﻿ Sentence Equivalence - VERBAL REASONING - GRE Premier 2017 with 6 Practice Tests ﻿

## GRE Premier 2017 with 6 Practice Tests

### Chapter 6. Sentence Equivalence

Introduction to Sentence Equivalence

Each Verbal Reasoning section features approximately four Sentence Equivalence questions. In each sentence, one word will be missing, and you must identify two correct words to complete the sentence. The correct answer choices, when used in the sentence, will result in the same meaning for both sentences. This question type tests your ability to figure out how a sentence should be completed by using the meaning of the entire sentence.

The directions for Sentence Equivalence will look like this:

·        Select the two answer choices that, when inserted into the sentence, fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole and yield complete sentences that are similar in meaning.

A Sentence Equivalence question will look like this:

The Kaplan Method for Sentence Equivalence

1.    STEP 1

Read the sentence, looking for clues.

2.    STEP 2

3.    STEP 3

Select the two choices that most closely match your prediction.

4.    STEP 4

Check your answers to see if the sentence retains the same meaning.

HOW THE KAPLAN METHOD FOR SENTENCE EQUIVALENCE WORKS

1.     STEP 1
Read the sentence, looking for clues.

As you read the sentence, pay attention to the part of speech that the answer choice will be and compare it with the answer choices. Also look for specific words in the sentence that will help you to understand its meaning. These are called “key words” or “road signs”—descriptive phrases or contextual clues that suggest the meaning of the missing word.

Words that connect one part of a sentence to another (“straight-ahead” road signs) include the following:

 And Likewise Since Moreover Also Similarly Thus In addition Because Consequently ; (semicolon)

Words that indicate one part of the sentence contradicts another part of the sentence (“detour” road signs) include these:

 But Although Despite While Yet On the other hand However Unfortunately Unless Nonetheless Rather Conversely

Being aware of these road signs will help you to figure out the meaning of the sentence and the relationship of the missing word to other ideas in the sentence.

2.     STEP 2

Once you have read the sentence and identified clues to words that will complete the sentence, predict an answer. Your prediction should be a word that you choose on your own before you look at the answer choices. The prediction word should also be a simple word that logically completes the sentence.

3.     STEP 3
Select the two choices that most closely match your prediction.

Quickly review the six answer choices and choose the two words that, when plugged into the sentence, most closely make the intended meaning of the sentence match your prediction. Eliminate the answer choices that do not fit your prediction. Sometimes you will need to adjust your prediction in order to find two answer choices that match each other.

4.     STEP 4
Check your answers to see if the sentence retains the same meaning.

Read the sentence with each answer choice plugged in to check that you have selected the correct answers. Make sure that both answer choices make sense in the context of the sentence. Pay close attention to the charge of a word’s meaning. For example, “dislike” and “despise” both mean the same thing, but “despise” has a much stronger degree of charge to that meaning. Each sentence should have the same meaning. If one or both of your answers do not make sense when you reread the sentence, revisit the question and repeat Steps 1, 2, and 3.

HOW TO APPLY THE KAPLAN METHOD FOR SENTENCE EQUIVALENCE

Now let’s apply the Kaplan Method to a Sentence Equivalence question.

1.    She volunteered to work in a soup kitchen because of her  nature.

1.    selfish

2.    naive

3.    altruistic

4.    baneful

5.    candid

6.    benevolent

1.     STEP 1
Read the sentence, looking for clues.

One way to determine the correct answer in this sentence is to figure out the part of speech of the missing word. The missing word in this sentence is an adjective because it modifies the noun “nature.” Another clue in this sentence is the key word “volunteer.” A volunteer is someone who offers her time or skills without pay. The blank will be an adjective with a positive connotation that describes the type of person who volunteers.

2.     STEP 2

Knowing that the blank must describe someone who offers her time or skills without pay, you can predict that the correct answer will be similar to “helpful.”

3.     STEP 3
Select the two choices that most closely match your prediction.

Quickly review the six answer choices to see which two words most closely match “helpful,” which in this case are choice (C) altruistic and choice (F) benevolent.

4.     STEP 4
Check your answers to see if the sentence retains the same meaning.

Plug each answer choice into the sentence to see if it matches the context. Make sure that each sentence has the same meaning:

o   “She volunteered to work in a soup kitchen because of her altruistic nature.”

o   “She volunteered to work in a soup kitchen because of her benevolent nature.”

Now let’s apply the Kaplan Method to a second Sentence Equivalence question.

1.    While the first speaker at the conference was confusing and unclear, the second speaker was .

1.    articulate

2.    experienced

3.    melancholy

4.    ambiguous

5.    eloquent

6.    vociferous

1.     STEP 1
Read the sentence, looking for clues.

In this sentence, the clue word “while” is a detour road sign. “While” indicates that the second part of the sentence will mean the opposite of the first part of the sentence. The first speaker was described as “confusing” and “unclear,” which are the key words in this question. The correct answer means the opposite.

2.     STEP 2

Knowing that the blank will mean the opposite of “confusing” and “unclear,” you can predict that correct answers will be similar to “clear.”

3.     STEP 3
Select the two choices that most closely match your prediction.

Quickly go through the six answer choices and see which two words most closely match “clear” in the context of speaking. In this case, these are choice (A) articulate and choice (E)eloquent.

4.     STEP 4
Check your answers to see if the sentence retains the same meaning.

Plug each answer choice into the sentence to see if it matches the context. Make sure that each sentence has the same meaning:

o   “While the first speaker at the conference was confusing and unclear, the second speaker was articulate.”

o   “While the first speaker at the conference was confusing and unclear, the second speaker was eloquent.”

Kaplan’s Additional Tips for Sentence Equivalence

Make sure to read and check all answer choices in the sentence before making your final choice. An answer may fit well in the sentence and closely match your prediction, but if there is no other answer choice that also completes the sentence with the same meaning, it isn’t correct.

Paraphrase the question.

If you rephrase a difficult or longer sentence into your own words, it will be easier to make a prediction for the answer. Paraphrasing will also make sure that you understand the meaning of the sentence.

Look beyond synonyms.

Simply finding a synonym pair in the answer choices will not always lead you to the correct answer. Answer choices may include a pair of words that are synonyms but do not fit in the context of the sentence. Both of those two choices will be incorrect. The meaning of each sentence must be the same and correct. Be sure to try both words in the sentence, checking that each sentence has the same meaning, before making your final choice.

Use prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

Think about the meaning of the prefixes, suffixes, and roots in words that you know if you are struggling to figure out the definition of a word.

Sentence Equivalence Practice Set

Try the following Sentence Equivalence questions using the Kaplan Method for Sentence Equivalence. If you’re up to the challenge, time yourself; on Test Day, you’ll want to spend only about one minute on each question.

1.

1.    He was unable to move his arm after the stroke; in addition, the stroke  his ability to speak.

1.    appeased

2.    satisfied

3.    impeded

4.    helped

5.    hindered

6.    assisted

2.    Although the lab assistant openly apologized for allowing the samples to spoil, her  did not appease the research head, and she was let go.

1.    insincerity

2.    frankness

3.    falsehoods

4.    candor

5.    inexperience

6.    hesitation

3.    Afterward the deceased man’s wife could not stop crying; his daughter was similarly .

1.    overjoyed

2.    morose

3.    abashed

4.    lucid

5.    nonplussed

6.    dolorous

4.    Her last-minute vacation was  compared to her usual trips, which are planned down to the last detail.

1.    expensive

2.    spontaneous

3.    predictable

4.    satisfying

5.    impulsive

6.    atrocious

5.    After staying up all night, she felt extremely ; however, she still ran three miles with her friends.

1.    apprehensive

2.    lethargic

3.    controversial

4.    sluggish

5.    vigorous

6.    energetic

SENTENCE EQUIVALENCE PRACTICE SET

1.    CE

The straight-ahead road sign “in addition” in this sentence is a clue that both parts of the sentence are related. Since the missing word is in the second part of the sentence, the first part gives a clue to what your prediction should be. The person had a stroke and was unable to move his arm.

Use this to make a prediction such as “He was unable to move his arm after the stroke; in addition, it prevented his ability to speak.”

Quickly review the answer choices, looking for two words that closely match your prediction. Choices (C) impeded and (E) hindered both have the meaning “to interfere with” and produce sentences with equivalent meaning. The other four choices do not have meanings anywhere close to “prevented.” Choices (A) appeased(B) satisfied(D) helped, and (F)assisted all have too positive a connotation to be correct. Appeased has the same meaning as satisfied, and helped and assisted both mean “to aid.”

2.    BDThe clue in this sentence is the detour road sign “although,” which indicates contrast. Her “open” apology would be expected to “appease” her boss, but she was fired anyway; paraphrasing further, she did something good but suffered bad consequences. The word in the blank will express the good thing she did, so you can predict that the correct answers will be similar to “honesty.” Choices (A)(C)(E), and (F) are not synonyms for “honesty,” leaving choices (B) and (D)(B) frankness and (Dcandor both carry the meaning of “forthright.” They’re your answers.

3.    BF

The word “similarly” in this sentence is a straight-ahead road sign that you can use to figure out the blank. It indicates that the sentence will continue to move in the same direction. In the sentence, the wife was crying, and her daughter felt the same way.

Use this to make a prediction such as “Afterward, the late man’s wife could not stop crying; his daughter was similarly sad.”

Quickly review the answer choices, looking for a match. Both (B) morose and (F) dolorous fit the sentence and mean the same thing. Choice (A) overjoyed is the opposite of “sad,” so it does not make sense. Someone who feels abashed, choice (C), is embarrassed. A lucid person, choice (D), is very clearheaded, and nonplussed (E) means perplexed.

4.    BE

The phrase “compared to her usual trips” is a clue that the first half of the sentence will have an opposite meaning to the second half; that is, her “last-minute” vacation was apparently not planned in detail.

You can use this phrase to make a prediction such as: “Her last-minute vacation was unplanned compared to her usual trips, which are planned down to the last detail.”

Something that is unplanned is done without much preparation or careful thought. Both choice (B) and choice (E) match this prediction. Choice (B) spontaneous means something that happens without planning, and choice (E) impulsive means doing something without careful thought. Choice (A) expensive doesn’t fit with “unplanned,” nor does (C)predictable (the opposite), (D) satisfying, or (F) atrocious.

5.    BD

When someone stays up all night, she is usually very tired. The detour road sign in this sentence is “however” in the second clause. It indicates that the person in the sentence went running, which takes a lot of energy, even though she was up all night.

You can use this clue to make a prediction such as “After staying up all night, she felt extremely tired; however, she still ran three miles with her friends.”

Scan the answer choices, looking for a match. You will find it in (B) lethargic and (D) sluggish, both of which mean “tired.” Choices (E) vigorous and (F) energetic are the opposite of “tired.” Choice (A) apprehensive can be used to describe someone who is anxious but not someone who is tired. Choice (C) controversial can be used to describe something that is open to debate.

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