Acids and Bases
In this chapter, we have reviewed the important principles of acid—base chemistry. We clarified the differences among the three definitions of acids and bases, including the nomenclature of some common Arrhenius acids. We investigated important properties of acids and bases, including the important acid—base behavior of water (autoionization) and hydrogen ion equilibria. We explained the mathematics of the pH and pOH logarithmic scales and demonstrated a useful Test Day shortcut for approximating the logarithmic value of hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentrations. Strong acids and bases are defined as compounds that completely dissociate in aqueous solutions, and weak acids and bases are compounds that only partially dissociate (to an equilibrium state). We discussed neutralization and salt formation upon reaction of acids and bases, and finally, we applied our fundamental understanding of acid—base reactivity to titrations and buffer systems. Titrations are useful for determining the concentration of a known acid or base solution. Weak acid and weak base buffers are useful for minimizing changes in pH upon addition of strong acid or base.
You’ve just accomplished a major task in the overall effort to earn points on Test Day. It’s okay if you didn’t understand everything on this first pass. Go back and review the concepts that were challenging for you and then complete the questions at the end of the chapter and MCAT practice passages to test your knowledge. Don’t be alarmed if you find yourself reviewing parts or all of a chapter a second or third time—repetition is the key to success.
You are now two chapters away from completing this review of general chemistry. While we don’t want to offer our congratulations prematurely, we want to acknowledge all the hard work you’ve invested in this process. Keep it up: success on Test Day is within your reach!