5 Steps to a 5: AP Physics C (2016)
Physics C Equations
Four-Minute Drill Prompts
PHYSICS C EQUATIONS
Read Chapter 6 about memorizing equations for more help with learning not only what the equations say, but also what they mean.
You”ll notice that the C equation sheet often expresses relationships in calculus terms. Don”t let that confuse you; for example, though impulse is expressed as an integral of force with respect to time, you should also interpret that as force times time if the force is constant, or as the area under a force vs. time graph.
Remember, your textbook might use slightly different symbols.
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
FOUR-MINUTE DRILL PROMPTS
The lists that follow are designed to help you study equations. Each prompt refers to a specific equation on the AP Equations sheet (we”ve listed the prompts in the same order in which the equations appear on the Equations sheet). So, for example, the prompt “Net force” refers to the equation, “F net = ma .”
There are several ways to use these prompts. First, you can use them as a self-test: For each prompt, write down the corresponding equation on a separate sheet of paper. Then check the equations you wrote down against the AP Equations sheet to see if you got any wrong. You can also use these prompts when you study with a friend: Have your friend read the prompts to you, and you respond by reciting the appropriate equation. Try to go through the list as fast as possible without making a mistake. Last, your physics teacher can use these prompts to lead your class through a four-minute drill, which is an activity we describe in Chapter 6 .
1st kinematics equation
2nd kinematics equation
3rd kinematics equation
Force in terms of momentum
Definition of momentum
Force of friction
Gravitational potential energy near a planet
Newton”s second law for rotation
Definition of rotational inertia
Position of the center of mass
Conversion between linear and angular velocity
Rotational kinetic energy
1st rotational kinematics equation
2nd rotational kinematics equation
Force of a spring (The negative sign reminds you that the spring force is a restoring force, always acting toward the equilibrium point.)
Potential energy of a spring
Period in terms of angular frequency and standard frequency
Period of a mass on a spring
Period of a pendulum
Gravitational force between two massive objects
Gravitational potential energy between two massive objects (Don”t use unless an object is far away from a planet”s surface.)
Electricity and Magnetism
Electric force between two point charges
Definition of electric field
Gauss”s law (Though you should never actually take an integral when using this.)
How to find electric field in terms of potential
Potential energy in terms of potential, and then potential energy between two point charges (This line on the equation sheet really has two different equations. PE = qV is always valid, but PE = kqq/r is only valid between two point charges.)
The electric potential at some point due to surrounding point charges
Definition of capacitance
Capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor with a dielectric substance of constant κ added
How to add parallel capacitors
How to add series capacitors
Definition of current
Energy stored on a capacitor
Resistance of a wire
How to add series resistors
How to add parallel resistors
Power in an electrical circuit
Magnetic force on a charge
Magnetic force on a wire
Magnetic field of a solenoid
Voltage across an inductor
Energy stored in an inductor
The Internet offers some great resources for preparing for the AP Physics exam.
- Your textbook may have an associated Web site … if so, check it out! For example, Paul A. Tipler”s Physics C-level text provides this Web site:http://www.whfreeman.com/tipler4e/
- Of course, the official site of the College Board,www.collegeboard.com , has administrative information and test-taking hints, as well as contact information for the organization that actually is in charge of the exam.
- Did you enjoy your first taste of physics? If so, you can try your hand at physics debating. The United States Association for Young Physicists Tournaments hosts a national tournament which consists of “physics fights,” or debates, over experimental research projects. Check outwww.usaypt.org for details.
- The author writes the country”s leading physics teaching blog, available at jacobsphysics.blogspot.com. Students and teachers can obtain and share ideas at this site.
- Having trouble solving calculus problems associated with Physics C, especially differential equations? Don”t spend a lot of time solving these. Usewww.wolfranalpha.com to get the solution spit out for you. Sure, you can”t use this on the exam, but it”s worth using on homework to speed or check your solutions. Physics is generally more about setting up the problem correctly than carrying out the mathematics anyway.