Microreactors in Organic Chemistry and Catalysis, Second Edition (2013)

Preface

1. Properties and Use of Microreactors

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Physical Characteristics of Microreactors

1.3. Fluid Flow and Delivery Regimes

1.4. Multifunctional Integration

1.5. Uses of Microreactors

2. Fabrication of Microreactors Made from Metals and Ceramic

2.1. Manufacturing Techniques for Metals

2.2. Etching

2.3. Machining

2.4. Generative Method: Selective Laser Melting

2.5. Metal Forming Techniques

2.6. Assembling and Bonding of Metal Microstructures

2.7. Ceramic Devices

2.8. Joining and Sealing

3. Microreactors Made of Glass and Silicon

3.1. How Microreactors Are Constructed

3.2. The Structuring of Glass and Silicon

3.3. Isotropic Wet Chemical Etching of Silicon

3.4. Other Processes

3.5. Thin Films

3.6. Bonding Methods

3.7. Other Materials

4. Automation in Microreactor Systems

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Automation System

4.3. Automated Optimization with HPLC Sampling

4.4. Automated Multi-Trajectory Optimization

4.5. Kinetic Model Discrimination and Parameter Fitting

4.6. Conclusions and Outlook

5. Homogeneous Reactions

5.1. Acid-Promoted Reactions

5.2. Base-Promoted Reaction

5.3. Radical Reactions

5.4. Condensation Reactions

5.5. Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

5.6. High Temperature Reactions

5.7. Oxidation Reactions

5.8. Reaction with Organometallic Reagents

6. Homogeneous Reactions II: Photochemistry and Electrochemistry and Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis

6.1. Photochemistry in Flow Reactors

6.2. Electrochemistry in Microreactors

6.3. Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis in Microreactors

6.4. Conclusion and Outlook

7. Heterogeneous Reactions

7.1. Arrangement of Reactors in Flow Synthesis

7.2. Immobilization of the Reagent/Catalyst

7.3. Flow Reactions with an Immobilized Stoichiometric Reagent

7.4. Flow Synthesis with Immobilized Catalysts: Solid Acid Catalysts

7.5. Flow Reaction with an Immobilized Catalyst: Transition Metal Catalysts Dispersed on Polymer

7.6. Flow Reaction with an Immobilized Catalyst: Metal Catalysts Coordinated by a Polymer-Supported Ligand

7.7. Organocatalysis in Flow Reactions

7.8. Flow Biotransformation Reactions Catalyzed by Immobilized Enzymes

7.9. Multistep Synthesis

7.10. Conclusion

8. Liquid–Liquid Biphasic Reactions

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Background

8.3. Kinetics of Biphasic Systems

8.4. Biphasic Flow in Microchannels

8.5. Surface–Liquid and Liquid–Liquid Interaction

8.6. Liquid–Liquid Microsystems in Organic Synthesis

8.7. Micromixer

8.8. Conclusions and Outlook

9. Gas–Liquid Reactions

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Contacting Principles and Microreactors

9.3. Gas–Liquid Reactions

9.4. Gas–Liquid–Solid Reactions

9.5. Homogeneously Catalyzed Gas–Liquid Reactions

9.6. Other Applications

9.7. Conclusions and Outlook

10. Bioorganic and Biocatalytic Reactions

10.1. General Introduction

10.2. Bioorganic Syntheses Performed in Microreactors

10.3. Biocatalysis by Enzymatic Microreactors

10.4. Multienzyme Catalysis in Microreactors

10.5. Conclusions

11. Industrial Microreactor Process Development up to Production

11.1. Mission Statement from Industry on Impact and Hurdles

11.2. Screening Studies in Laboratory

11.3. Process Development at Laboratory Scale

11.4. Pilot Plants and Production

11.5. Challenges and Concerns