CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE

1 INTRODUCTION: MATTER AND MEASUREMENT

1.1 THE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY

1.2 CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATTER

1.3 PROPERTIES OF MATTER

1.4 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

1.5 UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT

1.6 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

2 ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS

2.1 THE ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER

2.2 THE DISCOVERY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE

2.3 THE MODERN VIEW OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE

2.4 ATOMIC WEIGHTS

2.5 THE PERIODIC TABLE

2.6 MOLECULES AND MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

2.7 IONS AND IONIC COMPOUNDS

2.8 NAMING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

2.9 SOME SIMPLE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

3 STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

3.1 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

3.2 SOME SIMPLE PATTERNS OF CHEMICAL REACTIVITY

3.3 FORMULA WEIGHTS

3.4 AVOGADRO’S NUMBER AND THE MOLE

3.5 EMPIRICAL FORMULAS FROM ANALYSES

3.6 QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION FROM BALANCED EQ UATIONS

3.7 LIMITING REACTANTS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

4 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

4.1 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

4.2 PRECIPITATION REACTION

4.3 ACIDS, BASES, AND NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS

4.4 OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS

4.5 CONCENTRATIONS OF SOLUTIONS

4.6 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

5 THERMOCHEMISTRY

5.1 THE NATURE OF ENERGY

5.2 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

5.3 ENTHALPY

5.4 ENTHALPIES OF REACTION

5.5 CALORIMETRY

5.6 HESS’S LAW

5.7 ENTHALPIES OF FORMATION

5.8 FOODS AND FUELS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

6 ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

6.1 THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT

6.2 QUANTIZED ENERGY AND PHOTONS

6.3 LINE SPECTRA AND THE BOHR MODEL

6.4 THE WAVE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER

6.5 QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC ORBITALS

6.6 REPRESENTATIONS OF ORBITALS

6.7 MANY-ELECTRON ATOMS

6.8 ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS

6.9 ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

7 PERIODIC PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS

7.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

7.2 EFFECTIVE NUCLEAR CHARGE

7.3 SIZES OF ATOMS AND IONS

7.4 IONIZATION ENERGY

7.5 ELECTRON AFFINITIES

7.6 METALS, NONMETALS, AND METALLOIDS

7.7 TRENDS FOR GROUP 1A AND GROUP 2A METALS

7.8 TRENDS FOR SELECTED NONMETALS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

8 BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMICAL BONDING

8.1 LEWIS SYMBOLS AND THE OCTET RULE

8.2 IONIC BONDING

8.3 COVALENT BONDING

8.4 BOND POLARITY AND ELECT RONEGATIVITY

8.5 DRAWING LEWIS STRUCTURES

8.6 RESONANCE STRUCTURES

8.7 EXCEPTIONS TO THE OCTET RULE

8.8 STRENGTHS OF COVALENT BONDS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

9 MOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND BONDING THEORIES

9.1 MOLECULAR SHAPES

9.2 THE VSEPR MODEL

9.3 MOLECULAR SHAPE AND MOLECULAR POLARITY

9.4 COVALENT BONDING AND ORBITAL OVERLAP

9.5 HYBRID ORBITALS

9.6 MULTIPLE BONDS

9.7 MOLECULAR ORBITALS

9.8 PERIOD 2 DIATOMIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

10 GASES

10.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF GASES

10.2 PRESSURE

10.3 THE GAS LAWS

10.4 THE IDEAL-GAS EQUATION

10.5 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF THE IDEAL-GAS EQUATION

10.6 GAS MIXTURES AND PARTIAL PRESSURES

10.7 THE KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES

10.8 MOLECULAR EFFUSION AND DIFFUSION

10.9 REAL GASES: DEVIATIONS FROM IDEAL BEHAVIOR

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

11 LIQUIDS AND INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

11.1 A MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS

11.2 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

11.3 SELECT PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS

11.4 PHASE CHANGES

11.5 VAPOR PRESSURE

11.6 PHASE DIAGRAMS

11.7 LIQUID CRYSTALS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

12 SOLIDS AND MODERN MATERIALS

12.1 CLASSIFICATIONS OF SOLIDS

12.2 STRUCTURES OF SOLIDS

12.3 METALLIC SOLIDS

12.4 METALLIC BONDING

12.5 IONIC SOLIDS

12.6 MOLECULAR SOLIDS

12.7 COVALENT-NETWORK SOLIDS

12.8 POLYMERIC SOLIDS

12.9 NANOMATERIALS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

13 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS

13.1 THE SOLUTION PROCESS

13.2 SATURATED SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY

13.3 FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY

13.4 EXPRESSING SOLUTION CONCENTRATION

13.5 COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

13.6 COLLOIDS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

14 CHEMICAL KINETICS

14.1 FACTORS THAT AFFECT REACTION RATES

14.2 REACTION RATES

14.3 CONCENTRATION AND RATE LAWS

14.4 THE CHANGE OF CONCENTRATION WITH TIME

14.5 TEMPERATURE AND RATE

14.6 REACTION MECHANISMS

14.7 CATALYSIS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

15 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

15.1 THE CONCEPT OF EQUILIBRIUM

15.2 THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT

15.3 UNDERSTANDING AND WORKING WITH EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

15.4 HETEROGENEOUS EQUILIBRIA

15.5 CALCULATING EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

15.6 APPLICATIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

15.7 LE CHÂTELIER’S PRINCIPLE

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

16 ACID–BASE EQUILIBRIA

16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: A BRIEF REVIEW

16.2 BRONSTED–LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES

16.3 THE AUTOIONIZATION OF WATER

16.4 THE pH SCALE

16.5 STRONG ACIDS AND BASES

16.6 WEAK ACIDS

16.7 WEAK BASES

16.8 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN Ka AND Kb

16.9 ACID–BASE PROPERTIES OF SALT SOLUTIONS

16.10 ACID–BASE BEHAVIOR AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

16.11 LEWIS ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

17 ADDITIONAL ASPECTS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA

17.1 THE COMMON-ION EFFECT

17.2 BUFFERED SOLUTIONS

17.3 ACID–BASE TITRATIONS

17.4 SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA

17.5 FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOLUBILITY

17.6 PRECIPITATION AND SEPARATION OF IONS

17.7 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR METALLIC ELEMENTS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

18 CHEMISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT

18.1 EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

18.2 HUMAN ACTIVITIES AND EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

18.3 EARTH’S WATER

18.4 HUMAN ACTIVITIES AND EARTH’S WATER

18.5 GREEN CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

19 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

19.1 SPONTANEOUS PROCESSES

19.2 ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

19.3 MOLECULAR INTERPRETATION OF ENTROPY

19.4 ENTROPY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

19.5 GIBBS FREE ENERGY

19.6 FREE ENERGY AND TEMPERATURE

19.7 FREE ENERGY AND THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

20 ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY

20.1 OXIDATION STATES AND OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS

20.2 BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS

20.3 VOLTAIC CELLS

20.4 CELL POTENTIALS UNDER STAN DARD CONDITIONS

20.5 FREE ENERGY AND REDOX REACTIONS

20.6 CELL POTENTIALS UNDER NONS TANDARD CO NDITIONS

20.7 BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS

20.8 CORROSION

20.9 ELECTROLYSIS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

21 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

21.1 RADIOACTIVITY

21.2 PATTERNS OF NUCLEAR STABILITY

21.3 NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATIONS

21.4 RATES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY

21.5 DETECTION OF RADIOACTIVITY

21.6 ENERGY CHANGES IN NUCLEAR REACTIONS

21.7 NUCLEAR POWER: FISSION

21.8 NUCLEAR POWER: FUSION

21.9 RADIATION IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND LIVING SYSTEMS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

22 CHEMISTRY OF THE NONMETALS

22.1 PERIODIC TRENDS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

22.2 HYDROGEN

22.3 GROUP 8A: THE NOBLE GASES

22.4 GROUP 7A: THE HALOGENS

22.5 OXYGEN

22.6 THE OTHER GROUP 6A ELEMENTS: S, Se, Te, AN D Po

22.7 NITROGEN

22.8 THE OTHER GROUP 5A ELEMENTS: P, As, Sb, AN D Bi

22.9 CARBON

22.10 THE OTHER GROUP 4A ELEMENTS: Si, Ge, Sn, AND Pb

22.11 BORON

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

23 TRANSITION METALS AND COORDINATION CHEMISTRY

23.1 THE TRANSITION METALS

23.2 TRANSITION-METAL COMPLEXES

23.3 COMMON LIGANDS IN COORDINATION CHEMISTRY

23.4 NOMENCLATURE AND ISOMERISM IN COORDINATION CHEMISTRY

23.5 COLOR AND MAGNETISM IN COORDINATION CHEMISTRY

23.6 CRYSTAL-FIELD THEORY

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES

24 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

24.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

24.2 INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBONS

24.3 ALKENES, ALKYNES, AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

24.4 ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

24.5 CHIRALITY IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

24.6 INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY

24.7 PROTEINS

24.8 CARBOHYDRATES

24.9 LIPIDS

24.10 NUCLEIC ACIDS

CHAPTER SUMMARY AND KEY TERMS

EXERCISES


APPENDIX A MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS

APPENDIX B PROPERTIES OF WATER

APPENDIX C THERMODYNAMIC QUANTITIES FOR SELECTED SUBSTANCES AT 298.15 K (25°C)

APPENDIX D AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

APPENDIX E STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS AT 25 °C


ANSWERS TO SELECTED EXERCISES

ANSWERS TO GIVE IT SOME THOUGHT

ANSWERS TO GO FIGURE

GLOSSARY

Common Ions

Fundamental Constants

Useful Conversion Factors and Relationships

Color Chart for Common Elements

Periodic Table of the Elements

List of Elements with Their Symbols and Atomic Weights