   disparage: to belittle, speak disrespectfully about

o   disparate: essentially different

o   par: an equality in value or standing

o   parity: equally, as in amount, status, or character

·        PARA: next to, beside

o   parable: a short, allegorical story designed to illustrate a moral lesson or religious principle

o   paragon: a model of excellence

o   parallel: extending in the same direction

o   paranoid: suffering from a baseless distrust of others

o   parasite: an organism that lives on or within a plant or animal of another species, from which it obtains nutrients

o   parody: to imitate for purposes of satire

·        PAS/PAT/PATH: feeling, suffering, disease

o   compassion: a feeling of deep sympathy for someone struck by misfortune, accompanied by a desire to alleviate suffering

o   dispassionate: devoid of personal feeling or bias

o   empathy: the identification with the feelings or thoughts of others

o   impassive: showing or feeling no emotion

o   pathogenic: causing disease

o   sociopath: a person whose behavior is antisocial and who lacks a sense of moral responsibility

o   sympathy: harmony or agreement in feeling

·        PAU/PO/POV/PU: few, little, poor

o   impoverish: to deplete

o   paucity: smallness of quantity; scarcity; scantiness

o   pauper: a person without any personal means of support

o   poverty: the condition of being poor

o   puerile: childish, immature

o   pusillanimous: lacking courage or resolution

·        PEC: money

o   impecunious: having no money; penniless

o   peculation: embezzlement

o   pecuniary: relating to money

·        PED: child, education

o   encyclopedia: book or set of books containing articles on various topics, covering all branches of knowledge or of one particular subject

o   pedagogue: a teacher

o   pedant: one who displays learning ostentatiously

o   pediatrician: a doctor who primarily has children as patients

·        PED/POD: foot

o   antipodes: places that are diametrically opposite each other on the globe

o   expedite: to speed up the progress of

o   impede: to retard progress by means of obstacles or hindrances

o   pedal: a foot-operated lever or part used to control

o   pedestrian: a person who travels on foot

o   podium: a small platform for an orchestra conductor, speaker, etc.

·        PEL: to drive, to push

o   compel: to force; to command

o   dispel: to drive away; to disperse

o   expel: to drive out; to banish; to eject

o   impel: to force; to drive forward

o   propel: to drive forward

·        PEN/PUN: to pay, to compensate

o   penal: of or pertaining to punishment, as for crimes

o   penalty: a punishment imposed for a violation of law or rule

o   penance: a punishment undergone to express regret for a sin

o   penitent: contrite

o   punitive: serving for, concerned with, or inflicting punishment

·        PEN/PENE: almost

o   peninsula: a landmass that is mostly surrounded by water, making it almost an island

o   penultimate: second-to-last

o   penumbra: a shaded area between pure shadow and pure light

·        PEND/PENS: to hang, to weight, to pay

o   appendage: a limb or other subsidiary part that diverges from the central structure

o   appendix: supplementary material at the end of a text

o   compensate: to counterbalance, offset

o   depend: to rely; to place trust in

o   indispensable: absolutely necessary, essential, or requisite

o   stipend: a periodic payment; fixed or regular pay

·        PER: completely

o   perforate: to make a way through or into something

o   perfunctory: performed merely as routine duty

o   perplex: to cause to be puzzled or bewildered over what is not understood

o   persistent: lasting or enduring tenaciously

o   perspicacious: shrewd, astute

o   pertinacious: resolute, persistent

o   peruse: to read with thoroughness or care

·        PERI: around

o   perimeter: the border or outer boundary of a two-dimensional figure

o   peripatetic: walking or traveling about; itinerant

o   periscope: an optical instrument for seeing objects in an obstructed field of vision

·        PET/PIT: to go, to seek, to strive

o   appetite: a desire for food or drink

o   centripetal: moving toward the center

o   compete: to strive to outdo another

o   impetuous: characterized by sudden or rash action or emotion

o   petition: a formally drawn request soliciting some benefit

o   petulant: showing sudden irritation, esp. over some annoyance

·        PHIL: love

o   bibliophile: one who loves or collects books

o   philatelist: one who loves or collects postage stamps

o   philology: the study of literary texts to establish their authenticity and determine their meaning

o   philosopher: one who investigates the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct (originally: lover of wisdom)

o   philosophy: the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct

·        PHOB: fear

o   claustrophobia: fear of enclosed places

o   hydrophobia: fear of water, which is a symptom of rabies; rabies

o   phobia: fear; an irrational fear

o   xenophobia: fear of foreigners; hatred of foreigners

·        PHON: sound

o   euphony: the quality of sounding good

o   megaphone: a device for magnifying the sound of one’s voice

o   phonetics: the study of the sounds used in speech

o   polyphony: the use of simultaneous melodic lines to produce harmonies in musical compositions

o   telephone: a device for transmitting sound at a distance

·        PHOTO: light

o   photograph: a picture, originally made by exposing chemically treated film to light

o   photon: a packet of light or other electromagnetic radiation

o   photosynthesis: a process by which plants create carbohydrates when under light

·        PLAC: to please

o   complacent: self-satisfied, unconcerned

o   complaisant: inclined or disposed to please

o   implacable: unable to be pleased

o   placebo: a substance with no pharmacological effect that acts to placate a patient who believes it to be a medicine

o   placid: pleasantly calm or peaceful

·        PLE/PLEN: to fill, full

o   complete: having all parts or elements

o   deplete: to decrease seriously or exhaust the supply of

o   implement: an instrument, tool, or utensil for accomplishing work

o   plenitude: fullness

o   plethora: excess, overabundance

o   replete: abundantly supplied

o   supplement: something added to supply a deficiency

·        PLEX/PLIC/PLY: to fold, twist, tangle, or bend

o   complex: composed of many interconnected parts

o   duplicity: deceitfulness in speech or conduct, double-dealing

o   implicate: to show to be involved, usually in an incriminating manner

o   implicit: not expressly stated, implied

o   replica: any close copy or reproduction

o   supplicate: to make humble and earnest entreaty

·        POLY: many

o   polyandry: the practice of having multiple husbands

o   polygamy: the practice of having multiple wives

o   polyglot: someone who speaks many languages

o   polygon: a figure with many sides

o   polytheism: belief in many gods

·        PON/POS/POUND: to put, to place

o   component: a constituent part, elemental ingredient

o   expose: to lay open to danger, attack, or harm

o   expound: to set forth in detail

o   juxtapose: to place close together or side by side

o   repository: a receptacle or place where things are deposited

·        PORT: to carry

o   deportment: conduct, behavior

o   disport: to divert or amuse oneself

o   export: to transmit abroad

o   import: to bring in from a foreign country

o   importune: to urge or press with excessive persistence

o   portable: easily carried

·        POST: behind, after

o   post facto: after the fact

o   posterior: situated at the rear

o   posterity: future generations

o   posthumous: after death

·        POT: to drink

o   potable: drinkable; safe to drink; a drink

o   potation: drinking; a drink

o   potion: a drinkable medicine, poison, or other concoction

·        PRE: before, in front

o   precarious: dependent on circumstances beyond one’s control

o   precedent: an act that serves as an example for subsequent situations

o   precept: a commandment given as a rule of action or conduct

o   precocious: unusually advanced or mature in mental development or talent

o   premonition: a feeling of anticipation over a future event

o   presentiment: foreboding

·        PREHEND/PRISE: to take, to get, to seize

o   apprehend: to take into custody

o   comprise: to include or contain

o   enterprise: a project undertaken

o   reprehensible: deserving rebuke or censure

o   reprisals: retaliation against an enemy

o   surprise: to strike with an unexpected feeling of wonder or astonishment

·        PRI/PRIM: first

o   primal: original; most important

o   primary: first; most important

o   prime: first in quality; best

o   primeval: ancient; going back to the first age of the world

o   pristine: original; like new; unspoiled; pure

·        PRO: in front, before, much, for

o   problem: a difficult question (originally: one put before another for solution)

o   proceed: to go forward

o   profuse: spending or giving freely

o   prolific: highly fruitful

o   propound: to set forth for consideration

o   proselytize: to convert or attempt to recruit

o   provident: having or showing foresight

·        PROB: to prove, to test

o   approbation: praise, consideration

o   opprobrium: the disgrace incurred by shameful conduct

o   probe: to search or examine thoroughly

o   probity: honesty, high-mindedness

o   reprobate: a depraved or wicked person

·        PROP/PROX: near

o   approximate: very near; close to being accurate

o   proximate: nearby; coming just before or just after

o   proximity: nearness; distance

·        PROT/PROTO: first

o   protagonist: the main character in a play or story

o   protocol: diplomatic etiquette; a system of proper conduct; the original record of a treaty or other negotiation

o   prototype: the first version of an invention, on which later models are based

o   protozoan: belonging to a group of single-celled animals, which came before more complex animals

·        PSEUD/PSEUDO: false

o   pseudonym: a false name; a pen name

o   pseudopod: part of a single-celled organism that can be stuck out (like a foot) and used to move around

o   pseudoscience: false science; something believed to be based on the scientific method but that actually is not

·        PUG: to fight

o   impugn: to challenge as false

o   pugilist: a fighter or boxer

o   pugnacious: to quarrel or fight readily

o   repugnant: objectionable or offensive

·        PUNC/PUNG/POIGN: to point, to prick, to pierce

o   compunction: a feeling of uneasiness for doing wrong

o   expunge: to erase, eliminate completely

o   point: a sharp or tapering end

o   punctilious: strict or exact in the observance of formalities

o   puncture: the act of piercing

o   pungent: caustic or sharply expressive

·        PYR: fire

o   pyre: a bonfire, usually for burning a dead body

o   pyromania: an urge to start fires

o   pyrosis: heartburn

o   pyrotechnics: fireworks


·        QUAD/QUAR/QUAT: four

o   quadrant: a quarter of a circle; a 90-degree arc

o   quadrille: a square dance involving four couples

o   quadruple: four times as many

o   quadruplets: four children born in one birth

o   quart: one fourth of a gallon

o   quaternary: the number four; the fourth in a series

·        QUE/QUIS: to seek

o   acquire: to come into possession of

o   conquest: the act gaining control by force

o   exquisite: of special beauty or charm

o   inquisitive: given to research, eager for knowledge

o   perquisite: a gratuity, tip

o   querulous: full of complaints

o   query: a question, inquiry

·        QUIE/QUIT: quiet, rest

o   acquiesce: to comply, give in

o   disquiet: lack of calm or peace

o   quiescence: the condition of being at rest, still, inactive

o   quiet: making little or no sound

o   tranquil: free from commotion or tumult

·        QUIN/QUINT: five

o   quinquennial: a five-year period; a fifth anniversary

o   quintessence: the essential part of something (originally: the “fifth essence,” which was believed to permeate everything and be what stars and planets were made of)

o   quintuple: five times as many


·        RACI/RADI: root

o   deracinate: to uproot

o   eradicate: to uproot; to wipe out

o   radical: pertaining to roots; questioning everything, even basic beliefs; going to root causes; thorough

o   radish: a root vegetable

·        RAMI: branch

o   ramification: a branch; an offshoot; a collection of branches; a consequence

o   ramiform: branchlike

·        RE: back, again

o   recline: to lean back; to lie down

o   regain: to gain again; to take back

o   remain: to stay behind; to be left; to continue to be

o   reorganize: to organize again

o   request: to ask (originally: to seek again)

·        RECT: straight, right

o   correct: to set right

o   direct: to guide; to put straight

o   erect: upright; starting up straight

o   rectangle: a four-sided figure in which every angle is a right angle

o   rectitude: moral uprightness; moral straightness

·        REG: king, rule

o   interregnum: a period between kings

o   realm: a kingdom; a domain

o   regal: kingly; royal

o   regent: one who serves on behalf of a king; one who rules

o   regicide: killing a king; one who kills a king

o   regiment: a body of troops in an army; to form into such a body; to subject to strict rule

o   regular: having a structure following some rule; orderly; normally used; average

·        RETRO: backward

o   retroactive: extending to things that happened in the past

o   retrofit: to install newer parts into an older device or structure

o   retrograde: moving backward; appearing to move backward

o   retrospective: looking back at the past

·        RID/RIS: to laugh

o   derision: the act of mockery

o   risible: causing laughter

·        ROG: to ask

o   abrogate: to abolish by formal means

o   arrogant: making claims to superior importance or rights

o   arrogate: to claim unwarrantably or presumptuously

o   derogatory: belittling, disparaging

o   interrogate: to ask questions of, esp. formally

o   surrogate: a person appointed to act for another

·        RUB/RUD: red

o   rouge: a red powder used as makeup

o   rubella: German measles; a disease marked by red spots

o   rubicund: reddish; rosy-cheeked

o   rubric: a rule; a guide for scoring tests; a heading in a book set in red letters

o   russet: reddish-brown; a coarse cloth, usually reddish-brown; a type of apple or pear, typically reddish-brown

·        RUD: crude

o   erudite: scholarly; learned (that is, trained out of crudeness)

o   rude: uncivilized; impolite

o   rudimentary: undeveloped; related to rudiments

o   rudiments: first principles; imperfect first step of one’s training


·        SACR/SANCT: holy

o   execrable: abominable

o   sacrament: something regarded as possessing sacred character

o   sacred: devoted or dedicated to a deity or religious purpose

o   sacrifice: the offering of some living or inanimate thing to a deity in homage

o   sacrilege: the violation of anything sacred

o   sanctify: to make holy

o   sanction: authoritative permission or approval

·        SAG/SAP/SAV: taste, thinking, discerning

o   insipid: tasteless

o   sagacious: perceptive; discerning; insightful

o   sage: wise

o   sapient: wise

o   savant: a learned person

o   savor: taste; to enjoy flavors

·        SAL/SIL/SAULT/SULT: to leap, to jump

o   assault: a sudden or violent attack

o   desultory: at random, unmethodical

o   exult: to show or feel triumphant joy

o   insolent: boldly rude or disrespectful

o   insult: to treat with contemptuous rudeness

o   resilient: able to spring back to an original form after compression

o   salient: prominent or conspicuous

o   somersault: to roll the body end over end, making a complete revolution

·        SAL: salt

o   salary: payment for services (originally: money for Roman soldiers to buy salt)

o   saline: containing salt; salty

·        SALU: health

o   salubrious: healthful

o   salutary: healthful

o   salute: to greet; a gesture of greeting (originally: to wish good health)

·        SALV: to save

o   salvage: to save; something saved or recovered

o   salvation: being saved

o   savior: one who saves

·        SAN: healthy

o   sane: mentally healthy

o   sanitarium: a place of healing

o   sanitary: promoting health; related to conditions that affect health, such as cleanliness

·        SANG: blood

o   consanguinity: being related by blood

o   sanguinary: bloody; bloodthirsty

o   sanguine: hopeful; confident (from the “sanguine humor,” which was believed to be associated with those traits)

·        SAT: enough

o   assets: property; possessions (originally: enough property to cover one’s debts)

o   dissatisfied: feeling that one does not have enough

o   sate: to fill

o   satisfy: to meet one’s desires; to meet an obligation; to provide with enough

o   saturate: to fill completely; to entirely satisfy

·        SCI: to know

o   conscience: the inner sense of what is right or wrong, impelling one toward right action

o   conscious: aware of one’s own existence

o   omniscient: knowing everything

o   prescient: having knowledge of things before they happen

o   unconscionable: unscrupulous

·        SCRIBE/SCRIPT: to write

o   ascribe: to credit or assign, as to a cause or course

o   circumscribe: to draw a line around

o   conscription: draft

o   describe: to tell or depict in words

o   postscript: any addition or supplement

o   proscribe: to condemn as harmful or odious

o   scribble: to write hastily or carelessly

o   script: handwriting

o   transcript: a written or typed copy

·        SE: apart, away

o   secede: to withdraw formally from an association

o   sedition: incitement of discontent or rebellion against a government

o   seduce: to lead astray

o   segregate: to separate or set apart from others

o   select: to choose in preference to another

o   separate: to keep apart, divide

o   sequester: to remove or withdraw into solitude or retirement

·        SEC/SEQU/SUE/SUI: to follow

o   non sequitur: an inference or a conclusion that does not follow from the premises

o   obsequious: fawning

o   prosecute: to seek to enforce by legal process

o   pursue: to chase after

o   second: next after the first

o   sequence: the following of one thing after another

o   suite: a series; a set (originally: a train of followers)

·        SED/SESS/SID: to sit, to settle

o   assiduous: diligent, persistent, hardworking (literally, “sitting down” to business)

o   dissident: disagreeing, as in opinion or attitude (literally, “sitting apart”)

o   insidious: intended to entrap or beguile; lying in wait to entrap

o   preside: to exercise management or control; to sit in the leader’s chair

o   resident: a person who lives in a place

o   residual: remaining, leftover

o   sediment: the matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid

o   session: a meeting at which people sit together in discussion

·        SEM: seed, to sow

o   disseminate: to spread; to scatter around

o   semen: seed (of male animals)

o   seminary: a school, esp. for religious training (originally: a place for raising plants)

·        SEMI: half

o   semicircle: half a circle

o   semiconscious: only partly conscious; half awake

·        SEN: old

o   senate: the highest legislative body (from “council of elders”)

o   senescent: getting old

o   senile: relating to old age; experiencing memory loss or other age-related mental impairments

o   sire: a title for a king; a father (originally: an important person, an old man)

·        SENS/SENT: to feel, to be aware

o   dissent: to differ in opinion, esp. from the majority

o   insensate: without feeling or sensitivity

o   presentiment: a feeling that something is about to happen

o   resent: to feel or show displeasure

o   sense: any of the faculties by which humans and animals perceive stimuli originating outside the body

o   sensory: of or pertaining to the senses or sensation

o   sentiment: an attitude or feeling toward something

o   sentinel: a person or thing that stands watch

·        SIN/SINU: bend, fold, curve

o   insinuate: to introduce in sneaky or winding ways

o   sinuous: moving in a bending or wavy manner

o   sinus: a curved or irregularly shaped cavity in the body, such as those related to the nostrils

·        SOL: alone

o   desolate: deserted; laid waste; left alone

o   isolate: to set apart from others

o   soliloquize: talk to oneself; talk onstage as if to oneself

o   solipsism: the belief that the only thing that really exists, or can really be known, is oneself

o   solitude: the state of being alone

·        SOL: to loosen, to free

o   absolution: forgiveness for wrongdoing

o   dissolute: indifferent to moral restraints

o   dissolution: the act or process of dissolving into parts or elements

o   dissolve: to make a solution of, as by mixing in a liquid

o   resolution: a formal expression of opinion or intention made

o   soluble: capable of being dissolved or liquefied

·        SOL: sun

o   parasol: an umbrella that protects from the sun

o   solar: related to the sun

o   solarium: a sunroom; a room with windows for taking in the sun

o   solstice: one of two days when the sun reaches its highest point at noon and seems to stand still

·        SOMN: sleep

o   insomnia: inability to sleep

o   somnambulist: a sleepwalker

o   somniferous: sleep-inducing

o   somniloquist: one who talks while asleep

o   somnolent: sleep-inducing; sleepy; drowsy

·        SOPH: wisdom

o   philosopher: one who studies logic, beauty, truth, etc.; one who seeks wisdom

o   sophism: a superficially appealing but fallacious argument

o   sophisticated: complex; worldly; experienced

·        SOURC/SURG/SURRECT: to rise

o   insurgent: rising up in revolution; rushing in

o   insurrection: rising up in armed rebellion

o   resurrection: coming back to life; rising again

o   source: where something comes from (such as spring water rising out of the ground)

o   surge: to rise up forcefully, as ocean waves

·        SPEC/SPIC: to look, to see

o   circumspect: watchful and discreet, cautious

o   conspicuous: easily seen or noticed; readily observable

o   perspective: one’s mental view of facts, ideas, and their interrelationships

o   perspicacious: having keen mental perception and understanding

o   retrospective: contemplative of past situations

o   specious: deceptively attractive

o   spectrum: a broad range of related things that form a continuous series

o   speculation: the contemplation or consideration of some subject

·        SPIR: breath

o   aspire: to desire; to pant for (originally: to breathe on)

o   expire: to breathe out; to breathe one’s last; to come to an end

o   spirit: the breath of life; the soul; an incorporeal supernatural being; an outlook; a lively quality

·        STA/STI: to stand, to be in place

o   apostasy: renunciation of an object of one’s previous loyalty

o   constitute: to make up

o   destitute: without means of subsistence

o   obstinate: stubbornly adhering to a purpose, opinion, or course of action

o   stasis: the state of equilibrium or inactivity caused by opposing equal forces

o   static: of bodies or forces at rest or in equilibrium

·        STRICT/STRING/STRAN: to tighten, to bind

o   astringent: causing to tighten

o   constrain: to confine; to bind within certain limits

o   restriction: a limitation

o   strangle: to kill by suffocation, usually by tightening a cord or one’s hand around the throat

·        SUA: sweet, pleasing, to urge

o   assuage: to make less severe, ease, relieve

o   dissuade: to deter; to advise against

o   persuade: to encourage; to convince

o   suave: smoothly agreeable or polite; sweet

·        SUB/SUP: below, under

o   subliminal: existing or operating below the threshold of consciousness

o   submissive: inclined or ready to submit

o   subsidiary: serving to assist or supplement

o   subterfuge: an artifice or expedient used to evade a rule

o   subtle: thin, tenuous, or rarefied

o   suppose: to put down as a hypothesis; to use as the underlying basis of an argument; to assume

·        SUMM: highest, total

o   consummate: highly qualified; complete; perfect

o   sum: total; amount of money

o   summary: concise statement of the total findings on a subject; comprehensive

o   summit: highest point

·        SUPER/SUR: over, above

o   supercilious: arrogant, haughty, condescending

o   superfluous: extra, more than necessary

o   superlative: the highest kind or order

o   supersede: to replace in power, as by another person or thing

o   surmount: to get over or across, to prevail

o   surpass: to go beyond in amount, extent, or degree

o   surveillance: a watch kept over someone or something

·        SYM/SYN: together

o   symbiosis: living together in a mutually beneficial relationship

o   symmetry: balanced proportions; having opposite parts that mirror one another

o   sympathy: affinity; feeling affected by what happens to another

o   symposium: a meeting at which ideas are discussed (originally: a party at which people drink together)

o   synonym: a word that means the same thing as another

o   synthesis: combining things to create a new whole


·        TAC/TIC: to be silent

o   reticent: disposed to be silent or not to speak freely

o   tacit: unspoken understanding

o   taciturn: uncommunicative

·        TACT/TAG/TAM/TANG: to touch

o   contact: to touch; to get in touch

o   contagious: able to spread by contact, as disease

o   contaminate: to corrupt, taint, or otherwise damage the integrity of something by contact or mixture

o   contiguous: directly touching; sharing a boundary

o   intact: untouched; whole

o   intangible: unable to be touched

o   tactile: pertaining to touch; touchable

·        TAIN/TEN/TENT/TIN: to hold

o   abstention: the act of refraining voluntarily

o   detain: to keep from proceeding

o   pertain: to have reference or relation

o   pertinacious: persistent, stubborn

o   sustenance: nourishment, means of livelihood

o   tenable: capable of being held, maintained, or defended

o   tenacious: holding fast

o   tenure: the holding or possessing of anything

·        TEND/TENS/TENT/TENU: to stretch, to thin

o   attenuate: to weaken or reduce in force

o   contentious: quarrelsome, disagreeable, belligerent

o   distend: to expand by stretching

o   extenuating: making less serious by offering excuses

o   tendentious: having a predisposition toward a point of view

o   tension: the act of stretching or straining

o   tentative: of the nature of, or done as a trial, attempt

·        TEST: bear witness

o   attest: to bear witness

o   contest: to dispute (from bringing a lawsuit by calling witnesses)

o   detest: to despise; to hate (originally: to curse something by calling upon God to witness it)

o   protest: a dissent; a declaration, esp. of disagreement

o   testament: a statement of a person’s wishes for the disposal of his or her property after death; a will

o   testify: bear witness

·        THEO: god

o   apotheosis: glorification, glorified ideal

o   atheist: one who does not believe in a deity or divine system

o   theocracy: a form of government in which a deity is recognized as the supreme ruler

o   theology: the study of divine things and the divine faith

·        THERM: heat

o   thermal: relating to heat; retaining heat

o   thermometer: a device for measuring heat

o   thermonuclear: relating to a nuclear reaction that takes place at high temperatures

o   thermostat: a device for regulating heat

·        TIM: fear

o   intimidate: to strike fear into; to make fearful

o   timid: fearful; shy

·        TOR/TORQ/TORT: to twist

o   contort: to twist; to distort

o   distort: to pull out of shape, often by twisting; to twist or misrepresent facts

o   extort: to wring money, property, or services out of somebody using threats or force

o   torch: a portable flame used for light (perhaps derived from hemp twisted around sticks, then dipped in pitch)

o   torque: twisting force; a force that creates rotation

o   tort: a wrongful act (other than breach of contract) that legally entitles one to damages

o   torture: to inflict pain (including by twisting instruments like the rack or wheel)

·        TORP: stiff, numb

o   torpedo: a explosive weapon used to sink ships (originally: a fish—the electric ray—that could shock victims to numbness)

o   torpid: numbed; sluggish

o   torpor: numbness; listlessness; apathy

·        TOX: poison

o   antitoxin: an antibody that counteracts a given poison

o   intoxication: being poisoned; drunkenness

o   toxic: poisonous

·        TRACT: to drag, to pull, to draw

o   abstract: to draw or pull away, remove

o   attract: to draw either by physical force or by an appeal to emotions or senses

o   contract: a legally binding document

o   detract: to take away from, esp. a positive thing

o   protract: to prolong, draw out, extend

o   tractable: easily managed or controlled

o   tractor: a powerful vehicle used to pull farm machinery

·        TRANS: across, beyond

o   intransigent: refusing to agree or compromise

o   transaction: the act of carrying on or conduct to a conclusion or settlement

o   transcendent: going beyond ordinary limits

o   transgress: to violate a law, command, or moral code

o   transition: a change from one way of being to another

o   transparent: easily seen through, recognized, or detected


·        ULT: last, beyond

o   penultimate: second-to-last

o   ulterior: beyond what is immediately present; future; beyond what is stated; hidden

o   ultimate: last; final

o   ultimatum: final offer; final terms

o   ultraviolet: beyond the violet end of the spectrum

·        UMBR: shadow

o   adumbrate: to foreshadow; to sketch; to overshadow

o   penumbra: a shaded area between pure shadow and pure light

o   somber: gloomy; darkened

o   umbrage: shade; shadow; displeasure; resentment

o   umbrella: a device providing shade from the sun or protection from rain

·        UN: not

o   unseen: not seen

o   unusual: not usual; exceptional; strange

·        UND: wave

o   abound: to be plentiful; to overflow (from water flowing in waves)

o   inundate: to flood

o   undulate: to move in a wavelike way

·        UNI/UN: one

o   reunion: a meeting that brings people back together

o   unanimous: of one mind; in complete accord

o   unicorn: a mythical animal with a single horn

o   uniform: of one kind; consistent

o   universe: all things considered as one whole

·        URB: city

o   suburb: a residential area just outside a city; an outlying area of a city

o   urban: relating to a city

o   urbane: polite; refined; polished (considered characteristic of those in cities)

o   urbanization: the process of an area becoming more like a city

·        US/UT: to use

o   abuse: to use wrongly or improperly

o   usage: a customary way of doing something

o   usurp: to seize and hold

o   utilitarian: efficient, functional, useful


·        VAIL/VAL: strength, use, worth

o   ambivalent: being caught between contradictory feelings of equal power or worth

o   avail: to have force; to be useful; to be of value

o   convalescent: recovering strength; healing

o   equivalent: of equal worth, strength, or use

o   evaluate: to determine the worth of

o   invalid: having no force or strength; void

o   valediction: a farewell (from wishing that someone be well; i.e., that someone have strength)

o   valid: having force; legally binding; effective; useful

o   value: worth

·        VEN/VENT: to come or to move toward

o   adventitious: accidental

o   contravene: to come into conflict with

o   convene: to assemble for some public purpose

o   intervene: to come between disputing factions, mediate

o   venturesome: showing a disposition to undertake risks

·        VER: truth

o   aver: to affirm, to declare to be true

o   veracious: habitually truthful

o   verdict: a judgment or decision

o   verisimilitude: the appearance or semblance of truth

o   verity: truthfulness

·        VERB: word

o   proverb: an adage; a byword; a short, commonly known saying

o   verbatim: exactly as stated; word-for-word

o   verbose: wordy

o   verbiage: excessive use of words; diction

·        VERD: green

o   verdant: green with vegetation; inexperienced

o   verdure: fresh, rich vegetation

·        VERS/VERT: to turn

o   aversion: dislike

o   avert: to turn away from

o   controversy: a public dispute involving a matter of opinion

o   diverse: of a different kind, form, character

o   extrovert: an outgoing person

o   inadvertent: unintentional

o   introvert: a person concerned primarily with inner thoughts and feelings

o   revert: to return to a former habit

·        VI: life

o   convivial: sociable

o   joie de vivre: joy of life (French expression)

o   viable: capable of living

o   vivacity: the quality of being lively, animated, spirited

o   vivid: strikingly bright or intense

·        VID/VIS: to see

o   adviser: one who gives counsel

o   evident: plain or clear to the sight or understanding

o   survey: to view in a general or comprehensive way

o   video: elements pertaining to the transmission or reception of an image

o   vista: a view or prospect

·        VIL: base, mean

o   revile: to criticize with harsh language

o   vile: loathsome, unpleasant

o   vilify: to slander, to defame

·        VIRU: poison

o   virulent: acrimonious; very bitter; very poisonous

o   viruliferous: containing a virus

o   virus: a submicroscopic agent that infects an organism and causes disease

·        VOC/VOK: call, word

o   advocate: to support or urge by argument

o   avocation: something one does in addition to a principle occupation

o   convoke: to call together

o   equivocate: to use ambiguous or unclear expressions

o   invoke: to call on a deity

o   vocabulary: the stock of words used by or known to a particular person or group

o   vocation: a particular occupation

o   vociferous: crying out noisily

·        VOL: wish

o   benevolent: characterized by or expressing goodwill

o   malevolent: characterized by or expressing bad will

o   volition: free choice, free will; act of choosing

o   voluntary: undertaken of one’s own accord or by free choice

·        VOLU/VOLV: to roll, to turn

o   convolution: a twisting or folding

o   evolve: to develop naturally; literally, to unfold or unroll

o   revolt: to rebel; to turn against those in authority

o   revolve: to rotate; to turn around

o   voluble: easily turning; fluent; changeable

o   volume: a book (originally: a scroll); size or dimensions (originally: of a book)

·        VOR: to eat

o   carnivorous: meat-eating

o   omnivorous: eating or absorbing everything

o   voracious: having a great appetite